The Dead by ert554898


									Views of the Afterlife   Colin Hershey
   Romans had a short life expectancy
     Disease, wars, lack of medicine

   Funerals an essential part of Roman life
     Believed proper burial was necessary for Afterlife
     Reflected the deceased’s place in the family and
     showed importance of the surviving family
   Many felt the dead were capable of
    influencing the lives of the living
     To ensure good fortune, gifts and offerings were
      made to the deceased
   Range of popular views concerning the
    existence of an afterlife.
     Is there an afterlife?
     What is it like?
   Souls thought to go to Underworld
     Not heaven or hell, unless denied entrance by the gods
     and forced to wander in limbo for eternity

   Gifts, offerings and celebrations but also evidence
    of bodies being weighted down and decapitated.
     Thought to prevent deceased from haunting the living
     Contradiction?
   Pagan burials often included goods to come
    in handy during afterlife
     Dependent on wealth of surviving family
     Vessels for food/drink, shoes, lamps
   Number of burials had a gold coin in mouth
     Known as fee for the underworld ferryman Charon
   Items designed to help deceased have a
    successful journey to the Underworld
   Believed soul would go underground to the
    river Styx
     Had to cross river with Charon – gold coin
     If body did not have gold coin, soul forced to stay
     for 100 years before being allowed to cross

   Seen in the mythological story of Aeneas who
    goes to see his father Anchises
A soul being brought to Charon who would ferry souls
across the river to Hades (god of the underworld) and
would then be judged by 3 kings. Dependent on sins.
   Organized by professional undertakers
   Funerals for the poor were small and simple
   Wealthier people had elaborate and
    illustrious burials
     Procession through the streets of Rome
     Members of the family wore masks of their
     Mourning women, musicians, dancers and mimes
      were used at funeral
      ▪ Those in grieving would neglect to wash, change clothes or comb
        their hair

   Following 3rd century –           Body cremated on a pyre
    main burial method                Gifts and belongings also
   Burials located outside of         burned with the deceased
    town, except children who         Ashes then placed in a
    were buried near home              container – urn, chest,
   Bodies were protected by           pottery
    a sack or blanket if poor or
    stone/coffin for the rich
   Embalming bodies was
    also popular
   Major shift from cremation to inhumation as
    the chief method of burial around 3rd century
     Signifies a heightened belief in the afterlife?
     Or simply a desire to build gaudy monuments for
     the rich?

    o Cremation declined drastically in the 5th century
     as Christians and Jews began to object the
   Marked with tombstones – much variation
   Had inscriptions, but often wore away
   Tombs of various sizes have been found
     Most likely wealthy class
     Multiple burials
   Dead granted “hero status”
     Occupied a temple where public could enter

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