Chapter 9 Launching the New Government student notes by CdhT8T


									                      Chapter 9 Launching the New Government
        Section 1 Washington Takes Office
Making the New Government Work

First Inauguration:

First Cabinet:

The Judiciary Act:

Time in office:

The Nation’s Debt:

Hamilton’s Plan for the Economy

The problem

    •   The United States had a huge n______ d_____—the total amount of money that a
        government owes to others. The national government and state governments had borrowed
        by issuing b_____—certificates that promise to repay the money loaned, plus interest, on a
        certain date.

The debate

    •   H________—the federal government must repay both f_______ and s______ debts by buying
        up the old b_____ and issuing new ones. The United States must repay all debts so it won’t
        lose the trust of i________.

    •   M________—H________’s plan would reward speculators—people who invest in a risky
        v________ in hopes of a large profit. They shouldn’t make a big profit on the war. Besides,
        most southern states have already paid their debts. Other states should do the same.

The compromise

    •     Hamilton promised to support putting the nation’s capital in the South if southerners agreed
          to his plan for repaying state debts.

Hamilton’s Plan for the Economy

Bank of the United States:

Tariff, or tax, on foreign goods:

Causes and Results of the Whiskey Rebellion


    •     To raise money for the T_________, Congress approved a tax on all l_______ made and sold in
          the U_____ S_____.

    •     Backcountry farmers grew c____. It was easier to get their product to market if they turned
          their corn into whiskey first. They hated the t___ on whiskey. They rebelled, marching in
          protest and tarring and feathering tax collectors.


    •     Washington called up the m______ and sent them to put down the rebellion. The rebels fled
          back to their farms. The n________ g________ had shown that it would act firmly in times of
          crisis. It also showed that violence would not be t_________.

          Section 2 Creating a Foreign Policy
The French Revolution

    •     In 17___, the French rebelled against their king. The peasants and the middle class paid heavy
          t_____, while nobles paid none. Reformers wanted a constitution to limit the king’s power
          and protect basic rights.

American Views Favoring the French Revolution

    •     Americans knew what it meant to struggle for l________.

    •   France had been their first a_____.

    •   Americans admired the Marquis de L_________, who had fought with them in the American

    •   Jefferson: The F______ had the right to use violence to win freedom.

American Views Against the French Revolution

    •   The revolution turned v________. The king, queen, and tens of thousands of others were

    •   H________ and A_______: D__________ can’t be created through widespread violence.

Washington Wanted to Keep the Nation Neutral

    •   Following the French Revolution, wars broke out between F_______ and E________.

    •   W_________ had to decide on a f_______ p______—the actions that a nation takes in relation
        to other nations.

    •   Washington knew the U_______ S______ had signed a treaty with France that made the two
        countries allies. He worried that the United States could not honor the treaty and still remain
        n_______, or not take sides.

    •   After much debate, Washington issued the N_________ P_________, which stated that the
        United States would not support either side in the war. It forbade Americans from aiding
        either side.

Difficulties Over Neutrality

    •   Warring E_______ nations seized American ships.

    •   J______ Jay negotiated a treaty with Great Britain. Jay’s Treaty said:

            •   Britain had to pay d______ for seized American ships.

            •   Britain agreed to give up its forts in the W____.

            •   Americans had to pay debts owed to British m________.

    •   Many Americans protested J____ Treaty because it did nothing to protect the rights of
        n______ American ships.

    •   When Washington retired, in his F_______ A_________ he advised Americans to stay out of
        European affairs.

  Section 3 Political Parties Emerge
Many Americans Distrusted Political Parties

    •   Americans had seen how f________, or opposing groups within parties, worked in Britain.
        Members of factions were often more interested in personal gain than in public good.

    •   Political parties could be a threat to n_______ unity. They could lead to “jealousies and false

The Views of Hamilton and Jefferson

Manufacturing or Farming:

Federal or State power:

Strict or Loose interpretation of the Constitution:

Britain or France:

Why Political Parties Developed

    •   Hamilton and Jefferson clashed in p_____.

    •   J_______ and J______ Madison decided to organize the supporters of their views. They met
        with leading New York politicians.

    •   Leaders in other states organized to support either Hamilton or Jefferson. Jefferson’s
        supporters called themselves D_________ R_________. Hamilton’s supporters were called

    •   Newspapers began to take sides.

    •   The two political parties took part in the election of 17___.

Why Political Parties Developed



The Election of 1796

        Section 4 The Second President
J_____ Adams and the Conflict With France

    •   F______ objected to Jay’s Treaty. The French said it favored B_______.

    •   French ships began to s_______ American ships.

    •   Adams sent diplomats to Paris to discuss the rights of n_______ nations.

    •   The French foreign minister sent three agents to offer the Americans a deal. The agents asked
        for a $________ bribe and a $10 million loan to France before they would talk.

    •   Adams told Congress. Because he called the French a_____ X, Y, and Z, the incident became
        known as the X__ Affair.

    •   The country would not pay the bribe, but Adams refused to ask Congress to declare war on

    •   Instead, Adams strengthened the n_____ by building f______, fast-sailing ships with many

    The Federalist Party Splits

        Hamilton and his Federalist s________ wanted a war with France.

    •   War with France would weaken the R_________ party.

    •   War would force the United States to build up its military forces. This would increase f_______

        Adams and his Federalist supporters wanted to a_______ war with France.

   •   Adams wanted to keep the country out of European affairs.

   •   He sent American diplomats to France. The new French leader agreed to stop seizing American

The Alien and Sedition Acts and States’ Rights

A______ Act

   •   The President could expel any a______ thought to be dangerous to the c_______.

   •   The number of y______ immigrants had to wait to become citizens was raised from 5 to 14.

Sedition Act

   •   S_______ means stirring up rebellion against a government. Under this law, citizens could be
       fined or jailed for criticizing the government or its officials.

   •   The Alien and Sedition Acts and States’ Rights

Kentucky and Virginia resolutions

   •   These r__________ claimed that each state “has an equal right to judge for itself” whether a
       law is constitutional.

   •   If a state decides a law is u___________, the state can n_______ that law within its borders.

   •   These resolutions raised the issue of states’ r_____. Does the federal government have only
       those powers listed in the C_________? If so, the states possess all other powers.

Congress and the Election of 1800

   •   Republicans backed Thomas Jefferson for President and A______ B____ for Vice President.
       Federalists supported J______ Adams.

   •   Republicans w___ the popular vote.

   •   In the e_______ college, Jefferson and Burr each received ___ votes.

   •   The election went to the H______ of R_____________ to decide.

   •   After four days and ___ votes, the House chose Jefferson as President and Burr as Vice


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