Pesticide Safety Education Program
Types of Pests
• Invertebrates (insects, mites, ticks, spiders, snails, and slugs)
• Pathogens (bacteria, viruses, fungi, nematodes)
• Vertebrates (birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and rodents)
• Key Pest
– Causes major damage on a regular basis.
• Occasional Pest
– Causes damage on a irregular basis. Usually as a result of weather,
environment, or human activity.
• Secondary Pest
– Occurs as a result of action taken to control primary pest.
Pest Management Methods
• Many pest management methods
• Using legal means to control pests.
Generally for exotic pests that are not
– Example in Montana: Japanese Beetle
• Altering the insects environment to disrupt
the lifecycle of the pest.
– Mowing, rotational strategies, tillage, fire, or
• Manipulation of one organism to control
• Using pathogens, vertebrates, plants, or
insects to control other pests.
– Example in Montana: Flea beetles to control leafy
• Usually a preventative technique.
• Plants or animals can be bred or selected
to be resistant to certain pest problems.
– Example in Montana: Resistant wheat varieties for
wheat stem sawfly.
• Are any naturally derived
or synthetic material that
is applied to:
– interrupt the growth and
mating of pests
– regulate growth.
Synthetic Chemical Management
began around WWII with the use
• Some Problems persisted with DDT.
What were they?
One other problem from over
using Chemical Sprays:
• Zero Damage Concept (Where no damage was
– Resulted in Spray, spray, and spray with loss in
– Wasted money when not economic
• Resulted in Resistance!!
• Occurs when there is an ability of a pest to
tolerate a pesticide that once controlled it.
• Can be managed through integrated pest
Other Problems with Dependence
on Chemical Management
• Increasing levels of chemical output
• Chemicals persist in environment
• Non-target impact
• Public concern
Integrated Pest Management
– Regulatory (Quarantines)
– Cultural (Planting dates, harvest dates
– Biological (Lady beetles, lacewings)
– Resistance (WSS resistant winter wheat)
– Gene Manipulation
– Mechanical Control (Fly swatter or
Identify and Monitor Pest: To understand
which IPM approach to use!
• Must monitor the insect population
– Relative insect measuring estimates
• Sweep net samples
– Absolute insect measuring estimate
• Insects per unit area (tiller, plant, sq ft)
• Trapping or emergence cages
– Get an idea of insects per unit
GET OUT INTO FIELD!!
Assess Potential Impacts
• Usually by comparing your densities or
pest damage to economic thresholds or
economic injury levels which are
– Available from MSU Extension.
• Number of pests per unit area (population
density) at which management methods
should be employed to prevent the pest
from reaching the economic injury level.
Economic Injury Level
• Lowest population that will cause
• When a pest reaches the economic
threshold control measures should be
employed to prevent populations from
reaching the Economic Injury Level.
Economic Threshold takes into
account many factors.
Injury Level = C
C = the cost of management per unit area
V = market value per unit area
I = injury amount caused per pest
D = the damage per injury amount
K = the reduction in pest attack by control
& Crop Losses
Choose your management option
(Develop and evaluate your
• Do you wish to prevent (genetic ‘resistance’,
cultural ‘plant certain varieties’)
• Do you wish to suppress your pest population
• Do you wish to eradicate (chemical, genetic)
– Very expensive generally and usually unsuccessful.
Implement the plan
• Don’t reinvent wheel
• Talk to your neighbors, extension
personnel, and consultants.
• Implement plan
• Reassess periodically
– Make notes of future pest populations,
methods which work, and methods which do
Example Scenario: What do you
do if you want to use IPM?
Inspect the damage?
• Do not guess. Get into the field and
• You find the Russian Wheat Aphid.
Contact MSU Extension if you cannot
Cross-reference the damage with
the insect found: RWA damage
Leaves white or purple streaks
Tightly rolled leaves – trap leaves or head
Contact MSU Extension for your
• MSU Extension indicates the economic
threshold to be:
– Fall - Any growth stage (10-20% infested
• Regrowth to early boot (5-10% infested plants)
• Early boot to flowering (10-20% infested tillers)
• After flowering (More than 20% infested tillers)
• You assess your plants and find 35%
infested plants with RWA.
• APPLY A MANAGEMENT PLAN BASED
ON YOUR DENSITY AND THRESHOLD!
– Only 1 management tactic will save your field
at this point (consult MSU). Chemicals
Which Chemical? Consult MSU or
other Ag Consultants
-MSU would recommend Warrior at the 3.8
oz / acre rate or Lorsban 4E based on
previous field trials.
-Always read the product label