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									          Coming to America

   Millions of newcomers to the United states left
    their countries of birth for better lives.

   From the 1880s to the 1920s immigrants from
    Western and Eastern Europe came in huge
    numbers to the U.S. through the Ellis Island
    immigrant transfer station in New York Harbor.

   Immigrants’ criminal and health records were
    checked in reference to their countries of origin.

   Immigrants deemed too sick or had deadly
    diseases were sent back to their home countries
    or quarantined [isolated] until they were well
    enough to join the rest of the population.
                  Immigrant Labor and Work
   Many of the new immigrants from Western and Eastern Europe were from
    the peasant classes [uneducated, unskilled] and often encountered
    discrimination and a language barrier.
   Immigrant children often assimilated quickly but often spoke broken
   Public school helped immigrant children with adjustment and assimilation.
   Laborers often did piece work for local businesses manufacturing textiles
    sewing [most often women and children]. Each item or “piece” was paid a
   Women also worked outside the home in sweatshops in unsafe conditions
    for very long hours at low wages.
                          Urbanization and City life
   Populations of major U.S. cities such as New York, Chicago and Philadelphia
    doubled from about 40 million in 1870 to about 80 million by 1900. Big cities
    were often very crowded [densely populated].
   Streets were filled with vendors and domestic animals [chickens, horses,
    pigs] causing filthy and unsanitary conditions. High crime was rampant.
   Urbanization of the United States concentrated large populations of people
    into cities.
   New immigrants such as Western Europeans [Italians and Jews] were drawn
    by the lure of industrial type jobs in factories.
      New Immigrants vs. Old Immigrants
   Old immigrants-From the 1600s to early 1800s most of the people who
    arrived as immigrants to the United States were from English speaking
    countries such as England, Scotland and Ireland. Many Germans and
    French came to the U.S. as well. The dominant religion was Protestantism.
   New immigrants from the mid-1800s to early 1900s did not speak English
    and were mostly Catholic and Jewish.
   The differences between the two groups caused resentment and conflict.
   The Old immigrants wanted to preserve their language and culture and
    preached nativism [favoring and maintaining original America].
     Jane Addams and Settlement Houses
   Hull House was a community center in Chicago that was created to help
    newly arrived immigrants, especially women, transition to the New World.

   Helped new comers cope with big city life and to learn English.

   Provided cultural activities such as block parties, rent parties and street
    festivals to raise money for the center and needy families.

   Jane Addams provided free simple health care and job training for women.
    Addams also advocated against child labor and sweat shops.
          Living conditions of city dwellers
   Cramped living conditions and poor sanitation facilities were common.
   Dumbbell tenements were designed to maximize space by using a vertical
    design [multiple floors] with long, narrow construction.
   Communal bathrooms often used by multiple families increased the chance
    of disease transfer and also created a lack of privacy for residents.
   Early tenements also had poor ventilation [causing respiratory ailments]
    and poor natural lighting due to a lack of windows throughout [one room
    had window] the apartments.
   Prior to introduction of fire escapes deaths due to fire were common.
   Electric trolleys were used to transport people through city streets on top of
    metal tracks similar to those used by railroads.
   Mass transit lines were expanded in major cities such as Chicago and New
    York [powered by overhead electric power lines].
   Electric trolleys were eventually replaced by underground subways at the
    turn of the 20th century.
   Public transportation allowed easy and cheap transportation to work for poor
         Inventions and Innovations
   Elevators-created to
    transport people vertically
    within multi-story buildings in
    major cities such as Chicago
    and New York.

   Telephones-patented by
    Alexander Graham Bell it
    gave people the ability to
    communicate inexpensively
    over long distances.

   Typewriters-gave people
    ability to write text in a faster
    and more efficient manner.
    Newspaper and magazine
    writers, as well as book
    authors, used these machines
    to share the written word.
                             Spectator sports
   Bare-knuckled Irish-American brawlers such as John L. Sullivan and
    “Gentleman Jim” Corbett fought as prize fighters during the mid-late 1800s.
   In 1892 the two pugilists [boxers] fought before more than 10,000
    spectators in New Orleans.
   Corbett defeated Sullivan handing the legendary Irish boxer his first and only
   Championship boxing matches were enormously popular in the early
                         Spectator sports
   Team sports became wildly popular with the advent of “basket ball” by Dr.
    James Naismith in 1891 at Springfield, Massachusetts and baseball by
    Alexander Cartwright in 1845 at Hoboken, New Jersey.

   The popularity of the two sports sprang from the expansion of leisure time
    among young American men. The desire to be competitive and physically fit
    yet group oriented greatly enhanced the appeal of these sports. The two
    “games” remain highly regarded to this day.
      Jacob Riis and How the Other Half Lives
   Jacob Riis was an immigrant from Denmark.
   He was a photo-journalist [photographer who
    told stories with photos] for New York City
   He published thousands of photos showing how
    immigrants lived in squalor [horrible poverty],
    unsafe and unsanitary conditions.
   In 1890 he published a collection of his photos
    titled How the Other Half Lives showing how the
    poorest of the urban poor lived.
      Chinese Exclusion Act
   Because Chinese workers were willing to work for extremely low
    wages [lower than other immigrants] lots of resentment was
    directed towards them.
    Violent attacks on Chinese workers by white immigrants and poor
    whites took place in San Francisco and other cities

   The U.S. Federal Government passed a law called the Chinese
    Exclusion Act in 1882 that banned Chinese immigration.
           Frederick Law Olmstead
   City life was stressful because of overcrowding, filth and crime.

   Landscape architect Frederick Law Olmstead was hired to design public
    parks in large cities such as New York, Detroit and Chicago.

   The purpose of public parks was to provide open spaces for recreation,
    exercise and escape from the stress of city life.

   New York City’s Central Park and Prospect Park were designed by Olmstead.
                Amusement Parks
   Entrepreneurs [business owners] created parks with exciting attractions
    such as rides and strange acts to attract people to pay admission fees.

   The most famous early American amusement park was Coney Island in
    Brooklyn, New York. City residents could escape from city life for a time.

   The park contained rides, restaurants, hotels, circus acts, freak shows,
    beach and boardwalk [wooden road overlooking the seashore].
                         Thomas Edison
   The most influential and
    famous of all American

   He patented hundreds of
    inventions so he could
    receive payments.

   His most famous inventions
    were the light bulb,
    phonograph and movie

   His inventions [especially
    the light bulb] improved the
    quality of life for Americans.
     Gilded Age
   Time period from 1870-1910 when a small number of Americans became
    extremely wealthy due to their exploitation of Laissez Faire policies of the
    U.S. Government.

   Railroads, The Steel industry and Oil companies controlled their business
    sectors with complete control.

   Competition between businesses was limited and prices of goods were very

   There was a huge disparity [difference] between the rich and poor.
     Captains of Industry
   These were business owners who were ruthless and did everything they
    could to be financially successful by controlling their types of business.
    They were called captains of industry as a result of their tactics.

   These men became very wealthy and powerful because they controlled
    huge amounts of money.
                        Robber Barons

   Robber barons were business owners who sometimes broke the law
    or twisted rules to their advantage in order to make huge amounts
    of money.

   They controlled the wealth of the United States by “stealing” money
    from citizens with exorbitant pricing.
     Edwin Drake
   Drake was the first American to
    successfully drill for and find
    significant oil in the United States.

   He discovered oil in Pennsylvania and
    refined it into kerosene.

   Kerosene was originally used for lamp

   Because of his discovery other people
    later drilled for oil and eventually also
    became very wealthy.
John D. Rockefeller and Standard Oil
   Rockefeller built on the success of Drake
    and went into the oil business.

   Because of the invention of cars and the
    use of gasoline Rockefeller became
    very wealthy.

   Rockefeller used a business strategy
    called horizontal integration to
    consolidate other businesses by taking
    them over.

   He was then able to create a monopoly
    and charge whatever he wanted to.
     Andrew Carnegie, Bessemer Process and U.S. Steel
   Carnegie was a Scottish immigrant who was
    very poor when he arrived in the United States.

   He worked his way up to owner of U.S. Steel
    Corporation which later became a monopoly in
    the steel business.

   He was shown the Bessemer process by a
    chemist who demonstrated how to create high
    quality steel for military weapons.

   The Bessemer process enabled him to make
    super strong steel in a quick manner using
    oxidation [air blown through molten steel].

   He also used a business strategy called
    vertical integration which combined every
    part of the steel business in order to make
    higher profits.
                             J.P. Morgan
   Railroad and banking tycoon who
    financed numerous businesses
    and formed banking trusts

   He cleverly acquired ownership
    in companies that were often
    considered unfair.

   He purchased U.S. Steel
    Corporation from Carnegie for
    $400 million

   He often forced companies to
    dissolve when profits were
    siphoned off [workers lost jobs]
    Vanderbilt Family
   The Vanderbilt family of New York dominated the railroad industry.

   The ruthless Vanderbilt family was well known for charging high fees for
    shipping freight.

   They were also well known for bribing members of the U.S. government
    in order to get laws passed that would favor their business interests.

   The Interstate Commerce Act greatly reduced the power of the railroads.
     George Westinghouse
   Westinghouse was an inventor from New York.

   He made a fortune selling his railroad air brake.

   He later made millions of dollars organizing the
    Westinghouse Electric Company that used the
    principle of AC [alternative current].

   Electricity became very popular in many American
    homes to power lights and appliances.
                    Herbert Spencer
   Some people believed the reason people
    were rich was because they were

   Nature favored much as the British
    Naturalist Charles Darwin thought it
    favored stronger creatures.

   Poor people deserved their poverty
    because they were inferior according to
    the theory of Social Darwinism.

   This concept of Social Darwinism was
    used by the Robber Barons as
    justification of their wealth.
Horatio Alger

   Horatio Alger wrote a
    series of inspirational
    novels telling various rags
    to riches tales.

   The stories focused on
    how kids from
    impoverished beginnings
    were able to pull
    themselves up by their

   Very few of these stories
    were real but they offered
    hope for future success.
    The Gospel of Wealth

   Not all wealthy business owners were bad!
   Andrew Carnegie, a robber baron, gave away almost all of his money
    before he died.
   He believed dying wealthy was a type of crime according to an essay
    written by Andrew Carnegie.
   His financial gifts funded public libraries and museums across America.
   Therefore, according to Carnegie, the wealthy had a responsibility to do
    good with their money through philanthropy.
                The Workplace and workers
   During the late 1800s and early 1900s places people worked were often
    very dangerous.
   The risk of serious injury and death was always present.
   Poor and dangerous working conditions such as faulty equipment, long
    work hours and low pay often made working in factories unbearable.
   Very low wages [the amount of pay workers received] forced people to
    work many hours which made them very tired, angry and ineffective.
   Because many families in large cities were often poor they sent their
    young children [age 3 to teenagers] to work. Their lack of strength and
    experience put them at high risk of injury.
                            Workers United
   Eventually many workers got smart and
    united together to fight for better
    working conditions and higher wages.

   The groups of workers called
    themselves labor unions.

   Unions usually organized themselves by
    the type of work they did such as
    carpenters and shoemakers.

   Trade unions and craft unions were
    types of unions that were specific to
    types of industries to protect those
    types of workers.

   For example a carpenters’ trade union
    would protect the rights of carpenters.
                     Conflicts and labor leaders
   Even with labor unions there were still problems
    between workers and business owners.

   Businesses often forced workers, as a condition of
    employment, to sign yellow dog contracts which
    forbade them from joining labor unions.

   Labor union leaders such as Eugene V. Debs
    encouraged members to go out on strike [walk out of
    work] when they believed they were being treated
    unfairly by employers.

   Debs led the Pullman Strike in 1894 which led to
    over 100,000 workers walking out on their railroad

   Debs was jailed for his participation in the strike
    because the effect of the strike was too negative.
    Samuel Gompers
   Gompers learned from the failures of
    other unions.

   Gompers led the American Federation of
    Labor [A.F.L.] for over 40 years.

   Federation=Group of separate entities [in
    his case unions] that combines.

   His most important strategy was to pool
    the resources of different types of

   The funds were used to support workers
    during prolonged strikes.

   He also championed closed shops which
    did not allow non-union workers to work
    in union dominated jobs.
         Labor Strife and Unrest
   Business/Labor conflicts were not always peaceful.
   On May 4, 1886 rioting in Chicago’s Haymarket Square led to
    multiple deaths and a bad reputation for unions.
   The greatest mistake by the Knights of Labor [labor union with
    different types of workers] was including skilled and unskilled
    workers under one unified group.
   Unskilled workers could be replaced by strike breaking scabs while
    craftsmen [skilled workers] were not.
   Skilled workers believed their jobs were unprotected.
         Sherman Anti-Trust Act
   The U.S. Government in 1890 tried to rein in the power of business trusts.
   The shrewdest of businessmen hired lawyers who were able to find
    loopholes in the law and avoid compliance.
   Trusts were sometimes forced to break up into separate companies.
   The best example of a corporate break-up was the 1911 break up of
    Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Corporation.
   The U.S. Government was bent on Trust busting after passage of the law
Homestead Strike and Steel Company tactics
     Workers at Carnegie’s steel company wanted better working conditions and
      better pay.
     The steel labor unions went on strike at the Homestead Steel Works.
     Because the workers refused to agree to Carnegie’s terms they were
      locked out [not allowed to work by the company].
     Violence was threatened from both the Steel company and their workers.
     After much negotiation, fighting and legal battles most of the striking
      workers were blacklisted by U.S. Steel and not allowed to work in the
      industry again.
                  Machine Politics
   Political machines-strong political parties that control who
    comes to power by using bribery and tight political organization.

   Tammany Hall-The name of the New York City Democratic party
    headquarters. Was well known for corruption led by party
    leader William Boss Tweed.

   Boss Tweed-Leader of Tammany Hall who used bribery and
    extortion to rule New York City politics.

   Graft-a technique of using bribery or stealing money by an
    elected official.

   Civil Service System-a system of using tests to decide who gets
    government jobs.

   Pendleton Act-a federal law created to prevent corruption by
    using merit instead of patronage and graft.
Thomas Nast’s cartoons
   A New York City cartoonist named Thomas Nast criticized the
    corruption and illegal activities of Tweed and other government
   His cartoons were so effective because readers did not have to
    know how to read to understand what Nast was describing.
   Eventually the pressure applied by Nast led to Tweed’s arrest,
    prosecution and imprisonment.
    Scandals, Corruption and ways to stop it

   Crédit Mobilier scandal-An example of government officials taking
    bribes from railroad companies,

   Whiskey Ring scandal-Terrible example of corruption by U.S.
    Government officials who stole Whiskey taxes.

   Secret ballot (Australian)-Type of voting system that protected
    privacy of voters [ex. Voters did not reveal who they voted for].

   Initiative-A type of vote started by the citizens [usually to get
    something changed] such as raising the drinking age.

   Referendum-A type of law passed by the citizens of a country
    instead of a legislature.

   Recall-A vote to fire an elected official before his term is over
    because the voters do not like his performance.
   Group of people who rebelled and
    left the Republican party because
    they were tired of corruption.

   James Blaine ran for president in
    1884 but lost the elections
    because he was considered too
    corrupt.                            Republican
   A criticism of the Mugwumps was     candidate James
    that they had a holier than
    thou toward morality as if they
                                        A. Blaine
    were above criticism themselves.
                Sherman Anti-Trust Act

   Federal law passed by Congress
    to break up Trusts.

   The trusts formed monopolies
    that controlled prices of goods
    such as oil and steel.

   This legislation broke up the
    Standard Oil company.

   The law gave the U.S.
    Government more power to
    regulate businesses and protect
         U.S. v. E.C. Knight, Co.
   This U.S. Supreme Court case was important because it ruled
    against the federal government on the key issue of Big Business.

   The U.S. government wanted to break up sugar trusts.

   The Court ruled that Big Sugar did not pose a significant enough
    threat to the United States because sugar was not essential.
    What is Imperialism?
   Root word is Empire.

   An empire is a powerful nation with
    powerful leadership that seeks to
    acquire and control weaker nations.

   Sometimes the more powerful nations
    allow the weaker nations to rule
    themselves [ex. Ancient Rome].

   Most of the time the Empire
    assimilates the weaker nation into the
    Empire and forces it into submission
    [ex. Soviet Union].
    American “Imperialism”

    Some Americans believed it was
     the U.S. government’s duty to
     save foreign countries from
     themselves [religiously and

    Reverend Josiah Strong
     preached that “we must
     Christianize them,” by spreading
     our values to the “backward”
     people of the world.

    Former U.S. Navy officer Alfred
     Mahan believed the U.S. should
     build and maintain a powerful
     navy to assert world dominance.    Admiral Alfred T. Mahan
     Mahan gave many examples of
     world powers who used such a
American Jingoism
   Emboldened by American war hawks
    and sensationalist newspapers
    America became more aggressive

   America entered into a policy of
    jingoism that stressed U.S. military
    power and territorial expansion

   The immediate result was the
    acquisition of Puerto Rico, Cuba,
    Guam and the Philippines from
    the Spanish-American War.

   What was the problem with this

   The U.S. created more enemies and
    envious foreign competitors.
            Anglo-Saxon Superiority
   There were many Americans who believed white people
    were “better” than non-whites.

   Because of superior standard of living and Christian
    beliefs many people believed Americans were justified in
    taking over less developed or civilized countries.
              The White Man’s Burden
   Building on what Josiah Strong preached many Americans believed it
    was the responsibility of white Americans to spread Christianity,
    democracy and American goods to foreign countries.

   If white America did not do it no one else was capable of doing it
    according to this way of thinking.
                     Seward’s Folly

   In 1867 [2 years after the end of the U.S. Civil War] Secretary of State
    William Seward was able to get the U.S. Senate to agree to a treaty
    with Russia to buy Alaska for $.02 per acre [totaling $7.2 million].

   The U.S. increased its size by about 20%. Eventually massive oil
    deposits were discovered which the U.S. still uses today.

   A major result of this acquisition was that it wetted the appetite
    [influenced] of the United States to become imperialist.
           Annexation of Hawaii

   Americans such as Sanford Dole
    whose families had moved to
    Hawaii in the 1830s and 1840s
    were initially welcomed warmly
    by Hawaii’s monarchy.
                                                    Fruit Planter Sanford Dole

   After newer larger plantation
    owners came to Hawaii in the
    1870s and 1880s they pushed to
    remove the Queen.

   Rich fruit company owners led
    by Dole’s descendants convinced
    the U.S. military to dethrone and
    remove Queen Liliokalani.

   Hawaii was officially annexed
    [taken over] by the U.S. in 1898.
    It later became the 50th state in

                                   Hawaii’s Queen Liliokalani
    USS Maine
   A U.S. warship was sent to Havana Harbor in Cuba to protect U.S. interests
    in 1898.
   Cuba at the time was still a Spanish possession.
   There was tension between the U.S. and Spain because Spain held
    territories within the United States’ sphere of influence.
   Aboard the USS Maine were tons of explosives that were not tightly
    guarded or secured.
   A huge explosion occurred killing at least 266 U.S. personnel.
   U.S. newspaper articles speculated that Spain had sunk the ship. The U.S.
    declared war on Spain and defeated her within 113 days.
    Splendid Little War
   Due to the aggression and strong naval
    power of the United States it was able
    to defeat Spain with 113 days.

   Secretary of War John Hay wrote a
    short letter to President Teddy
    Roosevelt from London stating that he
    thought the Spanish-American War had
    been a “Splendid Little War.”

  He most likely believed this because:
[a] it was short and the United States did
   not suffer large numbers of casualties
[b] the U.S. acquired several territories.
                      The Philippines
   The spirit of Jingoism throughout the United States had spread as the war
    with Spain spread to Asia.

   Commodore [High ranking U.S. Navy officer] George Dewey was in
    charge of the invasion of the Philippines which was also a Spanish colony.

   To make the invasion easier and more successful Dewey reached out to a
    Filipino rebel named Emilio Aguinaldo to help fight the Spanish.
   Within weeks of the invasion the Philippines was captured by the U.S.
    The Rough Riders
   Due to the destruction and low morale created by the U.S. Civil War the
    U.S. Military [especially the army] had very low numbers.
   In order to field a force able to battle Spain in the so-called Spanish-
    American War more than 1,000 volunteers were called to serve by
    President McKinley.
   Former NYC police commissioner and state legislator Theodore Roosevelt
    was selected as second in command of the 1st Cavalry Brigade.

                 Teddy Roosevelt
              The Rough Riders
   Many of the soldiers were very

   Veterans of the U.S. Civil War and
    Western Indian Wars were eager to
    see action in Cuba.

   The group included gamblers, army
    veterans, hunters, Buffalo soldiers,
    Native-Americans and college
    students.                               Lt. Colonel Roosevelt

   Within weeks of their arrival in Cuba
    the Rough Riders were triumphant in
    key battles including the famous and
    decisive Battle of San Juan Hill.

   Their exploits enabled the U.S. to
    defeat Spain and liberate Cuba.
    The Panama Canal
   The Panama Canal was completed by
    the U.S. after a long and dangerous 10
    year construction.

   France had earlier failed miserably in its
    attempt to build the Canal.

   Many people died during the long,
    tedious and dangerous construction.


   The Panama Canal shortened shipping
    time and distance between the U.S. and
    Latin America as well as Asia.
      The Teller Amendment and Cuba
   President McKinley sought authority [War Message] from Congress to
    attack Spain as revenge for the USS Maine.
   Senator Teller of Colorado added an amendment to the war
    declaration that would forbid the U.S. from establishing a permanent
    colony in Cuba.
   Cuba would be liberated and allowed to be an independent nation.
                      Yellow Journalism
   Both new immigrants and long standing Americans had a “hunger for words.”
   Inexpensive newspapers were common in every major city and most people at
    least read the Front Page Headlines. Most people believed anything that was
    written in the newspapers
   Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst competed for readers and
    lucrative advertising dollars by publishing sensational and scandalous stories.
   Crime, corruption, sex and scandal attracted readers to the daily newspapers.
   The money and influence gained by these newspapermen struck fear in the
    hearts of their enemies and the government.
Pulitzer                                                         Hearst
                   Treaty of Paris in 1898

                                                       U.S. Secretary
                                                       of State John

    Spain’s foreign
   In order to end the Spanish-American War Spain and the U.S. met in Paris
    to sign a peace agreement called the Treaty of Paris [several earlier
    treaties were also called that].
   The most important part of the agreement was the transfer of Puerto Rico,
    Guam and Cuba to the U.S. [Cuba was later given its independence]. The
    Philippines was later purchased for $20 million by the U.S. The U.S.
    Senate ratified the treaty 2 months later.
                          The Platt Amendment

  The Platt Amendment was added to a federal law in 1901.
 The purpose of the Platt Amendment was to ensure that Cuba would
   remain tied to the United States [even after independence].
 The following conditions were placed on Cuba:
[a] Cuba must not make treaties that would weaken its independence.
[b] Cuba must allow the U.S. to buy or lease the Guantanamo Bay naval
[c] Cuba must keep debts low to avoid foreign conflicts and wars.
[d] The U.S. reserved the right to involve itself to maintain order and
   independence .
            President Wilson’s Mexican problem
Mexican rebel leader
Pancho Villa

    After territorial acquisitions in Latin America and Asia the United
     States had a “reputation” to maintain.
    The Monroe Doctrine and Roosevelt Corollary set precedents for the
     U.S. to show force in its sphere of influence.
    In the 1910s corruption and political unrest led to a revolution in
    The Mexican Army overthrew its corrupt dictator Porfirio Diaz and
     replaced him with General Victoriano Huerta.
    The U.S. was not pleased with the situation and with military force
     [naval bombardment] installed a new president that Mexican rebels
     hated Venustiano Carranza.
The Elusive Pancho Villa and General Black Jack Pershing
    Mexican forces led by rebel Pancho Villa would not accept President
     Carranza and as a result conducted raids [swift, violent military invasions]
     into U.S. areas such as New Mexico and Arizona.
    U.S. President Wilson sent General Pershing into Mexico to capture Villa to
     end the raids.
    Pershing was never able to find and capture Villa who to many Mexicans
     became a symbol of independence and defiance of the United States.
    Other people simply called Villa a lawless bandit.
U.S. Army General Jack Pershing              Mexican rebel leader Pancho Villa
                          Anti-Imperialism League
   After the Spanish-American
    War several prominent U.S.
    citizens, especially intellectuals,
    opposed American imperialist

   People such as John Dewey,
    Mark Twain, Jane Addams and
    Andrew Carnegie believed
    imperialism especially in Asia
    [the Philippines specifically]
    was an abrogation of the
    republican principles the U.S.
    was founded on.
                            Open Door Policy
   From 1898-1900 the United States and European countries competed for
    spheres of influence throughout China.
   After the United States acquired the Philippines after the Spanish-American
    War it wanted to expand its Asian markets.
   Although there was much apprehension and constant mistrust among
    China’s guest countries Chinese ports were open to foreign trade.
                                Boxer Rebellion
   In response to perceived exploitation by foreign countries young Chinese men,
    many of whom were martial artists, rebelled against Western nations with the
    tacit approval of the Chinese empress.
   Off and on for roughly 2 years battles between the Boxers and foreign nations
    occurred in many provinces throughout China.
   Western nations convinced China’s empress that ending the war was beneficial
    to her and the nation.
   China executed many Boxers by beheading and paid reparations to Western
                  The Roosevelt Corollary

   Roosevelt built onto the foreign
    policy established by President

   The Monroe Doctrine asserted
    the U.S. would respond militarily
    if European powers interfered in
    the Caribbean and Latin America.

   Roosevelt added that the U.S.
    would intervene by force, if
    necessary, into the affairs of
    Caribbean nations if they could
    not pay debts or posed a threat
    to U.S. interests.
                        Big Stick Diplomacy
   To assert and maintain control of the American sphere of influence
    President Teddy Roosevelt used what he called Big Stick Diplomacy.
   His motto [borrowed from ad old African proverb was “speak softly and
    carry a big stick.”]
   The metaphor was meant to clearly state his intent to carry out a foreign
    policy based on strong military action when needed to support U.S.
    interests. Echoing Alfred Mahan’s opinion that a strong navy would aid
    this mission the U.S. Navy was essential to projecting U.S. power.
                                  Dollar Diplomacy
   Roosevelt decided not to run for re-
    election in 1908.

   His protégé William Howard Taft won the
    1908 election.

   Taft decided to maintain U.S. foreign
    policy influence by using financial
    resources to bribe, loan or prop up failing
    Caribbean nations.

   The use of military force was minimized
    compared to the Monroe Doctrine and
    Roosevelt Corollary.
                     Missionary Diplomacy
   President Woodrow Wilson proposed and supported alternatives to the
    Monroe Doctrine and the Roosevelt Corollary.

   Instead of using violence and military force Wilson promoted American
    idealism and threatened non-recognition of foreign countries [especially
    Latin American nations].

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