Insect Management

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					Pest Management

Pesticide Safety Education Program
          MSU Extension
                     Types of Pests
•   Weeds
•   Invertebrates (insects, mites, ticks, spiders, snails, and slugs)
•   Pathogens (bacteria, viruses, fungi, nematodes)
•   Vertebrates (birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and rodents)
             Pest Classifications
• Key Pest
  – Causes major damage on a regular basis.

• Occasional Pest
  – Causes damage on a irregular basis. Usually as a result of weather,
    environment, or human activity.

• Secondary Pest
  – Occurs as a result of action taken to control primary pest.
  Pest Management Methods
• Many pest management methods
  including:
  – Regulatory
  – Cultural
  – Biological
  – Genetic
  – Chemical
                Regulatory
• Using legal means to control pests.
  Generally for exotic pests that are not
  native.
  – Quarantines
  – Eradication
  – Example in Montana: Japanese Beetle
                    Cultural
• Altering the insects environment to disrupt
  the lifecycle of the pest.
  – Mowing, rotational strategies, tillage, fire, or
    cover crops
                   Biological
• Manipulation of one organism to control
  another organism.
• Using pathogens, vertebrates, plants, or
  insects to control other pests.
  – Example in Montana: Flea beetles to control leafy
    spurge.
                    Genetic
• Usually a preventative technique.
• Plants or animals can be bred or selected
  to be resistant to certain pest problems.
  – Example in Montana: Resistant wheat varieties for
    wheat stem sawfly.
                   Chemical
• Are any naturally derived
  or synthetic material that
  is applied to:
  – kill
  – attract
  – repel
  – regulate
  – interrupt the growth and
    mating of pests
  – regulate growth.
 Synthetic Chemical Management
 began around WWII with the use
•DDT
               of:
• Some Problems persisted with DDT.
  What were they?
Biomagnification
  One other problem from over
    using Chemical Sprays:
        RESISTANCE!
• Zero Damage Concept (Where no damage was
  acceptable)
  – Failed
  – Resulted in Spray, spray, and spray with loss in
    control
• Problems
  – Wasted money when not economic
• Resulted in Resistance!!
               Resistance
• Occurs when there is an ability of a pest to
  tolerate a pesticide that once controlled it.
• Can be managed through integrated pest
  management.
    Other Problems with Dependence
       on Chemical Management
•   Increasing levels of chemical output
•   Chemicals persist in environment
•   Non-target impact
•   Public concern
Integrated Pest Management
– Regulatory (Quarantines)
– Cultural (Planting dates, harvest dates
  etc..)
– Biological (Lady beetles, lacewings)
– Resistance (WSS resistant winter wheat)
– Gene Manipulation
– Mechanical Control (Fly swatter or
  burning)
– Chemical
Identify and Monitor Pest: To understand
        which IPM approach to use!

• Must monitor the insect population
  – Relative insect measuring estimates
     • Sweep net samples
  – Absolute insect measuring estimate
     • Insects per unit area (tiller, plant, sq ft)
     • Trapping or emergence cages
  – Get an idea of insects per unit


GET OUT INTO FIELD!!
    Assess Potential Impacts
• Usually by comparing your densities or
  pest damage to economic thresholds or
  economic injury levels which are
  previously established.
  – Available from MSU Extension.
       Economic Thresholds
• Number of pests per unit area (population
  density) at which management methods
  should be employed to prevent the pest
  from reaching the economic injury level.
       Economic Injury Level
• Lowest population that will cause
  economic damage.

• When a pest reaches the economic
  threshold control measures should be
  employed to prevent populations from
  reaching the Economic Injury Level.
Economic Threshold takes into
   account many factors.

    Injury Level =      C
                      VIDK
    C = the cost of management per unit area
    V = market value per unit area
    I = injury amount caused per pest
    D = the damage per injury amount
    K = the reduction in pest attack by control
                              INSECT
                              DENSITY

                                  ECONOMIC
                                INJURY LEVEL
                  ECONOMIC
Insect Numbers
& Crop Losses




                 THRESHOLD
                   (ACTION
                 THRESHOLD)




                     Time
 Choose your management option
   (Develop and evaluate your
      management option)
• Do you wish to prevent (genetic ‘resistance’,
  cultural ‘plant certain varieties’)
• Do you wish to suppress your pest population
  (chemical, biological)
• Do you wish to eradicate (chemical, genetic)
  – Very expensive generally and usually unsuccessful.
         Implement the plan
• Don’t reinvent wheel
• Talk to your neighbors, extension
  personnel, and consultants.
• Implement plan
• Reassess periodically
  – Make notes of future pest populations,
    methods which work, and methods which do
    not.
Example Scenario: What do you
  do if you want to use IPM?
       Inspect the damage?
• Do not guess. Get into the field and
  inspect.
• You find the Russian Wheat Aphid.
  Contact MSU Extension if you cannot
  identify.
Cross-reference the damage with
the insect found: RWA damage




Leaves white or purple streaks
Tightly rolled leaves – trap leaves or head
  Contact MSU Extension for your
       Monitoring Approach
• MSU Extension indicates the economic
  threshold to be:
  – Fall - Any growth stage (10-20% infested
    plants)
  – Spring
    • Regrowth to early boot (5-10% infested plants)
    • Early boot to flowering (10-20% infested tillers)
    • After flowering (More than 20% infested tillers)
                  Monitor
• You assess your plants and find 35%
  infested plants with RWA.

• APPLY A MANAGEMENT PLAN BASED
  ON YOUR DENSITY AND THRESHOLD!
  – Only 1 management tactic will save your field
    at this point (consult MSU).  Chemicals
Which Chemical? Consult MSU or
      other Ag Consultants

-MSU would recommend Warrior at the 3.8
  oz / acre rate or Lorsban 4E based on
  previous field trials.
-Always read the product label
Good Luck

				
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posted:5/30/2012
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