Crime and Criminology (PowerPoint download) by ert554898

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									Crime and Criminology


1. What is crime?
2. Durkheim on crime
3. What is deviance?
Course Website
 http://cooley.libarts.wsu.edu/garina/soc361
Crime can be defined…
 Form of normal behavior
 Violation of behavioral norms
 Form of deviant behavior
 Legally defined behavior
 Violation of human rights
 Social harm/injury
 Form of inequality
Definition of crime
 If we believe that crime is human
 conduct in violation of the criminal
 law, we can easily identify criminal
 behavior from non-criminal
  Carol Carr
 The woman, Carol Carr, 64, killed her sons,
  Michael R. Scott, 42, and Andy B. Scott, 41, in a
  nursing home
 Both men were in the advanced stages of
  Huntington's disease and were bedridden and
  unable to communicate.
 The disease, a degenerative nerve disorder that
  causes involuntary body movement, dementia
  and death, killed their father, Ms. Carr's first
  husband.
Carol Carr
 ''What she did was illegal, but also what she
  did was moral: she stopped the suffering of
  these children,'' her lawyer, Lee Sexton, said.
Unusual behaviors?
 Keeping poop in show boxes
Emile Durkheim (1895)
 Made three specific claims about the nature
   of crime:
1. Crime is normal
2. Crime is inevitable
3. Crime is useful
Crime is normal
 As normal as birth and marriage
 Crimes occur in all societies
 They are closely tied to the facts of collective
  life
 Crime rates tend to increase as societies
  evolve from lower to higher phases
Kitty Genovese of Kew Gardens,
New York
 In 1964, a 29-year-old Kitty cried out for help
  from her neighbors when an assailant
  stabbed her twice in the back.
 News reports afterwards suggested that 38
  neighbors heard or saw some of what
  happened that night.
 Everyone feels that someone else will do
  something or that someone is better
  equipped to respond
Crime is normal
 Crime is functional for society
 By punishing criminals, society reaffirms it
  own values
 If crimes were not committed, then the values
  of society would become blurred
 If there is no punishment, then there would be
  no way of reestablishing the values that the
  crime offends
    Crime is inevitable

 No society can ever be entirely
    rid of crime
   Imagine a community of saints in a perfect and
    exemplary monastery
   Faults that appear venial to the ordinary person will
    arouse the same scandal as does normal crime
   Absolute conformity to rules is impossible
   Each member in society faces variation in
    background, education, heredity, social influences
Crime is useful

   Crime is indispensable to the
    normal evolution of law and morality
   Crime often is a symptom of individual
    originality and a preparation for
    changes in society
   Rosa Parks (was a criminal) is a hero
    now
   Her simple act of protest galvanized
    America's civil rights revolution
Three perspectives on crime
 The Consensus View of Crime
 The Conflict View of Crime
 The Interactionist View of Crime
The Consensus View of Crime
 Consensus = agreement
 Crimes are behaviors believed to be
  repugnant (repulsive) to all elements of
  society
 Substantive criminal law – written code that
  defines crimes and their punishments
 This code reflects the values, beliefs, and
  opinions of society’s mainstream
 Concept of ideal legal system
Legalistic definition
 Crime is human conduct in violation of the
  criminal laws of state, the federal
  government, or a local jurisdiction that has
  the power to make such laws
 Some activities are not crimes even though
  they are immoral (watching pornography,
  torturing animals, creating poor working
  conditions)
 No law= No crime
Domestic Violence
 Twenty-five years ago, police, prosecutors,
  and judges did not view domestic abuse
  (rape and battering) as real crime but rather
  as private matter where the woman to blame
 No law = no crime
Nike

Up to fifty percent of workers
 cannot drink water or go to the toilet
 when they want
A quarter of workers receive less than the
legal minimum wage, even though Nike
makes huge profits
“Abusive treatment", physical and verbal, is
exercised in more than a quarter of its south
Asian plants
Poor working conditions - Crime?
 For many years, human rights groups have
  attacked Nike for the low pay and terrible
  working conditions, and for the use of child
  labour
 Over half of its employees in Asia work more
  than sixty hours a week and have no day off
Conflict View of Crime
 Powerful groups of people label selected
  undesirable forms of behavior as illegal
 Powerful individuals use their power to
  establish laws and sanctions against less
  powerful persons and groups
 Official statistics indicate that crime rates in
  inner-city, high-poverty areas are higher than
  those in suburban areas
 Self-reports of prison inmates show that
  prisoners are members of the lower class
Conflict View of Crime

 Crime of inequality includes a lot of behaviors
  that are omitted by legalistic definition
 Crime is a political concept used to protect
  powerful people
 Crimes of power (price fixing, economic
  crimes, unsafe working conditions, nuclear
  waste products, war-making, domestic
  violence, etc)
'‘Eco-mafia''
 The developing South (particularly African
  countries like Somalia, Sudan, Eritrea, Algeria
  and Mozambique) has become the dump for
  hundreds of thousands of tonnes of
  radioactive waste from the world's rich
  countries
 A colossal business which is linked to money
  laundering and gunrunning
Nuclear waste drums
found by Greenpeace

 IIlegal dumps - among the largest in the world
  - in Somalia, where workers handle the
  radioactive waste without any kind of
  safeguard or protective gear - not even
  gloves
 The workers do not know what they are
  handling, and if one of them dies, the family is
  persuaded to keep quiet with a small bit of
  cash
Interactionist View of Crime
 This view takes a smaller scale view of society and
  social order and analyses small or medium scale
  social interactions
 The main idea behind the interactionist approach to
  deviance is that the definition of what is deviant is
  socially negotiated
 We will discuss the fact that definition of crime differs
  from one culture to another and also across time
 It also differs according to where you are and with
  whom at any given moment.
Example
 Imagine that a young male of 18 is walking
  home late one night through the city streets
  singing at the top of his lungs and weaving
  about in the road
 The police are called and the young man is
  taken to the police station
 When he gets there he explains that earlier
  that day he has been accepted for a place at
  Cambridge University and he had been out
  with his friends to celebrate
Example
 He has no previous police record. His father
  is the local GP (General Practitioner)
 The police call his father who arrives looking
  rather embarrassed. He apologizes to the
  police and they have a little joke together
  about young men and ‘boys will be boys’
 The young man is sent home with a mild
  warning and the suggestion that he won't feel
  very well in the morning.
Another Scenario
 A young male of 18 is walking home late one night through the
    city streets singing at the top of his lungs
   The police are called and the young man is taken to the police
    station
   When he gets there he explains that earlier that day he has
    been out with his friends to celebrate birthday
   He has no previous police record
   When asked for his address and telephone number the police
    realize that he lives in a notorious housing estate that has a high
    rate of criminal activity.
   The police call his father who arrives looking not very
    embarrassed. He apologizes to the police but they are
    unimpressed
   The boy is charged with breach of the peace
Howard Becker (1966)
 “It is not act itself, but the reactions to the act,
  that make something deviant”
 People in different social groups/societies
  react differently to the same behavior
 Moreover, within the same society at a given
  time the perception of deviance varies by
  class, gender, race, and age
Deviance is commonplace
 We are all deviant from time to time
 Each of us violates common social norms in
  certain situations
 Being late for class is categorized as deviant
  act
 Dressing too casually for a formal wedding
Relativity of crime
 Space
 Time
 Social context
Adultery is crime
Saudi Arabia, the
United Arab Emirates,
the Sudan, and some of
the northern states of Nigeria practice a very
strict form of Sharia law
Sharia law requires that married or divorced
persons found guilty of Zina (adultery) be
executed by stoning
Sati tradition
 Within the Indian culture there is a custom in
  which a woman burns herself either on the
  funeral pyre of her deceased husband or by
  herself with a momento after his death
 Proof of her loyalty to husband
Prostitution

 Prostitution legalized in Netherlands from October 1,
    2000
   Prostitutes have the right to hygienic working
    conditions and security in the workplace
   They must pay taxes
   Can have social insurance, be paid sick leave, and
    receive a pension if they work for a brothel or own a
    company
   According to estimates published by the de Graaf
    Foundation, some 25,000 people work as prostitutes
    in the Netherlands.
Prostitutions in the USA
 A federal law against prostitution concentrate
  on the prohibition of crossing state or
  international boundaries for the purpose of
  engaging in sex for pay
 In selected counties in Nevada prostitution is
  not criminalized
Social Context of crime
 Crime is socially constructed (Burger, 1968)
 An criminal act can be the same but the
  interpretation of it can be different
The vocabulary of Homicide
 Murder is the name for legally unjustified, intentional
  homicide (legal and moral meanings)
 Execution is the name for justified homicide (when
  terrorists kill their enemies)
 Journalist Ambrose Bierce: “Homicide is the slaying
  of one human being by another. There are four kinds
  of homicide: felonious, excusable, justifiable, and
  praiseworthy, but it makes no great difference slain
  whether he fell by one kind or another-the
  classification is for the purposes of the lawyers”.
Vocabulary of homicide
 Debate about abortion
 Those who oppose call it murder
 Those who favor legal access to abortion
  speak of “terminating pregnancy” or
  “removing tissue”
 Different moralities-different vocabularies
 Crime is socially constructed?
What is deviance?
 Deviance involves the violation of group
  norms which may or may not be formalized
  into law
 Some examples: criminals, alcoholics,
  people with tattoos, compulsive gamblers,
  and the mentally ill
Deviance
 Deviation from norm is not always negative:
 A member of an exclusive club who speaks
  out against its traditional policy of excluding
  women, or poor people
 Police officer who speaks against corruption
  within the department
Deviance
 Deviant behavior is human activity that is
  statistically different from the average
 Deviance and crime are concepts that do not
  always easily mesh
 Some forms of deviance are not violations of
  the criminal law and the reverse is true as
  well
Relationship between crime and deviance




         ILLEGAL   ILLEGAL   DEVIANT
                      And
                   DEVIANT

								
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