TLP Division Number 3 | 2008
A Clariant Chemicals (India) Limited Publication
for the Textile, Leather, Paper & allied processing industries
29th year of publication
colour chronicle 3 | 2008
Cotton and Acrylic Fibers Blends
Dyeing of PAC/Wo and PAC/CEL blends
coldblack®: Sun Reflector – UV Protector
Some facts about light fastness
New NMP-free Aqualen® Tops by Clariant
Tanicor® OS-IN p
Cartacoat® RM rheology modifiers
Strength from the inner core
GOTS approved list 19
new arrivals 20
inside views 22
gleanings from press 25
2 colour chronicle 3 | 2008
Dyeing Methods and Dye Selection for Blends of:
Cotton and Acrylic Fibers Blends
I – One Bath Method with Modified Basic II – Two Bath Method with Modified
Dyes for Acrylic and Indosol SF Dyes for Basic Dyes / Drimaren CL Dyes
Cellulosics For better brilliance and high wet fastness properties
T his method is only recommended for pastel and
Thiotan S liq prevents precipitation between the
we can dye this blend in two baths with modiﬁed
basic dyes and Drimaren CL dyes.
It is preferred to give wash with hot wash at 80°C
cationic modiﬁed basic dyes and anionic Indosol SF for 10 minutes before dyeing cycle starts.
dyes, which may occur depending on the dyes and Dyeing the acrylic component with modiﬁed
concentrations used. basic dyes dyes in the 1st bath
Standard recipe x % modified basic dye
It is essential to set the dye bath in the following
order: 0.3 g/l Ekaline F.IN liq
Liquor ratio: 1/10
a) 1 g/l Thiotan S liq 6-8 g/l sodium sulphate anh.
0.5 g/l sodium acetate
Run 5-10 minutes 0.5 g/l sodium acetate
b) x % Modified Basic Dye 3.5-0.5 % Retargal ANI based on
Run 5-10 minutes acrylic component weight
– Higher % for lighter
c) y % Indosol SF dye depth
6 g/l sodium sulphate anh.
pH = 4.5 acetic acid 80%
d) Adjust pH to 4.5 - 5 with acetic acid.
Dyeing Programme Dyeing Programme
colour chronicle 3 | 2008 3
Over Dyeing the Cotton Component with Drimaren
CL Dyes in the 2nd Bath
Classic Drimaren dyeing with Thiotan S liq to
avoid chances of precipitation and agglomeration
of leftover cationic dyestuff and Drimaren dyes
Treat at 70 - 80°C for 15 mins. with:
1 g/l Lyocol OU liq
pH = 9 using soda ash
Special Treatment for very High Wet Fastness
After treat with Optiﬁx F liq
Same Method in Reverse Order
Although, it is economical to carry out this method
in the reverse order, i.e. ﬁrst dyeing the viscose
component with Drimaren dyes and then the PAC
with modiﬁed basic dyes, dyed cotton component
is more heavily stained by the basic dyes while the
PAC is being over dyed (mordant effect), than when
dyeing according to the conventional method. For
this reason, the reverse method can only be carried
out with specially selected basic dyes.
4 colour chronicle 3 | 2008
Dyeing of PAC/Wo and
A s a rule, PAC/Wo blends are dyed
as yarn. Special attention has to
be paid to the shrinkage. The ratio
the isoelectric point and level without
electrolyte at a pH which corresponds
exactly to the recommendation for dyeing
of the ﬁber components, the self of acrylic ﬁbers.
wool, the felting tendency of wool Since the wool absorbs part of the acid,
and the glass transition point of the the pH of the bath may increase and lead to
acrylic ﬁber are also important factors. the following problems:
The most interesting process is the Attack on the cationic dyes by
possibility of dyeing this blend in one bath. hydrolysis.
It has to be borne in mind that the wool is Increase in the staining of the wool
dyed in an acid medium with anionic dyes dyes by hydrolysis.
whereas PAC is dyed with cationic dyes in Only mediocre reproducibility of the
same medium. shade on the wool component.
There are two problems to be solved: For this reason, we recommend adding
The prevention of precipitations between a little acid before the end of dyeing at
the two dye classes and the prevention of 98°C or 105°C to promote exhaustion of
dye losses. the basic dyes on the acrylic ﬁber and the
While many non-ionic surfactants are wool dyes on the wool. With deep shades,
soluble to prevent the precipitations, it is it is advisable to wash off with Ekaline
difﬁcult to achieve both aims. The cationic F.IN liq to improve the end use fastness
dye, stains the wool at low temperature and properties.
migrates on reaching the glass transition PAC ﬁbers and Cotton or Viscose
point to the acrylic ﬁber. The degree complete each other quite well in their
of staining of the wool at the end of the physiological behavior (PAC: warm, non
dyeing depends on: felting; CEL: good moisture absorption,
Saturation of the acrylic ﬁber. no electrostatic charging). Due to their
Depth of the shade. non-felting behavior, PAC/Co blends are
Cationic dyes used. becoming increasingly popular in the
Use of glauber’s salt. market. For these blends an HT dyeing
Use of a suitable dispersant. is not necessary and very brilliant shades
The wool dyes hardly stain the PAC can be produced. One bath or one bath two
ﬁber but are greatly hindered in exhausting stage processes are possible with results
onto the wool by unsuitable dispersants. which meet the fastness requirements for
Thiotan S liq achieves both aims; it domestic laundering.
disperses well and does not prevent build Again the dye classes used (cotton
up on wool dyes. dyes – anionic; PAC dyes – cationic dyes)
The Optilan MF dyes are particularly pose certain problems but Clariant offers
suitable because they dye the wool at solutions with various alternatives:
colour chronicle 3 | 2008 5
Shade Dyes Dyeing Process rinsed and washed off at 80°C with Lyocol OU liq
Pale modified basic One Bath and Ladipur RSK liq.
dyes/Indosol SF When dyeing the opposite way round, i.e., when
Pale-medium modified basic One Bath the reactive dyes are applied ﬁrst, they act as mordant
dyes/Indosol SF for the cationic modiﬁed basic dyes because of their
Dark modified basic One Bath/ sulpho groups. Severe staining and poorer fastness
dyes/Indosol SF two stage properties on the CEL component are the result. Hot
Brilliant modified basic dyeing reactive (Drimaren X/XN) cannot be used for
dyes/Drimaren K Two Bath cross dyeing because of the high amount of salt and
Dark & Drimaren XN/ Two Bath alkali required. They lead to migration and change
Brilliant modified basic dyes of shade of the basic dye on the PAC component. In
(fixation with reversed processes where CEL component is dyed
Optifix F liq) ﬁrst, most basic dyes also show a mordant effect on
the CEL component dyed with Drimaren X dyes.
The shade and fastness properties are determined
by the selection of dyes for the CEL ﬁber. The
economy is determined by the process.
In all one bath processes the addition of a
dispersant such as Thiotan S liq paste is essential
to avoid precipitations in the dye bath. At the same
time Thiotan S liq improves the cellulosic ﬁber
reserve towards the modiﬁed basic dyes.
With high dye concentrations only one bath two
stage process is suitable.
The reserves of the PAC ﬁber to Direct or Indosol
dyes depend on the substantivity of the individual
dye. The dyes for application should be selected
carefully. Further, the reserve decreases with
increasingly acid pH value. The addition of cationic Clariant has developed a process which is based
retarders increases staining of the acrylic ﬁbers. on the principle of blocking the sulpho groups of the
The addition of glauber’s salt required for one bath reactive dyes by a treatment with Optiﬁx F liq. After
exhaustion of the direct dyes has a retarding effect this treatment the PAC component is cross dyed
on the cationic dyes and therefore, increases the with modiﬁed basic dyes.
tendency to staining of the cellulosic ﬁber. An intermediate ﬁxation treatment with Optiﬁx
Dyeing is carried out at pH values between 4 F liq achieves two things:
and 5 to exclude any hydrolysis of the cationic dyes. a) The mordanting effect is almost completely
This may cause problems with the solubility of the prevented, because the strongly anionic reactive
direct dyes. In the one bath two stage process, special dyes on the CEL ﬁber surface are neutralized
attention must be paid to the dyeing conditions by the cationic Optiﬁx F liq, so that afterwards
which could be unfavourable for the cationic dyes. when PAC component is dyed, the basic dye can
Migration of the modiﬁed basic dyes is possible at no longer be adsorbed on the CEL component.
98°C in the presence of salt at a pH above 7. The pH b) Treatment with Optiﬁx F liq also binds a portion
should therefore, not rise above 6 in the second stage of the unﬁxed reactive dye, thus obtaining better
and the temperature not above 85°C. The presence yield and even at this point, nearly attaining the
of Thiotan S liq paste disperses any precipitations. desired wet fastness properties.
Brilliant shades can only be obtained with The over dyeing of the PAC component also acts
reactive dyes on the CEL component. When using as a soaping bath so that the laborious conventional
the Drimaren K dyes, the PAC component is dyed soaping treatment to remove the unﬁxed and
ﬁrst as usual and then the CEL component in a fresh hydrolyzed reactive dye becomes unnecessary.
bath with Drimaren K dyes by one of the usual The reserve procedure also permits shading of
processes. These processes have very little effect on the PAC component, which as a rule involves fewer
the shade of the PAC dyeing. Finally, the goods are problems than shading the CEL component.
6 colour chronicle 3 | 2008
coldblack®: Sun Reflector –
Reliable Protection from UV Rays
D ark colours heat up stronger when exposed to
direct sunlight compared to light colours. Many
textiles worn in the summer time or exposed to the
Many textiles worn in the summer time or exposed
to the sun offer poor protection from damaging UV
sun offer poor protection from damaging UV rays. rays.
In order to prevent this from occuring, we have The coldblack® technology guarantees a minimum
come up with cold black process. UPF 30+ protection when applied to any textile** in
coldblack® combines two functions in one special any colour without affecting the look or feel of the
ﬁnishing technology for textiles: product.
– Sun Reﬂector The UV protection factor (UPF) gives an indication
– UV Protector of how much longer someone using coldblack®
textiles can remain in the sun without incurring any
Effective Heat Management skin damage. The calculations were based on the so-
Light coloured textiles reﬂect both visible and called self-protection time of the skin, which varies
invisible rays of sunlight, meaning both heat and according to individual skin type.
Dark coloured textiles absorb both types of rays ** Important: The UPF value can vary depending on structure,
thickness and material. It relates to closed textile surfaces.
and therefore, absorb heat.
For this reason, the UPF factor needs to be determined
coldblack® reduces this absorption of heat rays on the different textiles. From a minimum of UPF 30+,
particularly in the case of darker colours and in coldblack®conformity is guaranteed.
all types of textiles.
The result is tangibly better heat management.
Skin Types with varying Degrees of Self-protection
Without coldblack® Skin Description Sunburn risk in high
Dark textiles without coldblack® absorb heat. type summer midday after
I Pale skin with freckles approx. 5 to 10 minutes
blonde or red hair
II Pale skin and blonde hair approx. 10 to 20 minutes
blue or green eyes
III Medium skin dark hair approx. 20 to 30 minutes
and brown eyes
IV Naturally dark skin black approx. 40 minutes
or dark hair brown eyes
With coldblack® coldblack® - Practical examples
Dark textiles with coldblack® reﬂect heat.
Skin Protection with coldblack® textiles
type (UPF 30+)UPF x self-protection of skin
I 150 to 300 minutes = 2.5 h to 5 h until skin reddens
II 300 to 600 minutes = 5 h to 10 h until skin reddens
III 600 to 900 minutes = 10 h to 15 h until skin reddens
IV 1200 minutes = 20 h until skin reddens
colour chronicle 3 | 2008 7
coldblack®-Reliable Protection from UV Rays Reliable protection from UV rays (minimum
Without coldblack® UPF 30+)
Light coloured textiles without Coldblack® allow – Protection from UV-A rays and
UV-rays to penetrate UV-B rays.
– UV-A rays accelerate the aging
of the skin.
– UV-B rays cause a pigment
change that result in long term browning. Without
effective UPF protection (Ultraviolet Protection
Factor), aggressive oxygen molecules are released
which cause sunburn or which can lead to the
With coldblack® formation of melanoma.
Light coloured textiles with coldblack® signiﬁcantly
reduce UV-rays from penetration
ﬁnishing only contains
Examples for UV Protection measures and their “bluesign approved” components are as low as
UV Protection factors possible in harmful substances, making them
UV protection UV protection benign to mankind and the environment and
measures factor encouraging the economical and ecological use
Shade under a parasol of resources in the production process.
without special UV protection appox. 5
Shade under a tree approx. 10 Coldblack® – Advantages at a Glance
Light cotton clothing approx. 10 Less sweat.
Sun cream with correct Increased concentration.
application 0 to 30 Higher performance.
Thick cotton clothing Greater comfort.
without coldblack® approx. 20+ Increased endurance.
Textiles with coldblack® minimum 30+ Minimum UPF 30+.
No adverse effect on looks, feel or breathability.
Many textiles equipped with coldblack® demonstrate a Function lasts through numerous washing and
UV protection factor of over UPF 50. cleaning processes.
Finish comprises “bluesign approved”
coldblack® - Advantages components.
Optimal Protection from Heating-up due to
Sunlight Following are the wide range of applications and
Because textiles ﬁnished with lifestyle categories, which provide added comfort
coldblack® heatup less in all due to coldblack®:
colours compared with material outdoor
without a coldblack® ﬁnish. bike
Textiles stay Cool to the Touch workwear
When applied to clothing, this uniforms
means that the wearer perspires merchandising
less, feels better and is capable of tents
greater performance. umbrellas
8 colour chronicle 3 | 2008
In Love with Fashion
Dyestuff range: Foron®S-WF
T oday’s high consumer quality
awareness in an ever so competitive
textile environment, need special products
to meet the ever growing demands.
Especially in terms of trendy wash and
wear, easy care and soft touch products
(with the increasing use of micro-ﬁber
articles), highest levels of colour fastness
are required. With the Foron®S-WF
dyestuffs, an evolution of the Foron®S-
type disperse dyes (pioneered by us in
the 1950’s when still operating under the
former Sandoz name), we do not only
meet these requirements, but today can
offer a conclusive range of dyestuffs,
which are able to cover the full scope
of fashion shades. Foron®S-WF with its Foron® Golden Yellow S-WF Foron® Violet S-WF
market leading colour fastness levels and
highest sublimation fastness enhances 0.08% 0.27% 0.80% 2.40% 0.09% 0.32% 0.95% 2.85%
today’s textile products in the apparel, ®
Foron Red S-WF ®
Foron Cyanine S-WF
workwear and sportswear segments, whilst
giving textile producers state-of-the- 0.19% 0.60% 1.80% 5.40% 0.13% 0.32% 0.97% 2.90%
art process and environmental security. Foron® Rubine S-WF Foron® Blue S-WF
Clariant’s especially developed products 0.40% 0.95% 2.84% 8.52% 0.10% 0.21% 0.63% 1.90%
and processes for colourfast Polyester ®
Foron Brilliant Yellow S-WF ®
Foron Navy S-WF
A complete range of colourfast 0.14% 0.44% 1.32% 4.00% 0.09% 0.35% 1.06% 3.18%
dyestuffs; Foron®SWF gives excellent ®
Foron Scarlet S-WF ®
Foron Black S-WF
wet-fastness levels, with highest
sublimation fastness. 0.09% 0.31% 0.92% 2.76% 0.12% 0.39% 1.18% 3.54%
The necessary auxiliaries needed for
reproducible and reliable dyeing e.g. Properties Scope of Application
Dispersing agent Lyocol®RDN liquid The Foron®S-WF dyes are elements with The Foron®S-WF dyes are recommended
and Acid buffer Opticid®PSD liquid. the following special properties: for the following applications:
Recommended pre-treatment, dyeing Highest sublimation fastness, therefore, Exhaust dyeing of PES/CEL (SWIFT
and after-treatment processes in ideal range for yarn dyeing as well as exhaust process), PES/XLA, PES/
exhaust and continuous dyeing. for continuous applications (Thermosol CEL/XLA®+ and PES articles that are
dyeing) and for printing being post-set (knitwear) and/or that
Dyestuff criteria for high wet-fastness Highest wet fastness level after post- require above average wet fastness
polyester and blends: setting (mode of action: increase of (sportswear)
High operational reliability water solubility in alkaline fastness Continuous dyeing of PES/CEL
Very good dispersion stability testing liquors, but keeping the (SWIFT continue process), PES/CEL/
High to very high sublimation chromophore intact) XLA®+ and PES articles
fastnesses for yarns and tops Easy clearable (high alkaline solubility, Printing of PES, PES/XLA®+ and PES/
High stability in further processing therefore, no reductive clearing PUE articles
steps (e.g. reactive dyeing) necessary for articles with little to ®
+ XLA is an elastic polyethylene fiber and is a
Processing requirements (e.g. for post- moderate staining like e.g. PES/CEL trade mark of DOW Chemicals.
setting) blends; reductive clearing is, however,
Full scope of elements to cover fashion necessary for articles with heavy
shades staining like blends with Spandex®+,
colour chronicle 3 | 2008 9
Some Facts about Light
Fastness Usage of the article.
Choice of colours and their combination.
Perspiration and exposure to light.
Prolonged exposure to light.
Oxidative or reductive nature of dye fading
Unfortunately, the tag labels on articles do give
wash instruction but the guidance and sustainability
of the article to multiple exposures to light are not
so popular. There are hardly any indicators to guide
the consumer regarding the resistance of the article
towards sunlight fading.
Content of UV amount in the sunlight: As more
is the UV component more photons of their light
and more will be the effect on colour with respect
The intensity of temperature from the sunlight
T extile Dyes and Pigments used in the industry
vary to a great extent in terms of their
resistance to light sources and this phenomenon
falling on the article.
is called as ‘Light-fastness of Textiles’. Higher the humidity, higher could be fading.
Sunlight materials electromagnetic radiations This factor has impact on the wet-light fastness
of several wavelengths. Visible range of spectrum and hence fading in varying humid environments
(400 - 700 nm), ultraviolet (300 - 400 nm) and infra come into the picture.
red (700 - 1400 nm) become the main constituents Atmospheric contaminations.
which reach to the earth’s surface. Amount and quality of perspiration also play a
Coloured materials like Textile, Leather and crucial role in deciding the amount of fading.
Paper when subjected to the photons generated from Laundering pattern.
the sunlight have tendency to destroy the colouring Repeated laundering and exposure to sunlight
constituents of dyes and pigments. Further prolonged or a single exposure to sunlight also affects the
exposure may even cause destruction to the substrate degree of fading.
itself. Partial destruction of the colouring material
in dyes and pigment is known as fading. The other Some Guidelines
detrimental effect could be change of tone or change Higher the depth, better the light fastness.
of brilliance of the colour. Only right choice of colours can help in getting
A consumer when buys an apparel is attracted better light fastness and any corrective actions
to the colours and if this colour is altering / fading would fail to improve the light fastness.
during usage or laundering, the consumer gets Right choice of textile chemicals to ensure that
frustrated, so it is our responsibility to safeguard and no detrimental effect of them on the light fastness
guide the processor about the fading behavior of a of dyed articles occur.
dye/pigment applied on the substrate. When use of more than one colour is made in
There are many factors inﬂuencing the light making a shade, the ﬁnal light fastness of the
fastness behavior. article will be based on the lowest light fastness
Substrate and their diffusion properties. constituent of the dye in the recipe. This is more
Substrate preparation. important when we want to ensure on-tone
Chemical nature of the ﬁber. behavior of fading after exposure to light (one
Method of the application. component fading to smaller extent will give a
Delusterants in the substrate. further ugly appearance to the shade than one
Finishing chemicals applied. with on-tone fading).
10 colour chronicle 3 | 2008
New NMP-free Aqualen® Tops
S tate-of-the-art technology for todays’ leather
ﬁnishing is based on aqueous products. Clariant’s
efforts to reduce VOC in ﬁnishing products have led
to a new solution within the Aqualen® Top Coat range.
Great variety of gloss levels can be reached
by combining Aqualen® Top DC-2050 (dull) and
Aqualen® Top GC-2051 (glossy). This new generation
of easy to handle top coats are distinguished by a
perfect balance of high performance and excellent
aesthetics. Most different looks and feels can
be generated using this product mix alone or in
combination with other ecologically-friendly
Aqualen®/Melio® Tops and/or the versatile Melio®
WF feel additive range. This enables the ﬁnisher
to cover a wide range of leather articles. The still
widely used nitro/emulsion lacquer product can
be partly replaced – a further step towards VOC
reduction in leather ﬁnishing.
Especially developed for high gloss shoe upper For aqueous patent leather imitations Clariant
leathers is Aqualen® Top GC-2030.A. Leathers offers the new Aqualen® Top LN.A. This new
top coated with Aqualen® Top GC-2030.A are ecological top coat product is developed to meet
distinguished by a very natural and casein-like highest requirements of both, gloss level and
look and surface feel together with high wet rub physicals. Leathers ﬁnished with Aqualen® Top
properties. Additionally, Aqualen® Top GC-2031 is LN.A, an aqueous, modiﬁed, aliphatic polyurethane
suitable for shoe upper leathers and for high gloss dispersion, show beautiful brilliance and depth of
fancy and upholstery leathers as well, where even gloss. The application can be done either by reverse
higher physicals are requested. Both products are roller coater or by spraying technology. This new
plateable at high temperatures and show a very good and really helpful characteristic offers quite a lot of
intercoat adhesion together with very good milling options to the ﬁnisher.
The ecological solution for
perfect leather finishing
12 colour chronicle 3 | 2008
Tanicor® OS-IN p
Low in “Free-Formaldehyde” content
Versatile replacement syntan suitable for
all type of leather
Good fullness coupled with grain
Can be used for dark and pastel shades as
Leather traded with Tanicor® OS-IN p
can pass various speciﬁcations of “low-free-
formaldehyde” limits when tested by DIN
53315. Tanicor® OS-IN p can also be used with
Clariant’s other “Low Free-Formaldehyde”
products to produce various leather articles.
For the complete list of Clariant’s “Low Free-
Formaldehyde” products, please refer our
Our technical service team would be happy
to be at your service for the development of
“Low Free-Formaldehyde” systems, with
Tanicor® OS-IN p.
Suggested usage of Tanicor® OS-IN p in
1. For Upper Leathers : 6 to 10%
2. For Clothing Nappa : 4 to 6%
3. For Cow Bag Leather : 3 to 5%
Formaldehyde as a raw material is widely
used in the manufacture of leather chemicals
for condensation of various monomers like
phenol, naphthalene, urea, etc.
colour chronicle 3 | 2008 13
Strength from the Inner Core
Dry strength solutions by Clariant
Growing use of Recycled Fiber Mode of Action
A large quantity of waste paper and board
is recycled, providing a relatively
cheap source of cellulosic ﬁber raw
solubilized material remain in the water
circuits of the paper machine, where they
act as nutrients for bacteria and interfere
A combination of ionic and hydrogen
bonding is responsible for the superior
strength. Starch relies almost entirely on
material for papermaking. Unfortunately, with the afﬁnity of other paper making hydrogen bonding for strength development
the quality of ﬁber in wastepaper is additives. In the tissue industry, the rigidity but ionic bonding, which is up to ﬁve times
deteriorating, due to increased recycling, of starch polymers has a negative inﬂuence stronger, allows enhanced performance.
and the dry strength of a paper sheet on softness and dusting. In addition, Cartabond 0701E liquid has
inevitably suffers as a consequence. strong afﬁnity for cellulosic ﬁbers and
Clariant’s Cationic Polymers Solution is, therefore, perfectly suited to wet-end
Dry Strength Additives needed Achim Kohler (Clariant, Germany) application.
Dry strength additives have been available remembers: “Back in 2004/2005, we
in the paper industry for many years. identiﬁed the growing problems with the Ahead of the Trend, Indian Product
Natural polymers such as starch, either in ﬁber quality of the waste paper. We therefore Cartabond SR 100 liquid
its native or chemically modiﬁed form, have decided to address the customers’ needs Cartabond SR 100 liquid is a local
been employed relatively successfully, due for low cationic, highly concentrated and alternative to Cartabond 0701E liquid
to their availability and low cost. efﬁcient products with good absorption. In available in India. It is a liquid dry strength
Paper makers around the world want particular, the low cationic charge of the resin offering improved tensile strength,
to raise the standards associated with dry new products developed was intended to stiffness and burst factor and is speciﬁcally
strength, closer to the values achieved with prevent the ﬁber charge from ﬂipping to recommended for stiffness improvement in
virgin ﬁber. At the same time, they work at cationic from anionic.” copier paper as well as coated paperboards.
lowering the basis weight of a paper sheet, It can also replace starch, whilst unlike
whilst maintaining an acceptable level of Newborn in the Range, Cartabond® 0701E starch, Cartabond SR 100 liquid is not
strength, aiming at major cost beneﬁts liquid susceptible to microbial attack, thereby
and reducing of the impact of high energy The most recently developed product of eliminating the need for preservatives as
prices. the range, Cartabond 0701E liquid, is a well as environmental concerns.
dry strength additive for stock application Back in 2004, Indian papermakers were
Starch has its Drawbacks under neutral to alkaline paper making actually a bit in advance in the demand for
There has been a temptation to add conditions. It is suitable for all paper and an alternative to strarch. Cartabond SR 100
excessively high amounts of starch board grades but especially beneﬁcial where liquid was developed to answer the need. As
because, although low in cost, the strength recycled ﬁber is the main raw material. Rajinikanth Prasad (Clariant, India) recalls:
performance of starch is between 5 and Typical examples are brown packaging “we developed a liquid form for a speciﬁc
10 times less than a synthetic dry strength papers manufactured from old corrugated customer – which happened to be a clear
polymer, on a dry basis. Starch, even in containers (OCC), tissue produced by advantage for our local customers”!
its cationized form, has a limited afﬁnity fully bleached virgin or recycled ﬁbers.
for paper ﬁbers and large quantities of All strength parameters can be improved,
including burst, tensile, SCT and CMT.
colour chronicle 3 | 2008 15
Cartacoat® RM Rheology Modifiers
More than just Rheology Modifers “Less-is-More” effect
P roducing coated paper and board for
end-products with a high quality level
needs chemicals that can really do the job.
Cartacoat RM products replace conventional
synthetic rheology modiﬁers with lower blade
pressure, allowing increased coater speed.
Cartacoat RM is an exclusive range of rheology Cartacoat RM products make it possible to
modifers, which allows control of high shear and increase the dry solid content of the coating
low shear viscosity and water retention to achieve colour, with a positive effect on optical and
superior runability and optimum coating colour printing properties.
rheology. Cartacoat RM products can be used for Cartacoat RM products can replace CMC
instance for blade coating or MSP applications with partially or totally, offering the possibility to in-
all kind of paper and board grades. crease the amount of PVOH or starch as an OBA
The Cartacoat RM series combines the features carrier, in order to improve whiteness.
expected from such products, whilst allowing
substantial savings in your production costs. Signifcant Benefits for your System
Up to 30 % cost savings in thickener system
Optimized Chemistry Improved coating colours and runability
The thickening mechanism of Cartacoat RM - Lower dosage needed to reach the targeted
rheology modiﬁers, as shown in the illustration Brookﬁeld viscosity
below, comprises of two steps: - Better high shear proﬁle
Expansion of macro-chains, due to high - Improved water retention at lower dosage
electrostatic charge repulsion
Inter-molecular attraction facilitates formation Improved paper and print quality
of a 3-D network - Positive effect on paper gloss
- Slightly improved smoothness
- Other properties equal (mottling, ink
absorption and surface strength)
The effect of
viscosity and shear
rates can be seen
Carbon group on the graph at the
Hydrophobic group adjacent.
16 colour chronicle 3 | 2008
Complete Range for Every Specific Need Dynamic Water Retention
Cartacoat RM 8 liquid
Cartacoat RM 8 liquid is a water retention aid for
paper and board coating colour with small effect on
low shear and high shear viscosity. Cartacoat RM
8 liquid improves the paper properties by reducing
water penetration into the base sheet. Cartacoat RM
8 liquid is FDA and BfR compliant.
Cartacoat RM 12 liquid
Cartacoat RM 12 liquid allows good water retention
and increases both low and high shear viscosity.
Cartacoat RM 15 liquid
Cartacoat RM 15 liquid is especially suitable in
the manufacturing of coated board and packaging ACAV
paper, offering a good balance between Brookﬁeld
viscosity and water retention. Cartacoat RM 15
liquid is FDA and BfR compliant.
Cartacoat RM 20 liquid
Cartacoat RM 20 liquid shows optimal high shear World-class Laboratory Facilities
properties with high Brookﬁeld viscosity. Small From laboratory studies to pilot coating trial
dosing levels are needed. Cartacoat RM 20 liquid to mill trial, our laboratory facilities in France
has low inﬂuence on high shear viscosity and low offer high-end equipment and expertise.
Low shear viscosity High shear viscosity Water retention Dosing levels (*)
Cartacoat RM 8 ( ) 0.5 – 2.0
Cartacoat RM 12 0.1 – 1.0
Cartacoat RM 15 0.2 – 1.5
Cartacoat RM 20 0.05 – 1.0
= high influence = medium influence = some influence = no influence
(*) parts per 100 parts pigments as it is
colour chronicle 3 | 2008 17
GOTS approved list
Result of Assessment of Dye / Processing aid for the use in EKO
Sustainable Textile Standard (GOTS system)
Name dye/Proc. aid Date of Approved Name dye/Proc. aid Date of Approved Name dye/Proc. aid Date of Approved
approval Yes / No approval Yes / No approval Yes / No
Ceranine SWPI liq 25/06/2007 Yes Imerol NLF. IN liq [ Formerly 22/01/2008 Yes Ceraperm AQUA liq 13/03/2008 Yes
Diresul Antioxidant PRM liq 25/06/2007 Yes (Sandoclean NLF. IN liq) ] Drimaren Red CL BL 13/03/2008 Yes
Drimaren Turquoise CL-B p 13/03/2007 Yes Leomin PNLI liq [ Formerly 22/01/2008 Yes Drimaren Red CL-B p 13/03/2008 Yes
(Sandosoft PNLI liq) ]
Sirrix 2 UD. IN liq 13/08/2007 Yes Drimaren Yellow CL-R p 13/03/2008 Yes
Ceralube JNF. IN liq 22/01/2008 Yes
Drimaren Navy X-GN. IN 06/09/2007 Yes Ladiquest DWA liq 13/03/2008 Yes
Drimaren Red X-6 BN p 06/09/2007 Yes JNF. IN liq) Leomin SFC liq 13/03/2008 Yes
Drimaren Yellow X-4RNI p 06/09/2007 Yes Ceralube HD. IN liq 22/01/2008 Yes Printofix Navy R-B 13/03/2008 Yes
Leonil UH liq 06/09/2007 Yes Formerly (Sandolube Printofix Violet R-B 13/03/2008 Yes
Sirrix Antox IN liq 06/09/2007 Yes HD. IN liq) Printofix Black R-NG liq 13/11/2007 Yes
Imacol C2G.IN liq 12/10/2007 Yes Imerol MWP liq c [ Formerly 22/01/2008 Yes Printofix Blue R-BN 20/03/2007 Yes
(Sandoclean MWP liq c) ]
Sirrix N liq c 12/10/2007 Yes Ceraperm TSLF liq 11/06/2008 Yes
Ladipur SN liq [ Formerly 22/01/2008 Yes
Ceraperm K.IN liq 12/10/2007 Yes Ceraperm 3P liq hc 11/06/2008 Yes
(Sandopur SN liq) ]
Stabilizer AWN.IN liq 12/10/2007 Yes Reductor D. IN p 11/06/2008 Yes
Optisul HSI liq 22/01/2008 Yes
Stabilizer FCB.IN liq c 12/10/2007 Yes Stabilizer 3Z liq 11/06/2008 Yes
Formerly (Sandozol HSI liq)
Sirrix SB.IN liq 12/10/2007 Yes Sirrix SAI liq c 12/06/3008 Yes
Stabilizer SIFA. IN lq 11/02/2008 Yes
Appretan ECO liq 12/10/2007 Yes Hostalux ETB. IN liq 17/06/2008 Yes
Imerol SR liq 11/02/2008 Yes
Imerol XN.IN liq 04/08/2007 Yes Leucophor BMF. IN liq 17/06/2008 Yes
Stabilizer SOF. IN liq 11/02/2008 Yes
Rintofix Thickener CA liq 13/11/2007 Yes Leucophor BMB. IN liq 17/06/2008 Yes
Diresul Black RDT-S-IN liq 11/02/2008 Yes
Revatol S.IN p 13/11/2007 Yes Formerly (Diresul Black Leucophor BFB. IN liq 17/06/2008 Yes
Sirrix N liq 13/11/2007 Yes RDT liq) Appretan PUL liq 29/07/2008 Yes
Stabilizer SIFAM.IN liq 13/11/2007 Yes Drimaren Blue HF-2B cdg 12/02/2008 Yes Ceraperm MN liq 29/07/2008 Yes
Printofix Binder 1912 PLUS 14/12/2007 Yes Ladipur R3C. IN ip liq 12/02/2008 Yes Mercerol QWNI. IN liq 29/07/2008 Yes
Printofix Binder ITL liq 14/12/2007 Yes Drimaren Navy CL-R p 12/02/2008 Yes Mercerol RWLF liq 29/07/2008 Yes
Hostapal DTC. IN liq 22/01/2008 Yes Arkofil PVS p 13/03/2008 Yes Sirrix CPA liq 29//07/2008 Yes
Formerly (Sandopan Arkofil S 100 p 13/03/2008 Yes Sirrix USB liq 29/07/2008 Yes
DTC. IN liq)
Ceraperm 3P PLUS liq 13/03/2008 Yes
Global Organic Textile Standard
T he latest version of the Global
Organic Textile Standard (GOTS)
launched in June, sees some signiﬁcant
complex dyes to produce blue, green
and turquoise shades to a depth of 5%
R50, very toxic to aquatic organisms;
R51, toxic to aquatic organisms; R52,
harmful to aquatic organism; R53, may
changes for the wet processors of organic The above clauses are to be reviewed cause long term adverse effects in the
textiles. The changes note as follows: in two years from date of adoption. If, aquatic environment. However, GOTS
Optical brighteners are now allowed at that time, copper complex dyes are states that as R51-R53 may lead to a loss
to be used, allowing all retailers to no longer permitted this would cause a in dyeing quality, the use of these will
produce organic cotton products in a problem for dyers producing the shades be optional until the next revision of the
bright white. mentioned and would therefore limit standard. This is a confusing situation that
Quaternary ammonium compounds – the shades available for the retailers of may leave many dyers unclear about the
which are known to improve the colour organic products. Another change of note dyes and chemicals that can be used; it
fastness of dyed goods - are prohibited is that acceptable levels of formaldehyde is recommended that in the certiﬁcation
except for auxilaries used during the on organic textiles have been reduced process these parameters should be
dyeing process, provided they meet all from 20 mg/kg to 16 mg/kg in line with controlled, documented and reported.
other GOTS criteria. Japanese law. source: www.colourclick.org;
Heavy metals are prohibited with a There is also a clause not to allow GOTS v 2.0 is available at:
speciﬁc exception for copper metal products with the following risk phrases:
colour chronicle 3 | 2008 19
Additions in Local Range Global
Printofix® Red T-B Foron® Scarlet S-WF
Bright Red Dispersion from High wet fast disperse dye Afilan® PSE liquid
Aﬁlan® PSE liq. is a spin ﬁnish
Global Printofix Range for red and scarlet shades suitable for polyamide 6 and 6.6 high
Product Performance suitable for dyeing polyester tenacity industrial yarns for example
Highly concentrated pigment. and its blends. tyre-cord, tarpaulins, seat belts,
Good dispersion stability even below 0°C. conveyer belts etc. Aﬁlan PSE liq.
Very little inﬂuence on viscosity of Product Performance is a proprietory blend of heat stable
synthetic thickener. High wet fastness. Low staining on lubricants, emulsiﬁers and antistats.
High dry cleaning fastness. multiﬁber even on post heat set fabric. Is usually applied as an aqueous
High thermal stability. Can be applied in exhaust, printing and solution (e.g. 15-25 %) with the
Suitable for discharge printing. continuous application. usual devices.
Suitable for all types of printing application Main element for wet fast ﬁre shade in Is a very thermostable spin
i.e., aqueous, semi-aqueous and solvent combination with Foron Brilliant Yellow ﬁnish.
base. S-WF, Foron Golden Yellow S-WF, and Forms very low smoke and shows
Does not contribute in gelling of printing Foron Red S-WF. nearly no deposits on the godets.
paste. High sublimation fastness even at 210°C. Runs well in drawing processes
Good dispersing and leveling properties. and has a good ﬁber/ﬁber
Printofix® Yellow T-C Owns excellent wetting and
Foron® Violet S-WF spreading properties.
Lemon Yellow Dispersion from
Global Printofix Range. High wet fast disperse dye Afilan® ONE liq
Product Performance for violet shades suitable Easy applicable ﬁber ﬁnish
Bright lemon yellow shade. for dyeing polyester and its and lubricant for use in ﬁber
High pigment concentration. manufacturing of polysulfonamide
Very little inﬂuence on viscosity of
blends. and aramide ﬁbers.
synthetic thickener. Product Performance Excellent lubricating properties.
High dry cleaning fastness. High wet fastness. Low staining on Good antistatic properties.
High thermal stability. multiﬁber even on post heat set fabric. Improves ﬁber/ﬁber cohesion and
Suitable for discharge printing. Can be applied in exhaust, printing and reduces ﬁber/metal friction.
Suitable for all types of printing application continuous application. Excellent wetting properties.
i.e., aqueous, semi-aqueous and solvent Main element for wet fast violet and purple Good thermostability.
base. shade in combination with Foron Blue Each component of this
Does not contribute in gelling of printing S-WF and Foron Rubine S-WF. formulation is listed in one or
paste. High sublimation fastness even at 210°C. several parts of 21.CFR.170-199
Good dispersing and leveling properties. (FDA).
20 colour chronicle 3 | 2008
Foron® Black AS-3LF and water-repellent ﬁnishes on textiles
New disperse black Dyestuff for high-fast Allows to reduce the dyeing time and/ made from cellulosic as well as synthetic
applications. or the dyeing temperature. ﬁbers and their blends.
High light-fast and hot-light-fast black Improves the reservation of the Fluorocarbon technology with a
disperse dyestuff. cellulosic part by dyeing polyester/ polyamide based cationic copolymer.
High strength (30% cellulose blends. This copolymer improves signiﬁcantly
stronger than Foron Black Improves the in-out levelness in the efﬁciency of ﬂuorocarbons.
AS-LF) and build-up. package dyeing mac hines. Economical product to achieve high
Neutral shade under different light Is suitable for levelling and partial water and oil repellency.
sources (D65/TL84/A). stripping of faulty dyeings. Provides excellent initial repellencies
Low colour fading post exposure. Does not affect the wet fastnesses and as well as good durability.
Suitable for all commonly required has no or minimal effect on the usual Excellent product to be incorporated
automotive light-fastness standards. light fastness. into a resin ﬁnishing bath.
Excellent sublimation fastness upto Does not develop an unpleasant odor Shows high compatibility with ﬁnishing
180°C/30sec. during dyeing or drying. chemicals and ﬁre retardants.
Very good combinability with UV- Is non foaming. Provides a relatively soft handle.
absorbers (Fadex®). Mainly recommended for cellulose
Suitable as base element for Coldblack® Arkofix® ELF liq conc based ﬁbers.
applications. Ultra low formaldehyde containing cross Cationic.
linking agent for the easy care ﬁnishing of
Foron® Dark Blue S-WF textiles of cellulosic ﬁbers and their blends Solusoft® FE liquid
New disperse blue dyestuff for high wet- with synthetic ﬁbers. A special silicone macro emulsion for
fast applications. Has a free formaldehyde content below padding. Best rubbing fastness level on
High wet-fast dark blue disperse 0.1 %. pigment printed textiles.
dyestuff. Produces particularly low formaldehyde Supplies speciﬁc “glacier” handfeel.
Excellent build-up. ﬁnishing effects. Meets the requirements Elegant surface smoothness.
Neutral (greenish) shade . of consumer labels such as Eco-Tex Improves rubbing fastness (dry and
No reddish ﬂare under artiﬁcial light Standard 100 for textiles worn next to wet) of pigment printed fabrics.
sources (TL84/CWF). the skin (<75 ppm formaldehyde on Best silicone softener to improve
Excellent cotton reserve. the goods). This applies particularly to sewing properties.
Good clearability above pH 9. the assessment methods as described in Nonionic character, thus no yellowing
Leading sublimation fastness upto Japan Law 112-1973. on white.
210°C/30sec., (rating 4.9 GS). Imparts excellent crease and shrink- No inﬂuence on thermomigration.
resistant properties to textiles of Improves elasticity and resilience of
Eganal® PLM liquid cellulosic ﬁbers and their blends. knitwear.
New dyeing assistant for exhaust dyeing Gives excellent strength retention Highly wash stable.
of polyester and its blends with cellulosic and therefore is recommended for Improves technological properties
ﬁbers injets and package dyeing machines application to knitwear and lighter in resin ﬁnish such as tear strength,
under HT conditions. cotton articles. abrasion.
Improves dispersion stability of the On 100% cotton the ﬁnishing effects Improves crease recovery angles and
dyes in the bath. are not stable to chlorine. DP-rate in resin ﬁnish.
Ensures good penetration and increased Recommended to use in acidic
colour yield. Nuva® 1910 liq conditions ( pH <6).
Improves coverage of materials with Nuva® 1910 liq is an economical but highly
different afﬁnity. efﬁcient ﬁnishing product for durable oil
colour chronicle 3 | 2008 21
P. Gayatri being welcomed by Mr. A. Karmarkar at Kolhapur Meet.
Technical Conferences during the Last
T echnological Skills and Partnerships based on
active dialogue with customers are key elements
in the building of a successful relationship. Keeping
fabric, chemicals from Clariant’s range enhance
both the physical appearance and performance of
this as the focus various technical conferences Mr. Jochen Schmidt, Head, Business Line
were held all over the country as narrated below: Functional Effects, Clariant International Ltd.,
discussed in detail about the various products
Surat, June 19, 2008 which can be offered to the processors in Surat. He
At the conference, Mr. Anjani K. Prasad, Country highlighted on the ‘Emerging Trends in Finishing
Head of Textile, Leather & Paper Chemicals with Clariant’s Technology’, consisting of silicone
Division, Clariant Chemicals (India) Limited, based products like, concentrated specialty ﬁnishing
emphasized that Clariant has developed cost effective agents which can be easily diluted and used as in-
processing packages for polyester dyeing, printing house formulations to a high cost advantage. Mr.
and ﬁnishing chemicals. Ecological demands are Schmidt also highlighted on the Technical Textiles
also being catered to by our experts. Clariant has and stressed on the concept of Flame Retardants and
also introduced innovative ﬁnishes like moisture Stain Management.
management, which gives polyester a comfortable
feel, while imparting a protective ﬁnish against Kolkata, June 24, 2008
bacteria and fungi. Fluorocarbons from Clariant, An this occasion, Mr. Anjani K. Prasad, emphasized
speciality silicones and innovative prints like gold that Clariant offers complete solutions for the
zari were elaborated upon during the conference. processing of knits, garment washing, pigment
With the textile and apparel industry always on the printing and in jute related processing. He stressed
lookout for new ﬁnishes and aesthetic values on the on the beneﬁts of Ecoswat Concept, highlighting the
A.K. Prasad interacting with customers in Kolhapur. The Ludhiana Meet participants.
22 colour chronicle 3 | 2008
Detailed analysis in Bengaluru. Asis Patnaik at the Bengaluru Meet.
use of right technology for optimization of energy, discussed the problems related to efﬂuent treatment.
water and efﬂuent management. He explained the He discussed in detail the garment washing process
Black Magic Process, which is a bleaching concept incorporating biotechnology, wherein he enlightened
involving process efﬁciency with economy using the customers with the enzyme processing of the
ecological concept. He discussed in detail the garments. The new concepts such as Cold Black
garment washing process using biotechnology, and Nanosphere by Clariant were discussed during
wherein he enlightened the customers with the the meet. Concept of REACH was explained to
enzyme processing of the garments. He also the customers. Mr. Prasad also discussed with the
highlighted the leaning of prossessors towards customers, the main reasons for price increase and
the latest trends in Technical Textiles offered by ensured them that Clariant will always be with the
Clariant, such as ultra low formaldehyde based customers in these difﬁcult times.
binders, non-PFOA concept of ﬂuorocarbons. Effect
labels from Clariant were also touched upon in the Kolhapur, August 4, 2008
presentation. At this conference, Mr. Anjani K. Prasad, emphasized
that Clariant offers complete Solutions for Sizing
Ludhiana, July 31, 2008 and technologies related to entire processing of
At this occasion, Mr. Anjani K. Prasad emphasized textile. He discussed about the new applications in
that Clariant offers complete solutions for the sizing and also the GOTS approved products related
processing of knits, garment washing, enzyme to sizing. Technologies for continuous processings
technology, denim washing and related technologies. such as bleaching, dyeing and ﬁnishing were
Drimaren Dyes were offered as a solution for all highlighted upon along with speciality ﬁnishes. He
the problems related to the Dyeing technology. He stressed that Clariant has a wide range of products
Jochen Schmidt at the Surat Meet.
colour chronicle 3 | 2008 23
Chandigarh, July 24, 2008
During this conference, Mr. Anjani Prasad,
emphasized that Clariant has been playing a crucial
role in offering technology and new products for
value addition. Clariant has been offering eco-
friendly dyes and chemicals. Clariant is well-known
as a quality supplier having complete range of
specialty chemicals for almost all the ﬁbers. Highly
skilled technicians from Clariant are at arms length
to solve day to day problems of the textile processors.
Mr. Prasad enlightened the processors about new
product processes, technology, innovations and
specialty needs for exports. We believe in providing
solutions than selling products, was his key mantra.
Anjani Prasad, Head - TLP Division, India, at He stressed on the fact that the techno economy of
the Ludhiana Meet. a processor is always at the back of our mind while
and depending upon consumer needs Clariant can making recommendations.
offer cost and process effective recipes. Clariant is Mr. Shailesh Moolya, in-charge, Technical
shortly launching GOTS certiﬁed amylase Bactosol Promotion of Wool/Silk/Nylon Dyes and Chemicals,
MTO for organic cotton processing. He discussed explained in detail about the technology of silk
about the special areas of hydrophilic silicones processing and how Clariant is with the customer
and lubricants offered by Clariant. Specialty areas right from dye dissolution, printing, steaming upto
such as ultra low formaldehyde based binders; anti- the washing-off of silk.
microbial solutions and the non-PFOA concept of
ﬂuorocarbons were discussed. Bengaluru, August 26, 2008
Mr. Asis Patnaik, Head, Functional Effects and
Varanasi, August 22, 2008 Polymer Dispersion, Textile Business, Clariant
Here, Mr. Anjani K. Prasad, said that Clariant has Chemicals (India) Limited, spoke on the topic,
developed cost effective processing packages for “Polymer Dispersion – Yesterday and Tomorrow”.
dyeing, printing and ﬁnishing chemicals. Clariant He explained about the requirements in an emulsion,
not only helps in setting-up the processes or the for the future. According to Mr. Patnaik, the perfect
chemistry involved for textile processing, but product for tomorrow would include a Controlled
also updates its customers on the “how-to-do- Particle Size, Bimodal Particles with High Solid
it” ecologically, economically, efﬁciently and in Content, Low Volatile Organic Compounds and
an environment friendly manner. He stressed on Controlled Molecular Weight Products. He discussed
Clariant’s role in reaching out to its customers as the history and future of various emulsions and their
well as their end-consumer. applications including the Nano emulsions.
Mr. Anup K. Baranwal (Authorised distributor, CCIL - Textile Business)
started looking after the family business at the tender age of 16 years when his
father fell seriously ill.
In the course he took distribution agency of Sandoz (India) Ltd. in year
1992. The average sale of the company in Bhadohi / Mirzapur region was only
40 lacs per annum. Mr. Baranwal gradually increased the sale to Rs. 2.35 crores
per annum by the year 2006. The level of sale of Rs. 2 crores was maintained
despite turbulences in the market.
Mr. Anup’s demise has created a big vacuum in the family and it will be a Late Mr. Anup Kumar
tough task to live up to his performance. We are conﬁdent that in these distinct Baranwal
times his dedicated employees will maintain the momentum generated by him (Proprietor, M/s. Prabha
and increase the success of his company. Colour Company).
Left to Heavenly Abode on
We pray to the almighty to give peace to the departed soul.
July 22, 2008.
24 colour chronicle 3 | 2008
gleanings from press
Textiles: The Silent Witness
Fibers Fabrics / Garments
Sometimes, the victim’s clothing is one of the few
clues left to tell us what happened. “In cases where,
the body of the victim has been buried for some years,
and only the (victim’s) skeleton remains, elements
of the victim’s clothing may have survived. This
clothing can be examined for cuts and tears, bullet
holes, and other penetration wounds. Such evidence
may assist the coroner with establishing the cause of
death and the weapon used,” notes Mike Pailthorpe,
Senior Consultant for the Food and Textiles group
of the Sydney, Australia.
While fabrics and ﬁnished textile products are
often valuable evidence, the most important textile Antimicrobal Finish exhibits
witnesses are ﬁbers. “Most of the information we
learn is gathered from ﬁbers and threads,” says Skip
Washfastness with no
Palenik, a Forensic Consultant, Senior Research Binder
Microscopist and President of Microtrace LLC. Sanitized Silver works by damaging the cell
“Fiber evidence can be critical to investigations – membranes and inhibiting the growth and
it is not going too far to say that lives have been reproduction of bacteria responsible for odor
saved because of forensic ﬁber examinations,” says development in textiles. The ﬁnish was developed
Houck, Director of Forensic Science Initiative and speciﬁcally for use on synthetic ﬁbers. The company
Research Ofﬁce Manager for Forensic Research says these ﬁbers, especially polyester, are the
Business Development at the College of Business preferred material for sport, leisure, and work wear
and Economic at West Virginia University, – all sectors which demand high wash resistance. It
“Fibers are shed by rope, carpets, blankets, claims that “upto 100 washing cycles at 60°C are
upholstery, and many other items,” says You-Lo possible without
Hsieh, Professor of Fiber and Polymer Science impairing the
at the University of California, Davis, who also hygienic function
advises student research in the university’s forensic (of the ﬁnish)”.
science graduate program. Fiber evidence may be Sanitized Silver
used to corroborate witness statements, establish can be applied
someone’s presence at the scene of a crime, or to the textile by
provide investigative leads, says Bloch. exhaust or pad
Palenik explains that forensic scientists rely on processes, making
Edmond Locard’s Exchange Principle when looking it suitable for fully-
at ﬁber evidence. Simply put, the principle states fashioned knitwear
that whenever two objects come into contact, there and other fabric
is always an exchange of material. That exchange or apparel. It can
of material can establish an association (or lack also be combined
association) between two objects or persons, says with other textile
colour chronicle 3 | 2008 25
gleanings from press
However, the speciﬁc ﬁnish has not yet been
Wellness Fabric perfected. Based on cyclodextrine technology, the
In Europe, “wellness” has evolved into a real mega- auxiliary has to be applied via ﬁxation of an easy care
trend. Over the years, the number of wellness resin, which unfortunately gives the textile a hand.
hotels offering wellness treatments have increased. Additionally, the tiny storage units of cyclodextrine
Restaurants put wellness dishes on their menu, have to be reloaded after they have delivered their
claiming beneﬁcial effects for the diners’ personal contents to the skin. So if a consumer asks for a
well being. Furthermore, the number of food items continuous dispersing of the anti-aging substance,
and beverages bearing the term “wellness” in their he or she must reload the textile by adding a special
names has become nearly countless. Hence, the compound (created by the supplier itself) to the ﬁnal
creation of wellness textiles was only a matter of rinsing bath in the washing machine.
Since 2003, the textile industry has created the
technology to construct an entire wellness fabric
Indian Silk industry hit by
by using a “wellness ﬁber.” Five years ago, this Chinese ‘quake.’
ﬁber was presented at the Heimtextil trade show Indian silk industry with an annual business of over
in Frankfurt, Germany, for the ﬁrst time. SeaCell Rs. 10,000 crore has been hit hard by the earthquake
ﬁbers can be generated from Lyocell, a cellulosic in the recent past in China, a major supplier of raw
man-made ﬁber, by adding ﬁnely-ground seaweed, silk for the manufacturing units in the country.
mainly from the family of brown, red, green and blue The industry claimed that hundreds of units in
algae, into the spinning solution. This wellness ﬁber Varanasi, Bengaluru, Madurai, Coimbatore and
tends to be unique in its well being effect. Extensive Bhagalpur have closed down as the raw material
clinical testing at Jena University (Germany) costs of silk have gone up by upto 40 per cent
proved that minerals from the seaweed are being and over one lakh persons engaged in the sector
constantly released in a humid atmospheres. So are have lost jobs after the earthquake in the Sichaun
carotenoides and amino acids, as well as vitamins province of China. Sichuan is the primary supplier
E and C. Owing to this behavior in wet conditions, of raw silk yarn and dupion to Indian manufacturers
SeaCell is mainly used for terry towels, bath gowns, of silk products. Majority of the mulberry gardens
shirts and blouses, socks, and sleepwear. have been destroyed due to the quake, which has led
to a sharp fall in production in India.
“The earthquake and subsequent ﬂoods in Sichuan
has affected the import prices of raw material, which
have gone up by about 30-40 per cent,” Indian Silk
Export Promotion Council Chairman, T.V Maruthi
said. Further, he said the industry has also been hit
by increasing transportation costs due to hike in fuel
prices apart from labour and other costs.
China’s Garment Export
Growth slows down
From January to May this year, China exported a total
Anti-aging Properties value of $66.16 billion of textiles and garments, upto
15.4% from the same period of last year, according
answer a Mania for Youth to the Chinese Customs ofﬁce. Of the sum, about
Vitamin E is the basis of an interesting wellness $26.07 billion was textile products, upto 26.3%, and
ﬁnish on textiles. Due to its ability to bind free $40.09 billion was garments and accessories, upto
radicals, vitamin E has anti-aging, moisturizing, 9.3%. The textile exports of China regained its fast
and anti-oxidative abilities. Responding to the growth, while garment exports faced a much weaker
worldwide prevalent mania for youth, it could demand abroad. Industry players said that the weak
become the number one ﬁnish for all kinds of overseas consumer demand had affected the cotton
textiles and clothing: underwear and sleepwear, sector in China. The country imported 240,200 tons
bed-linen and terry towels, blouses and stockings, of cotton this May, a decrease of 23,200 tons, or
sportwear and denim. 8.81 from the previous months.
26 colour chronicle 3 | 2008
gleanings from press
New Clariant Global Carpet Center offers MerinoCool Fabrics
‘Under-One-Roof’ facility for Customers Launched | Source: just-style.com
A new facility that consolidates
Clariant’s leading application services
and expertise for customers in the carpet
carpet samples illustrating different types
and colouration effects.
Also at the new center, customers’
N ew lightweight woven fabrics
made from Australian Merino
ﬁbers were launched on September
industry was formally inaugurated at production processes can be imitated for 25, 2008 for soft tailored suits and
Louvain-la-Neuve, south of Brussels trialing or problem solving. New products separates as well as smart casual apparel.
in Belgium, on September 19, 2008. and developments can be demonstrated, The MerinoCool fabrics, developed by
The state-of-the-art Carpet Center and training is available. Masterbatches, Australian Wool Innovation (AWI), are
underpins Clariant’s position as a supplier also used in the carpet industry, is adjacent less than 165gsm and respond naturally
of the full range of dyes and chemicals for to the new center. to environmental and body temperature
all aspects of carpet processing (from yarn Recent innovative developments for the changes.
spinning, dyeing and printing, to ﬁnishing center have included bright highfast dyes This means they keep the wearer either
and backing). for jet printing, and new C6 ﬂuorocarbon warm or cool depending on the ambient
It brings the company’s colouration products with high dry soil-release are in temperature or wearing situation and are
and ﬁnishing facilities and know-how advanced stages. suitable for year-round wear.
under one roof, a feature that is attractive Ivan De Langhe, Head of the Clariant AWI CEO Craig Welsh says: “Today’s
to customers because they can discuss the Global Carpet Center, says: “It is a great consumers - particularly in the major
whole chain in carpet production at one advantage for customers to have the markets of Europe, the US and Japan -
place and with one company. different facilities and knowledge in one want lightweight clothes. People want to
Facilities include an application place. With the facilities we have, covering feel comfortable, and in the contemporary
laboratory, machinery for rotary and jet all applications in the industry, this new built environment they don’t actually need
printing, steamers, a gum applicator, facility will be an attractive proposition for clothes for protection or to keep warm.”
different types of exhaust dyeing machines, customers seeking one-stop solutions.” More than 15 global supply chain
foam application, continuous dryer, quality Belgium was chosen for the location of partners are involved in the MerinoCool
and fastness testing equipment, and a the facility because of the country’s pre- project, which targets the smart casual
customer showroom with more than 300 eminence in the industry – it is world’s market in Italy, France, Japan, Korea, India
biggest carpet producer after the US. and China.
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colour chronicle 3 | 2008 27