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Identify the parts of speech in the following paragraph: NOUN by HC120530051447

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                           Miss Michel’s Odyssey Parts of Speech Review!

R e v i e w - On a separate sheet of paper, identify the parts of speech in the following paragraph:
INTERJECTION. Use each part of speech only once. Please write out the whole word.

Polyphemus heard the (1) taunt and rose to his knees, then to his feet. He (2) cocked his ear towards the
sound of Odysseus’ voice. (3) He picked up the boulder from the opening of this cave and raised it high
(4) over his head. Before he let it go, he raised his (5) blinded face to the heat of the sun and bawled, “(6)
Ahhh! Father! You god of the oceans! Poseidon, god of the sea—hear my curse! See what Odysseus,
King of Ithaca, has done to your son! Hate him with all the heat of the Earth’s core as I do! Hate him
with all the unforgivingness of the Earth’s icy peaks (7) and curse him as I curse him! Avenge me, for I
am powerless to be avenged!” And he hurled the boulder (8) mercilessly.

NOUNS – name a person, place, thing, or abstract idea.

Persons                hero                    witch                    Circe
Places                 battlefield             nations                  Ithaca
Things                 sword                   Aegean Sea               epics
Abstract Ideas         heroism                 hospitality              arrogance

Common and Proper Nouns – A common noun names any one of a group of persons, places, things, or
ideas. An abstract noun names a particular person, place, thing, or idea. Generally, common nouns are
not capitalized and proper nouns are capitalized.

Common Nouns                                   Proper Nouns
river                                          Lethe
warrior                                        Odysseus
wife                                           Penelope
cyclops                                        Polyphemus

Compound Nouns – A compound noun consists of two or more words that together name a person, place,
thing, or idea. The parts of a compound noun may be written as one word, as separate words, or as a
hyphenated word.

One Word                       Separate Words                  Hyphenated Words
shipwreck                      Trojan War                      brother-in-law
wartime                        Scylla and Charybdis            Lotus-Eaters

* * * Exercise 1: For each of the following common nouns, give a proper noun. Then write compound
next to each compound noun that you write.
Example: 1. river 1. Mississippi River – compound

1. epic            4. hero            7. writer          10. god            13. document
2. city            5. ocean           8. friend          11. goddess        14. song
3. nation          6. season          9. myth            12. religion       15. obstacle
Concrete and Abstract Nouns – A concrete noun names a person, place, or a thing that can be perceived
by one or more of the senses (sight, hearing, taste, touch, and smell). An abstract noun names an idea,
feeling, a quality, or a characteristic.

              Concrete Nouns                                  Abstract Nouns
                  Greece                                          beauty
                  sunset                                          loyalty
                 thunder                                         kindness
                 clothing                                       hospitality

Collective Nouns – A collective noun names a group of people, animals, or things.

   Audience            Crowd                 Army             Chorus           Flock
    Group              Batch                Bouquet             Set            Bunch
    Cluster            Litter               Swarm              Staff            Jury

* * * Exercise 2: Identify each of the italicized nouns in the following paragraph as proper or common
AND concrete or abstract. Also, if the noun is a compound noun or a collective noun, label it as such.

Zeus’ (1) messenger was an unwelcome (2) visitor to (3) Calypso. She wept, she stormed, she pleaded,
but at last she had to submit to let (4) Odysseus go. (5) Sadness overtook her, but she allowed her (6)
trees to be felled and bound together into a (7) raft, and she even wove a (7) sail to hang from its (8)
mast. But all the time she coaxed and wheedled, “Don’t you love (8) me just a little? What don’t you
like about me? Can’t you see my (9) beauty, my (10) immortality? I’ll change! You could love me if
only (11) you would make the effort. I’d make you immortal. Don’t you want to be immortal? Do
you want to die one day and go down into the (12) Underworld forever? Be part of that (13) group,
those that are mortal? Do you want to go there and face (14) Poseidon? (15) He’ll remember you!
He’ll never forgive you!”

Pronouns – Pronouns take the place of one or more nouns or pronouns.
Example: Penelope watched her son Telemachus glare at the aggressive suitors. She understood him
more than they did.
* * The first word or group of words that the pronoun stands for is called the ANTECEDENT. In the first
example above, Penelope is the antecedent for she, Telemachus is the antecedent for him, and suitors is
the antecedent for they.

Personal Pronouns – A personal pronoun refers to the one(s) speaking (first person), the one(s) spoken to
(second person), or the one(s) spoken about (third person).

NOTE: The words my, your, his, her, its, our, and there are possessive pronouns, but because these words
can come before nouns and tell which one or whose, some people prefer to call them adjectives.

                       Singular                 Plural
First Person           I, me, my, mine          we, us, our, ours
Second Person          you, your, yours         you, your, yours
Third Person           he, him, his, she,       they, them, their,
                       her, hers, it, its       theirs

Examples:      I hope that you can help me with my journey.
               He said that they would not rest until he was found.
Reflexive Pronouns – Reflexive pronouns refers to the subject of a sentence and functions as a
complement or as the object of a preposition.

First Person                                           myself, ourselves
Second Person                                          yourself, yourselves
Third Person                                           himself, herself, itself, themselves

Examples:      I’m not quite myself today. [Myself is a predicate nominative identifying I.]
               Odysseus kept himself from being eaten. [Himself is the direct object of let.]
               They ate the cattle of Lord Helios for themselves. [Themselves is the object of the
               preposition of the preposition for.]

Intensive Pronouns - Intensive pronouns emphasize the antecedent and have no grammatical function in
the sentence.
Examples:     Odysseus steered the boat himself.
              Penelope unwove the shroud herself.
              The men sacrificed the animals themselves.

Demonstrative Pronouns – A demonstrative pronoun points out a particular person, place, thing, or idea.
They include: THIS, THAT, THESE, and THOSE
Examples:     “This is the warrior I choose to protect,” said Athena.
              The woman I have at home means more to me than these.

NOTE: The words that can be used as demonstrative pronouns can also be used as adjectives.
           PRONOUN – This sails swiftly.
           ADJECTIVE – This ship sails swiftly.

Interrogative Pronouns – An interrogative pronoun introduces a question.
Examples:      Who threatened to kill Odysseus’ crew?
               Whose favor granted Odysseus safe passage across the sea?

Relative Pronouns – A relative pronoun introduces a subordinate clause.
Examples:     The dog that Odysseus raised is very loyal.
              He is the suitor who promises to love Penelope most.

Indefinite Pronouns – An indefinite pronoun refers to a person, place, idea, or thing that may or may not
be specifically named.

All                  Each                  Many                   No one                 Somebody
Another              Each other            More                   Nothing                Someone
Any                  Either                Most                   One                    Something
Anybody              Everybody             Much                   One another            Such
Anyone               Everyone              Neither                Other
Anything             Everything            Nobody                 Several
Both                 Few                   None                   Some

Examples:      Everyone in Odysseus’ fleet died except the hero himself.
               Has anyone heard the Sirens’ song and lived to tell the tale?
NOTE: Many of the pronouns you have studied so far may also be used as adjectives.

Examples:         that bard        whose journey            some beaches              several strokes

* * * Exercise 3: Identify the pronouns in each of the following sentences.
Example:         I began, “Let me tell you about one of the adventures of our clever hero, Odysseus.”
                 I, me, you, one, our

    1.    Life with her was as sweet as lotus fruit; it tended to make a man forget his home and family.
    2.    Then his best friend came to speak to him himself.
    3.    “Poseidon’s memory may be long or short, but yours has failed you if you forget your wife.”
    4.    “Your men have wives and children, too, and we have been gone from them for 11 years!”
    5.    So Odysseus went to Circe and held her in his arms apologetically and said, “It’s time to go.”
    6.    “My group cannot stay away from home forever; you promised me a year ago I could leave.”
    7.    “I also recall something: you said you would tell me where I can learn a route home and the future.”
    8.    “Who is this oracle? Where will I find him? How long will you keep this from me?”
    9.    Circe bit her lips and clenched her fists and said, “Very well, I will tell you these things you ask.”
    10.   “You won’t like what I tell you. You must travel to the Underworld. None must go with you.”

Adjectives – An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun. To modify means “to
describe” or “to make the meaning of a word more specific.” An adjective is a
modifier that tells what kind, which one, how many, or how much.

What kind?                      Which one?                     How many?                      How much?
Spilled blood                   This ocean                     Twenty years                   No sleep
Greek soldier                   These men                      Three men                      Enough sorrow
Howling winds                   That adventure                 Several arrows                 Some wine

An adjective may be separated from words it modifies.

Examples:         She is clever.
                  The sky became cloudy suddenly.

Articles – The most frequently used adjectives are articles like a, an, and the. A and an are called
indefinite articles because they refer to any member of a general group. A is used before a word with a
consonant sound; an is used before a word with a vowel sound (A, E, I, O, U). The is called the definite
article because it refers to someone or something in particular.

* * * Exercise 4: For the following sentences, identify each adjective and the word it modifies.

    1.    They looted delicious wine from Trojan cellars and put it in pointed jugs in the stern of their ships.
    2.    But as for food, there was not one bite left.
    3.    Odysseus allowed his men to drink a sip of Trojan wine in hopes it would lift their low spirits.
    4.    To his horror, they rolled into helpless drunkenness before slumping asleep on each other.
    5.    “It is too strong,” he said to his winged bird, who only shuffled his thick feathers knowingly.
    6.    So the quiet boats drifted slowly and idly, for want of strong men’s rowing.
    7.    “Land!” shouted the tired lookout the next morning.
    8.    They saw beautiful vines, green olive trees, healthy goats, so they left the boats along the shore.
    9.    “Let’s tread wearily and just take what we are given,” said clever Odysseus.
    10.   “I shall take one ship’s crew and make contact with the rich people who live here on this island.”
Pronoun or Adjective?

Some words may be used either as adjectives or as pronouns. Words are pronouns when they rename
another noun. They are adjectives when they modify a noun or a pronoun.

PRONOUN: Which did you choose, Achilles? ADJECTIVE: Which sword did you choose, Achilles?
PRONOUN: Those are angry Laestrygonians. ADJECTIVE: Those Laestrygonians are angry.

* * * Exercise 5: Tell whether each italicized word in the following paragraph is used as a noun,
pronoun, or an adjective. For each adjective, give the word it modifies.

Example: Of all the suitors, (1) which do you think are the most (2) antisocial?
         1. pronoun 2. adjective – which

(1) Homer was probably born around 725 B.C. on the (2) coast of Asia Minor—the (3) modern
Turkish coast. All of (4) that coastline had been colonized by Greeks from the mainland. Homer was
the first (5) Greek writer (6) whose work survives, perhaps the (7) first Greek writer there was. (8) He
came at the (9) end of a (10) long line of (11) bards, (12) who worked in an (13) oral (14) tradition.
(15) This means they did not write anything down. Nevertheless, Homer and his (16) fellow bards
could recite or chant huge, (17) long epic poems. (18) Both of the (19) works attributed to Homer --
- the Iliad and the Odyssey --- are over (20) ten thousand lines long in the original Greek.

Verbs – A verb expresses actions or states of being.

Verbs are classified in three ways: a) As main or helping verbs b) as action or linking verbs c) as
transitive or intransitive verbs.

Main Verbs and Helping Verbs – A verb phrase consists of one main verb and one or more helping verbs.

Examples:      I am reading Homer’s Odyssey. [Am is the helping verb. Reading is the main verb.]
               Odysseus should have been modest instead of arrogant. [Should and have are helping
               verbs and been is the main verb.]

                                     Commonly Used Helping Verbs
Forms of Be           Am                 Be                 Being                       Was
                      Are                Been               Is                          Were
Forms of Have         Had                Has                Have                        Having
Forms of Do           Did                Do                 Done
Modals                Can                Might              Shall                       Would
                      Could              Must               Should
                      May                Ought              Will

A modal is a helping verb that expresses an attitude toward the action or state of being of the main verb.
Example: He may never make it home after all.

Helping verbs may be separated from the main verb.
Example: Did Calypso ever release Odysseus?

NOTE: The word not (and the contraction n’t) are never part of a verb phrase. Instead, they are adverbs
telling to what extent.
* * * Exercise 6: Identify the verbs and verb phrases in the following sentences. Write the whole
verb phrase on your separate paper. Be sure to include all helping verbs.

   1. The war had lasted so very, very long.
   2. Then suddenly it was over in a flash of fire, a splash of blood, and a trampling of horses.
   3. Men whose ships had rolled idly over a thousand tides in the bay of Troy gathered.
   4. There were many faces missing, many oars lacking in the rower after ten years of war.
   5. But those who unfurled their sails, latched their oars were cheerful.
   6. They had hung their masts with tokens of victory and filled their ships with Trojan wine.
   7. Best of all, they were going home.
   8. They had not seen their wives and families for ten years.
   9. Their sons had grown from boys into young men, and daughters had grown, too.
   10. Farms that had lain tangled and unattended for ten summers would now be cared for.

Action Verbs - An action verb expresses physical or mental activity.

PHYSICAL Bring          Say       Rescue     Sail      Shout    Swim        Breathe    Jump     Fly
MENTAL   Ponder         Trust     Love       Review    Evaluate Guess       Think      Consider Wonder

Examples:      Please return Odysseus to me safely. [Return expresses physical action]
               Do you know if you will ever find your father? [Do know expresses mental action]

Linking Verbs - A linking verb connects the subject to a word or word group that identifies or describes
the subject. Such a word or word group is called a subject compliment.

Examples:      1. Scylla is a sea monster who once was a beautiful nymph. [The subject compliment sea
               monster identifies the subject Scylla.]
               2. Scylla has been a evil force ever since she was transformed. [The subject compliment
               force identifies the subject Scylla.]
               3. Scylla looks scary with her six heads and eighteen rows of teeth. [The subject
               compliment scary describes the subject Scylla.]
               4. As she waits, Scylla become more agitated. [The subject compliment agitated describes
               the subject Scylla.]

                                    Commonly Used Linking Verbs

                                             Forms of Be
    Be              Are             Will be     Shall have been         Might be           Could be
   Being           Was             Has been     Will have been           Must be        Should have been
    Am             Were            Have been        Can be              Should be       Would have been
     Is           Shall be         Had been         May be              Would be        Could have been

   Appear              Feel              Look              Seem              Sound              Taste
   Become              Grow             Remain             Smell              Stay              Turn

NOTE: Some of the verbs listed as “Others” can be action verbs as well as linking verbs.

LINKING:       Odysseus felt lonely on the seashore without Penelope and Telemachus.
               Odysseus felt the water rush against his tired feet.
* * * Exercise 7: Identify each italicized verb in the following sentences as action verb or linking verb.

Example:         1. Not all scholars are convinced that both poems were written by Homer.
                 1. linking verb

    1.   The brutal and tragic atmosphere of the first epic is so different from the fantasy of the second.
    2.   They are not sure whether ‘Homer’ is a real name.
    3.   Perhaps ‘Homer’ is a kind of nickname.
    4.   Whatever the case, you have in your hands a story developed over three thousand years ago.
    5.   It was written down a couple hundred years later.

* * * Exercise 8: For each of the following verbs, write two sentences: in the first sentence use the verb
as a linking verb, and in the second sentence use it as an action verb.

Example:         1. Become
                 1. We become older by the day. That gown becomes her.

1. appear                3. smell                 5. look                  7. remain                 9. taste
2. sound                 4. grow                  6. feel                  8. stay                   10. turn

Transitive Verbs – A transitive verb has an object—a word that tells who or what receives the action of
the verb.

Examples:        Odysseus trusts his wife. [The object wife receives the action of the verb trusts.]
                 Odysseus blinded the Cyclops. [The object Cyclops receive the action of the verb blinded.]

Intransitive Verbs – An intransitive verb does note have an object.

Examples:        The Cyclops groaned. The boat sails near.

NOTE: The same verb may be transitive in one sentence and intransitive in another.

                               SWAM                                          STEERED
TRANSITIVE                     Odysseus swam the channel.                    Odysseus steered the boat to safety.
INTRANSITIVE                   Odysseus swam for many hours.                 Odysseus steered for the other sailors.

* * * Exercise 9: Identify the verb in each sentence, and tell whether it is transitive or intransitive.

Example:         1. We eagerly anticipated our trip home from Troy.
                 1. anticipated - transitive

    1. I carried the bag of wind from Aeolia onto the boat.
    2. My men begged for me to tell them what the bag contained.
    3. While I slept, they fought amongst themselves.
    4. Eventually, the greedier men ripped the bag of winds open.
    5. The strong winds the bag contained blew us terribly off course.
    6. Many of my men were lost at sea.
    7. I wished they had not so much curiosity and selfishness in them.
    8. We were much further away than when we even began the journey home.
    9. I wondered if I will ever see my Penelope again.
    10. I grabbed an oar and begin to row myself.
Adverbs – An adverb modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. An adverb
tells how, when, where, or to what extent (how much, how long, or how often).
ADVERBS MODIFYING VERBS: The Cicones were waiting outside. [where]
                         The Cicones attacked us yesterday. [when]
                         The Cicones cheered loudly. [how]
                         The Cicones never gave up. [to what extent]

* * * Exercise 10: Identify the adverbs in the following sentences and name which verb it modifies.

Example:       1. My men ate the cattle of the Cicones greedily and thoughtlessly.
               1. greedily – ate, thoughtlessly - ate

   1. Tired and hungry, my men and I landed quickly on the shore of the Cicones.
   2. Cicone men, women, and children played lightheartedly in the surf.
   3. Immediately, my men killed the children and took the women captive.
   4. My men originally thought they would be able to get away with their war tactics here.
   5. But some of the men successfully escaped to run and get help from the main army of Cicones.
   6. How quickly the Cicone army appeared quickly and in great numbers.
   7. Ceaselessly, it seems, we battled on the shores, in the waves.
   8. My men fought with all their might, but they had never seen such carnage.
   9. We barely escaped with our lives, but we lost many of our bravest soldiers that day.
   10. I always wish my men had listened to me when I told them that we should have left.

ADVERBS MODIFYING ADJECTIVES: It was a fiercely competitive fight.
                              [Fiercely modifies the adjective competitive.]
                              The exceptionally brave soldiers will be honored.
                              [Exceptionally modifies the adjective brave.]

* * * Exercise 11: In each of the following sentences, an adverb modifies an adjective. Identify the
adverb and the adjective it modifies.

Example:       1. The island contained a considerably large number of the flowers.
               1. adverb – considerably, adjective - large

   1. My men and I set down upon the unusually peaceful island.
   2. Notably unaccustomed to such quiet, my men were suspicious of the island’s inhabitants.
   3. I sent three men who crept quite undetected through the landscape.
   4. We were pretty surprised when they did not return back to the boat.
   5. It seemed as if we waited for a very long time for their return, but after hours, they did not come.
   6. At this, my men put on their thoroughly aged armor and set out to find their companions.
   7. We found our lost sailors munching on the deliciously sweet lotus flower.
   8. They had lost nearly all desire to return home after tasting the magical plant.
   9. They smiled, and their faces seemed inexplicably content.
   10. They would not leave the flower behind, so they had to be carried off by powerfully brutal force.


The crew ate extremely quickly. [The adverb extremely modifies the adverb quickly, telling to what
extent the crew ate quickly.
They all turned into pigs later that evening. [The adverb later modifies the adverb that evening, telling
when that evening.
* * * Exercise 12: Identify the adverb or adverbs in the following sentences. After each adverb, give the word it
modifies and the part of speech of that word.

Example:          1. Odysseus dared not close his eyes, for what he saw was far too horrible to imagine.
                  1.   far – too (adverb), too – horrible (adjective)

    1.    Odysseus had already eaten the moly flowers and was immune from her crafty magic.
    2.    He apprehensively walked around the pigpens and tried to calm the beating of his heart.
    3.    Looking through the window, he saw a woman with lilac eyes calmly seating his men at the tables.
    4.    She smiled brightly as she gave them fresh, warm bread, pealed fruit, and parsley with cheese.
    5.    At least, to Odysseus, it looked somewhat like parsley.
    6.    She gave them wine, too, more and more wine, which they drank graciously.
    7.    As they ate, she walked knowingly around their tables and watched them enjoy the meal.
    8.    She carried a willow wand and knocked each man in the head with it, playfully, as if teasing.
    9.    But clearly she was not teasing them.
    10.   Each man’s legs at once began to shrink, their faces grew snouts, and suddenly they were swine!

* * * Exercise 13: For each word below, write two sentences. In the first sentence, use the word as an
adjective, and in the second sentence, use the word as an adverb.

Example:          1. kindly
                  1. Penelope has a kindly manner. (adjective) She speaks kindly. (adverb)

1. daily                  2. late                 3. far                     4. early             5. hard
6. straight               7. fast                 8. more                    9. right             10. further

Preposition – A preposition is a word that shows the relationship of a noun or a
pronoun, called the object of the preposition, to another word in the sentence. A
preposition, its object, and any modifiers of the object are called the prepositional

Examples:         I sailed toward Ithaca.                               I sailed near Ithaca.
                  I sailed around Ithaca.                               I sailed toward Ithaca.
                  I sailed by Ithaca.                                   I sailed beyond Ithaca.

                                            Commonly Used Prepositions

   Aboard              Among           Besides            Except               Of          Through           With
   About               Around         Between              For                 Off           To             Within
   Above                 At            Beyond             From                 On          Toward           Without
   Across              Before        But (except)           In                Onto          Under
    After              Behind             By              Inside             Outside      Underneath
   Against              Below        Concerning            Into               Over          Until
   Along               Beneath          Down               Like               Past           Up
    Amid               Beside          During              Near               Since         Upon

                                     Commonly Used Compound Prepositions

              According to                            In addition to                           Instead of
               Because of                               In front of                           On account of
              By means of                               In spite of                             Prior to
Preposition or Adverb? Some words may be used as either prepositions or adverbs. Remember that an
adverb is a modifier and does not have a subject.

PREPOSITION           Telemachus climbed down the ladder.         Above the shore, the bird circled peacefully
ADVERB                Telemachus climbed down carefully.          Above, the bird circled peacefully.

NOTE: As a preposition, the word to comes before a noun or a pronoun to form a prepositional phrase.
Do not confuse such a prepositional phrase with an infinitive, a verb form that starts with the word to.

PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES: to the battlefield, to her, to Ithaca
INFINITIVES: to create, to play, to compare

* * * Exercise 14: For each of the following words, write two sentences. In the first sentence, use the word as a
preposition and underline the prepositional phrase. In the second sentence, use the word as an adverb. Be prepared
to tell which word the adverb modifies.

Example:         1. in
                 1. We are going in the cave now. We are going in now. (in modifies going)

1. around                3. inside             5. up                  7. outside             9. by
2. under                 4. on                 6. below               8. past                10. aboard

Conjunction – A conjunction joins words or word groups.

Coordinating Conjunctions – A coordinating conjunction joins words or word groups that are used in the
same way. FANBOYS: For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So

Examples:        The men ate wine and cheese.                   We can sail near Scylla or near Charybdis.
                 I looked for my men, but they were gone.       I was tired, yet I stayed awake.

Correlative Conjunctions – A correlative conjunction is a pair of conjunctions that join words or word
groups that are used in the same way.

                                           Correlative Conjunctions
            Both . . . and                      Neither . . . nor                       Whether . . . or
            Either . . . or                  Not only . . . but also

Examples:        Neither Scylla nor Charybdis were safe for my men to pass near.
                 Both Scylla and Charybdis were deadly monsters.
                 Scylla’s teeth were dangerous not only for my men but also for me.
                 Whether Charybdis swallowed them or not, my men would have died anyway.

* * * Exercise 15: Identify the coordinating conjunctions and correlative conjunctions in these sentences.

    1. Circe, overjoyed to see them, helped them find Elpenor’s body and give him burial.
    2. His friends planted his oar in the grave mound and called his name three times to the ocean, so he
       could then join Hades in the Underworld.
    3. Either Odysseus could tell his men the directions given to him, or he could let them want to go on.
    4. Circe listened and bit her lip and nodded unhappily, but she did not say a word.
    5. Not only did Circe let him go, but she also gave him advice on how to avoid the dangers of the
       Sirens’ song by stuffing beeswax into the ears of his men.
Interjections – An interjection expresses emotion. An interjection has not
grammatical relationship to the rest of the sentence. An interjection is usually set off
from the rest of the sentence by an exclamation point or by a comma or commas.
Exclamation points indicate strong emotion. Commas indicate mild emotion.

* * * Exercise 16: Using the interjections from the list provided, complete the following sentences. Be sure to use the
interjections as interjections and not as adverbs or adjectives.

Choose from: excellent, well, whoa, ouch, wow, oops, whew, hey, cool, and yow. Use each only once.

    1.    ________ that’s scary!
    2.    ________ I forgot to thank Poseidon for his assistance in the Trojan War.
    3.    ________ our men were barely able to escape the Cicones.
    4.    ________ tomorrow I will be free of Circe!
    5.    ________ I can’t decide, Calypso or Penelope?
    6.    ________ he didn’t know I was Odysseus.
    7.    ________ she didn’t marry any of her suitors!
    8.    ________ when will I finally be home?
    9.    ________ we finally gouged out his one eye!
    10.   ________ my men should have followed my command.

DETERMINING PARTS OF SPEECH: The same word may be used as different parts of speech. TO
figure out what part of speech the boldface word is in each of the following sentences, read the entire
sentence. What you are doing is studying the context—the way the word is used in the sentence. From
the context, you can identify the part of speech of that word, like light and help in the following sentences.

Examples:        Penelope heard the light patter of raindrops on the stone pathway. [adjective]
                 The flash of light hurt his eyes. [noun]
                 Use care when you light the olive tree on fire. [verb]
                 Please help Odysseus home safely. [verb]
                 Athena will provide help, but only because Odysseus is so wise and clever. [noun]
                 Too bad Penelope couldn’t go to the help desk to find out about Odysseus. [adjective]

* * * Exercise 17: Determine the part of speech of each italicized word in the following paragraph.

Example:         (1) Exhausted, (2) they (3) slumped (4) across their (5) oars.
                 1. adjective 2. pronoun 3. verb 4. preposition 5. noun

(1) Odysseus raised a sail, and a (2) favorable breeze carried (3) them on into the great ocean and away from
the dangerous shoreline. The rising moon (4) wounded the sea with a spear of silver, (5) and the old, familiar
constellations showed (6) themselves one by one like (7) signposts marking the way home. “(8) Oh! Not far
now,” Odysseus (9) began. “If this wind holds (10) we shall see home (11) within the week. Over yonder,
where the sun went down, (12) is the Island of the Sun, (13) but we will not be putting ashore (14) there.” (15)
Foolishly, that was all he said. (16) Just then, the wind (17) rattled the sail (18) angrily (19) against the mast
and the sea shivered into a (20) thousand waves. (21) Big warm raindrops hit their weary shoulders as though
the gods were spitting (22) on them with (23) contempt. Eurylochus rocked the boat as (24) he heaved
himself (25) heavily to his feet. “(26) Well, I say we do pull (27) into the island of the sun, and I (28) say we
light a fire, find ourselves (30) some shelter, and get some (31) sleep. I don’t know about you, comrades, (32)
but my arms are out of their sockets, and my heart is half out of my chest with terror. (33) Whether the
captain says we should stop or not, I don’t give a rip. He fed six of my men to Scylla without (34) warning
them of the (35) death they had in store!”

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