The Cell by 1Qdb123

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									                The Cell
The 3 Principles of Cell Theory:
• The cell is the basic unit of life
• All cells come from pre-existing cells
  (mitosis, meiosis, fertilization)
• All organisms are made of one or more
  cells
The scale
Of Things!
What are cells so small?
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells
Prokaryotic                 Eukaryotic
Primitive                   modern
Simple                      complex
DNA is in nucleiod region   DNA is in nucleus
No membrane bound           membrane bound
organelles                  organelles
Smaller (1-3 µm Ave.)       Larger (10-30 µm)
Bacteria, Archae            Protists, Fungi, Plants
                            Animals
Prokaryotic Cell
Eukaryotic Cell
         Plant Cell vs. Animal Cell

•Cell Wall
•Chloroplasts
•Central Vacuole




                   Plant Cell
          Plant Cell vs. Animal Cell


•Centrioles
•Cilia and Flagella
•More Lysosomes




                      Animal Cell
        Organelles: The Nucleus


Controls cell activities
Contains the DNA
(DNA = hereditary
        material)
Parts:
Nuclear envelope
Pores
Nucleolus (RNA)
     Organelles: Ribosomes




Ribosomes = site of protein synthesis
(can be free floating or attached to ER)
   Organelles: ER (Endoplasmic Reticulum)

Rough ER = has ribosomes
Smooth ER = no ribosomes

So difference in function?
Rough has protein synthesis
occur on it and smooth does not

Form channels of membrane
for transport of materials in cell
Organelles: Golgi Apparatus




 Sorts and packages materials
Endomembrane System
    Organelles: Lysosomes




Contain hydrolytic (digestive) enzymes

Breakdown worn out parts of the cell
          Organelles: Mitochondria (powerhouse)
 Function: Cellular Respiration releases energy for the cell to use




Parts:
Outer membrane
Inner Membrane
Cristae
Matrix
       Organelles: Chloroplast (plastid)
           Function: produce and store food

Parts:
Outer Membrane
Inner Membrane
Grana
Stroma
    Chloroplast and Mitochondria
•   Semi-autonomous organelles
•   Both have double membranes
•   Both have their own DNA
•   Both make some of their own proteins
•   Cells on their own at one time??
         Organelles: Vacuoles
Animals: small
vacuoles

Plants: central
vacuole
•Stores toxins
•Water regulation
•Lysosomal
 function

Outside
membrane=
tonoplast
     Microbodies: convert harmful substances
     into useful ones i.e. peroxisome


  2H2O2  2H2O + 2O2



Peroxisome converts
hydrogen peroxide to
water and oxygen
Cytoskeleton: movement of organelles,
               shape and support




 Microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments
Organelles: Cilia and Flagella
Structure of cilia and flagella
(9 + 2 arrangement)
Cell to Cell Junctions: Plants-Plasmodesmata
              Cell to Cell Junctions: Animal Cells




Desmosomes
Gap junctions
Tight Junctions
Cell Membrane: Fluid-Mosaic
          Model
 Cell Membrane: made of
phospholipids and proteins

								
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