Training on Project Development and Management by 7J2cb2

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									Training on Project Development
       and Management

       Participatory Planning




                                  1
Norms




        2
       Activity: Group Work
• Group Exercise: Expectations and Fears




                                           3
               Goal


To develop understanding about Project
 Development and Management among
      Mid Career Professional


                              Continued



                                          4
                    Objectives
• To    introduce    project   management   tools/
  techniques and its uses

• To define project and its activities

• To differentiate between project development
  and management



                                                 5
                  Objective

• To become familiar with the main steps involved
  in Project life cycle.

• Describe various phases of project life cycle

• To provide necessary background for the
  working group exercise on the Project Planning
  Matrix

                                                  6
Activity: The Cabbage




                        7
            What is Project?
• A project is a temporary/short term process or clear
  set of activities, which has clearly defined start &
  end time, a set of task and a budget that is
  developed to accomplish a well defined goal or
  objective to support program
Project must have;
• Clearly define objective/ goal or desired outcome
  (Output)
• Implementation timeframe and
• An established budget & resources (Input) in term
  of 5Ms of a project
                                                    8
(Men, Money, Machines, Materials & Man-hours)
        Specification of Project
•   Objective
•   Activities ⇒ Outputs
•   Duration
•   Budget(Input)
•   Resources (Input)

       An undertaking for the purpose of
       achieving established objectives,
       within a given budget and time period.
                                                9
    What is inputs & outputs?

• Inputs
  Personnel, materials, equipments, facilities
  and funds required by the project.
• Outputs
  Strategies for achieving the Project
  Purpose
• Activities
  Specific actions taken to produce Outputs
                                            10
Specification of Project Link with
            Program
• Project is always fall or linked to program in order to
  increase the impact on development aspect and to
  create synergy in effort to achieve over all
  goal/objectives of program and ultimately organization



• Project is a strategic support to achieve development
  goal and objective of program



• Project has LIMITED RESOURCES to reach planned
  objectives
                                                            11
       Difference between Program &
                   Project
            Program                          Project

Long term                    Predefined timeframe

Broad Objective and Vision Clearly defined objective, inputs and
                           outputs
Having its own identity      Project is to provide strategic support
                             to create synergy in effort to achieve
                             over all goal/objectives
Program is like an umbrella Project is fall under this umbrella as
                            a supportive part of program
                             Implemented by the partner
                             organizations or may be supported
                                                            12
                             by partner organization
Example of Project and Program
Name of program:              Environment life
Development objective:
Rural resource mobilization to meet the challenges of
  environment deterioration and energy crises of the
  country
Projects
• Tree plantation
• Installation of biogas plants
• Construction of smokeless stoves
• Garbage management
• Effective utilization of farm yard manure
• Promotion to use natural fertilizer
                                                     13
• Techniques to utilize sunlight as source of energy
       Activity: Group Work
• Group Exercise: Problem and solution




                                         14
Don’t Think




              15
           What is Management
• Management is a continuous process to organize
  and utilize 5M (Men, Money, Machines, Materials
  & Man-hours) for the achievement of define goal/
  objective/ output.
                         OR

• Management is a process of setting and
  achieving goals through the execution of the 4
  basic functions of management: planning,
  organizing, directing and controlling, by utilizing
                                                    16
  human, financial and material resources
     4 Basic Functions of
        Management
• Planning

• Organizing

• Directing and

• Controlling



                            17
      What is Project Management
• Project management is the process of Planning,
  Organizing & Managing task & resources to
  accomplish a definite objective, usually within
  constraints on time, resources or cost.

• Project management is a process of combining
  system, techniques and knowledge to complete
  a project within established goals of time,
  budget and scope.
                                             18
Why Project Management




                         19
Keys to Project Success



                          20
          Clear Direction;

•what,            5W
•why,

• who,

• when,
where,

•How
                             21
Strong Project Managemnet




                            22
Strong Team and Team Work




                            23
Team Leader Must be a Good
       Team Player




                             24
Strong Decision Making Structure




                                   25
Good Communication




                     26
Excellent Record Keeping System




                              27
Successful Project Management

Within Time

Within Cost

Using resources effectively and efficiently

Within the main framework of organization

Within the organization culture

Accepted by the Stakeholder                   28
Four Constraints to PM


                Scope
                                             RISK
                QUALITY


Schedule/Time             Budget/Resources




                                                    29
       Activity: Brainstorming
What the constraint means
The role it plays in the project
Why is it important to pay attention




                                       30
      Why this matter to you
• Where we are because of some technical
  or specific set of skill
• If you want to get things done you need a
  good blend of
• Technical knowledge of PD&M
• People Management
• Resources management
• To be focused
                                              31
        Module 2


Project Management Tools &
          Methods


                         32
                Objectives
• To be familiar with project cycle management
  tools and methods
• To introduce most commonly used management
  tool and its uses i.e.
           Logical Framework Analyses
• To become familiar with the main steps involved
  in conducting an LFA
• To provide the necessary background for the
  working group exercise on the Project Planning
  Matrix (PPM)
                                                33
        What is Project Cycle ?
•   Project identification
•   Project formation
•   Appraisal
•   Implementation
•   Monitoring
•   Plan revision
•   Evaluation
•   Feedback
                                  34
     Development of PCM Method
• Late 1960s      Logical Framework (USAID)
        ➢ International Agencies introduce the Logframe


• Early 1980s     ZOOP (GTZ)
                 Objectives-Oriented Project Planning
        ➢ European countries adapt the ZOPP

• Early 1990s     PCM(FASID)
     ➢ JICA begins full-scale introduction of the PCM


                                                        35
Project Cycle Management



  Evaluation               Planning

               PDM




          Implementation

                                      36
         Simple and commonly used
           Management approach
  Logical Framework Analysis/Approach (L F A)

                        OR
• Goal Oriented Project Planning (GOPP)
                        OR
• Objective-Oriented Project Planning (OOPP)
                        OR
• Participatory, Objective-Oriented Planning
                                                37
                                    Continued
              What is LFA
• The LFA is a project design methodology

• Log Frame is a document


“A set of designing tool/designing approach
  that, can be used for planning, designing,
  implementing and evaluating projects or
  programes”

                                            38
           3 Major Stages in LFA

Analyses          Planning     Implementing
Stage             Stage        Stage




                    M&E




                                         39
              Major Steps in LFA
Situation              Stakeholder
Analysis                Problem
                        Objective


            Strategy
            Analyses
                                            Matrix
                                         Assumptions
                             PPM       Objective Indicators
                                          Verification


                                     Implementation           40
Why Analysis

  PROJECT
  STRENGTH
OPPORTUNITIES
WEAKNESSES

  THREATS

SOLUTION        41
   STEP1:        Situation Analysis

The analysis phase is the most critical and
difficult phase but analysis existing situation
    is important for;

 Objective development for addressing real
                   needs


                                              42
   1- Stakeholders Analysis
         What is stakeholder?

“Group, organization, individual, who may
have an influence on a situation/project or
are themselves affected by it.”




                                         43
             1 Stakeholder Analysis
Is an analysis of
   the
• Problems
• Fears

• Interest

• Expectation

• Restriction and

• Potential                           44
   1 Stakeholders Analysis
Identify the issues, problems, and current
conditions of the target area through
analyzing the area and local residents
targeted for assistance, related groups,
related organizations and agencies.
    Focus on people and organization.



 Tentatively select a target group.          45
 Key Questions to Stakeholder
          Analysis
• Who will be involved in the Logframe
  development
• Where will be development be conducted
• Who will facilitate
 • What background material and expertise
                   are needed
• What material and logistic are required

                                            46
          2 Problems Analysis
•    What are the problems the project is
    addressing?

• What are the root cause of those problems?

• What is the larger picture in which those
    problems and their root causes exist?

• What are the links between the problems?

                                               47
      2 Problems Analysis
Problems Analysis visually represents the
causes and effects of existing problems in
the project area, in the form of a Problem
Tree. It clarifies the relationships among
the identified problems.




                                         48
Problem Tree




               49
2 Problems Analysis
Example of a Problem Tree




                            50
    Rules for Writing Problems
1. Write in a Sentence.
      Make Clear “Subject and Object”.
2. Avoid “No Solution”.
3. Avoid Generalization.– Be Specific.
4. Don’t Write a Cause and Effect in One
   Card.
5. Be Specific Whose problem.

                                           51
           Group Activity
• Problem Tree




                            52
Working together




                   53
  Tips of Working Together for
           Analysis

                 Analyzing
Consensus       step by step          Cards
                                      &Board




   Working as                   Visualizing
    a team                         ideas
                                               54
                Brainstorming
        3 Objectives Analysis
 Objective is always for addressing needs to reduce effect of
                  causes /resolve problem



A procedure for systematically
• Identifying
• Categorizing
• Specifying
• Balancing out ( if required) objectives
                                                                55
         Objective Analysis
• Objective analysis & problem analysis
  influence each other.
• The more information about the problem
  solution the more you can formulate
  objectives
• OBJECTIVES TREE is required for
  objective analysis


                                           56
            Objective Tree
• The problem tree is transformed into an
 objectives tree

• Problems are restated as objectives

• Positive mirror image of the problem tree

• The objectives tree considered as an “Ends-
 Means” diagram.

Continued                                     57
      What is ENDS-MEANS’
             Diagram?
• Top of the Objective tree is the end that is
  required/ desired
• Lower level are the means to achieving
  the end
• Based on this objectives tree, certain
  means are feasible and some may be
  outside the scope/ objective of problem


                                             58
           Objective Tree
• The Means of “Objective Tree” provide the
  foundation for developing
• Programmes

• Projects or

• Strategies


          To address the problem
                                         59
          Strategy Analysis
•   Strategy analysis phase involve the
  selection of a strategy to achieve the
  desired results
• Strategy analysis is a process in which
  specific project strategies are selected
  from among the objectives and means
  raised in Objectives Analysis, based upon
  selection criteria
Continued
                                         60
           Strategy Analysis
.Always remember;
  There are many solution for one problem

 They must be a suitable steps towards the
     attainment of identifying objectives

Strategy analysis or analysis of alternatives
  in a systematic way of searching for and
  deciding on problem solutions
                                             61
Many Solution of one Problem




                               62
           Strategy Analysis
Strategy Analysis;

• Searching for and deciding solution
• Follows the problems and objectives
  analysis
• Prerequisite to deciding action strategy


                                             63
Conducting a Strategy Analysis
• Ordering sequence of the problem and
  objectives tree

• Clustering objectives

• Feasibility of different intervention

• Main objective becomes the project
  purpose and the lower order becomes the
  outputs or results and activities       64
Conducting a Strategy Analysis
Point to be considered

Overall concepts, strategic plan, objectives

People, target groups, organization agencies

Methods, procedures, processes

Technology, Services, Products, Outputs

Measure, actions, materials, inputs

                                               65
Conducting a Strategy Analysis
Point to be considered

Overall concepts, strategic plas, objectives

People, target groups, organization agencies

Methods, procedures, processes

Technology, Services, Products, Outputs

Measure, actions, materials, inputs

                                               66
           Module 3

Introduction to Project Planning
              Matrix
             (PPM)

                               67
               Objective



To provide the necessary background for
 the working group exercise on the Project
 Planning Matrix (PPM)




                                        68
              What is PPM
• A one page summary that tell us;
Why a project is carried out (Who/ what will
  benefit
What the project is expected to achieve
How the project is going to achieve its
  outputs/ results (Measures executed)
Which external factors are crucial for the
  success of project (Risk and fram
  conditions)                                69
            What is PPM
Which external factors are crucial for the
 success of project (Risk and frame
 conditions)
How we can assess the success (Indicators)
Where we will find the data required to
 assess to success(Means of verification)



                                         70
Project Planning/ Design Matrix(PPM)
Narrative Objectively   Means of     Important
Summary Verifiable      Verification Assumptions
           Indicators
Overall
Goal
Project
Purpose
Results/O
utputs
Activities Inputs :
                                   Pre-conditions
                                                71
            PPM Vertical Logic
• Project Purpose
  Objectives that the project should achieve within the project duration
  The development outcome that project expected at the end of the
  project
• Overall Goal
  Direction that the project should take next
  The broader development impact to which the project contributes- at
  national and sect oral level
• Outputs
  Strategies for achieving the Project Purpose
• Activities
  Specific actions taken to produce Outputs
                                                                      72
           PPM Horizontal Logic
• Objectively Verifiable Indicators
 Standards for measuring project achievement.
• Means of Verification
 Data sources from which indicators are derived.
• Inputs
 Personnel, materials, equipments, facilities and funds
 required by the project.
• Important Assumptions
 Conditions important for project success, but that cannot be
 controlled by the projects. Whether these conditions
 develop or not is uncertain.
• Preconditions
                                                           73
 Conditions that must be fulfilled before a project gets
 Characteristics of PPM

   Participatory
                         Logicality
   Approach


                                Problem-
Transparency
                                 Solving
               Consistency


                                           74
     Formation of the PPM
The project Plan Matrix (PPM) is formed
through elaborating the major project
components and plans based on the
approach selected. The format of PPM is
similar to that of the PCM/ PDM and
Logical Framework, and therefore can be
commonly used worldwide.


                                          75
           PPM Appraisal
The PPM Appraisal is conducted by an aid
agency to ensure the project plan. It is
composed of the following stage:
(1) Examination of the details of the PPM
elements; (2) review of the PPM formation
process; (3) examination from the
perspective of the five evaluation criteria.


                                           76
        Plan of Operations
The Plan of Operation is prepared by the
project implementers, based on the PPM
and other information. It is an effective
tool for project implementation and
management, and provides important data
for monitoring and evaluation of the project.



                                           77
   Example: Format of Plan of Operation
Activities   Expected   Schedule   Person in   Implementer   Materials   Cost   Remarks
             Results               Charge                    and
                                                             Equipment

1-1
1-1-1
1-1-2




2-1
2-1-1
2-1-2




                                                                                     78
        Module 4



Monitoring and Evaluation


                            79
Monitoring and Evaluation
   The Five Evaluation Criteria

         1. Efficiency
       2. Effectiveness
          3. Impact
        4. Relevance
       5. Sustainability

                                  80
• Efficiency
  The productivity in project implementation. The degree to which Inputs
  have been converted into Outputs.

• Effectiveness
  The degree to which the Project Purpose has been achieved by the
  project Outputs.

• Impact
  Positive and negative changes produced, directly or indirectly, as a
  result of the Implementation of the project.

• Relevance
  The validity of the Overall Goal and Project Purpose at the evaluation
  stage.

• Sustainability
   The durability of the benefits an and development effects produced by
  the project after its completion.
                                                                         81

								
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