Ancient India  by ert554898


									 Himalayas, Hindu Kush,
and Karakorum
mountains provide
 Indo-Gangetic Plain
 Monsoons
 7000 B.C.E.– Agriculture
& domesticated animals
 3200 B.C.E.- Farming
villages along the Indus
 2500 B.C.E.- Cities built
of brick laid on grid
 Harappan Planning
       Mud-brick platform
       Brick walls
       Streets in grid system
       Lanes separate rows of
Click on here for a tour of the Indus River Valley Ancient Indus Civilization 90 Slide
   Language
     400 symbols, but can’t
   Culture
     Uniform, no social divisions
     Animals important
     Pottery, sculptures
   Religion
     Theocracy
     Priests linked to rulers
     Religious artifacts reveal links
      to Hinduism
   Trade
     Evidence of trade with
   Irrigation
   http://www.mohenjodar
 1500 B.C.E – Aryans invade the
Indus River Valley and northern
 Harappan civilization destroyed
possibly due to invasion, social
decay, natural phenomenon
 Early Aryans
     Indo-European nomads from Siberia
      and steppes of Central Asia
 Sanskrit
 Use of iron
 Led by a chieftain called a raja
(prince) that was later
transformed into kings called
maharajas (great princes)
     Prince did not have absolute power
      and was required to follow dharma
      (laws that set behavior standards)
 Memorization & recitation
of epics.
 Vedas
     Four collections:
         Songs/hymns
         Melodies
         Ceremonial religion
         History and sociology
Arrival of Alexander the
Great, 326 BCE
 Highly centralized and
authoritarian government
     Provices ruled by governors
 Starts a religious
 Unites the Indus and Ganges
valley into a formidable empire.
 Varna (caste) – reflected
informal division of labor and
rigid social classification for
occupation and status
     Brahmins – priestly caste
     Kshatriyas - warriors
     Vaisya (commoner) – merchant
     Sudras – peasants or artisans who
      were the bulk of the Indian
     Pariahs (untouchables) – not
      considered part of the caste
      system; groups outside of Indian
 Daily Life in Ancient                   The Economy
India                                       Most Aryans were
     Family the basic unit of               farmers
      society                                Iron plow
     Commemorative rites to                 Many were sharecroppers
      ancestors                               and landless
     Father-son relationships              Developed trade and
     Males inherit property                 manufacturing
     Women subordinate to
      Sati – wife throws herself on
       the funeral pyre of her
       deceased husband
   Literature                             Science
     Rigveda – hymns used in                Astronomy
      religious ceremonies                   Elements of earth, air,
     Mahabharata                             fire, water, and ether
       War of cousins for control of        Quality of textiles
        the kingdom – interwoven
        are the legends of Hindu             Massive stone pillars
         Moral confrontation and
     Ramayana – triumph of
      good over evil
 A great conqueror, first to
unite the Indian
 Came to hate war
     Converted to Buddhism
 Believed in ahimsa and
cooperation between
 Erected several stupas,
founded Buddhist
monasteries, and forbade
the brutal slaughter of
 Empire declines with his
 Mauryan Empire went into decline after the
death of Asoka
 Last Mauryan ruler overthrown in 183 BCE
 A number of new kingdoms sprung up
 Weakness of the Mauryas was glorifying warfare
for the king and aristocracy

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