aplication software by eiiqh

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                                                    Software Basics
                                        •  Software: The instructions that a computer
     Applications Software:                interprets and executes (perhaps after
                                           several levels of translation). A named set
     Getting the Work Done                 of such instructions to perform a specific
                                           task(s) is called a program.
                   Chapter 3            •  Note that some programs are in firmware
                                          –  Ex: the system BIOS



                                                       Chapter 3 Computer Software   2




       Karakteristik Software                      Tipe Software
                                                  Custom Software
•  User-friendly
•  Easy                                  •  Written by programmers
•  Intuitive                             •  Takes a lot of time to write and test
•  Minimum training and documentation    •  When specifications are unique
   needed to use




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         Tipe Software                                   Tipe Software berdasar jenis nya
    Packaged or Commercial
                                                         •  System software (ex: defragmenting your
•  Sold in stores, catalogs, or downloadable
                                                            disk)
   from the WWW
                                                         •  Application software (word, excel)
•  Purchased from software publishers
                                                         •  Operating Systems
•  Must be installed
   –  Standard or custom installation                    •  Operating systems utilities (such as
   –  The setup process copies some of all of the           compilers)
      software to the hard disk
   –  May require the CD-ROM to be in the drive to run   •  This chapter is mainly about programs that
                                                            you might buy
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 Cara Mendapatkan Software                                                  Freeware

•  Freeware                                              •  Freeware is copyrighted
   –  Free to all                                          –  License allows user to use, copy, and give away
   –  Copyrighted                                             the software
   –  Distributed in machine-readable format               –  Does not allow user to modify and/or sell any
•  Shareware                                                  part of the software
   –  Freely distributed for a trial period
   –  Pay a nominal fee to register with the
      author

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 Cara Mendapatkan Software                                 Open Source Software
•  Public-domain software
  –  Un-copyrighted                                 •  Contains the program instructions
  –  Dapat digunakan atau diubah tanpa pembatasan     –  Source code (in original untranslated form)
  –  Umumnya dikembangkan di bawah hibah              –  User can modify code easily
     pemerintah
•  Open-source                                      •  Ex: Linux, FreeBSD, Openoffice.org
  –  Free to all                                      –  sourceforge.net provides open source software
  –  Source code is distributed
  –  Dapat digunakan atau diubah                    •  License must be included in redistribution
  –  Popular under the LINUX OS

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  Proprietary and public domain                              Proprietary Software
                                                    •  Software is “owned” by person or company
•  If software if propriety, the developer has      •  Typically commercial, copyrighted software
   kept some rights to it.
                                                      –  Sold under a license agreement
•  Public domain software is available for all
                                                    •  Sometimes distributed as demoware
   users in any form
                                                      –  User can try it (perhaps with limited
  –  Has been specifically placed in the public          functionality) for a trial period
     domain
                                                    •  Shareware
  –  Any copyright (or copyleft) has been
     relinquished                                     –  fully functional, but fees may be optional
                Chapter 3 Computer Software   11                    Chapter 3 Computer Software   12




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        Acquiring Software                          Purchasing Commercial Software
                                                                        Individuals
•  Commercial software                               •  Software warehouse store
   –  Banyak Digunakan
   –  Copyrighted                                    •  Mail order
   –  Umumnya mahal                                  •  Electronic software distribution
   –  May not be copied without permission of
      the manufacturer




           Buying Software                          Purchasing Commercial Software
•  What software must a computer user have?
                                                                       Businesses
  –  Operating System (Windows 7, UNIX, Linux)      •    Volume discount
  –  Browser (Internet Explorer, Firefox, Chrome)   •    Site license
  –  E-mail client (Outlook)                        •    Network versions
  –  Word processing software (Word)                •    Application Service Provide (ASP)
                                                         –  Software is setup and maintained by ASP
  –  Security Software (Norton’s)
                                                         –  Access the software over the Internet
  –  Graphics viewer (Paint)                             –  Pay per use
  –  CD/DVD readers and burners                          –  Saves the expense of installing and maintaining
                                                            the software
  –  Some performance software
               Chapter 3 Computer Software   15




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     Examples of Software Applications                      Examples of Utility Software
                                                         •  System utilities
•    Spreadsheet
•    Accounting & finance
                                                            –  Norton SystemWorks, System Mechanic
•    Mathematics modeling                                •  Security related
•    Statistical tools
•    Entertainment
                                                            –  Antivirus and malware protection
•    Data management                                           •  Norton AntiVirus and MacAfee VirusScan
•    Graphics                                               –  Encryption (PGP), authentication (Kerberos),
•    Music
                                                               spam filtering software
•    Video
•    Reference                                           •  File utilities
•    Word Processing                                        –  Adobe Reader converts files to printable form
                      Chapter 3 Computer Software   17                       Chapter 3 Computer Software   18




                    Widget/gadget                                       Device drivers
                                                         •  Device drivers are software that are
•  Specialized utility program typically placed             provided by device manufacturers to
   on desktop or sidebar to perform tasks such              communicate with peripheral (hardware)
   as display dates, times, calendar, calculator,           through its controller (mostly firmware)
   temperature, etc.                                        –  Device drivers receive requests from processor
•  In Windows search bar, write “gadget”                       for read or write and send request to controller
      –  Pick a gadget to install on your desktop           –  Receive request from controller when service is
         •  Left click/ add                                    completed or fails and notify processor


                      Chapter 3 Computer Software   19                       Chapter 3 Computer Software   20




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           Document Handling                                         Desktop publishing sofware
•  Example: Word Processing
  –  Window wrap-around                                          •  Word processing has capability of multiple
  –  Insert and delete data at any part of document                 columns and page layout features
  –  Spell-check, edit, format before printing                   •  Adobe InDesign also has features for
  –  Send document through fax or email
                                                                    graphic design and professional output
  –  Insert tables, shapes, graphics
  –  Use different fonts, point sizes, subscript, superscript,
     other character sets, change margins, spacings
  –  Search
  –  Save as (convert to) html format
                   Chapter 3 Computer Software   21                              Chapter 3 Computer Software   22




       Web authoring software                                                   Spreadsheets

•  Word lets you save in html format                             •  A spreadsheet is organized into rows and
•  Deamweaver, Amaya, iWeb, FrontPage                               columns of numbers (and other data)
   have additional capabities                                      –  Formulas can be based on cell references
  –  Assemble graphical elements                                   –  Some operations are built in (+, -, ^, *)
                                                                   –  Built-in functions (sum, log, sine)
                                                                   –  Graphs
                                                                   –  I use Excel for grade calculation

                   Chapter 3 Computer Software   23                              Chapter 3 Computer Software   24




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          Statistical software                                Money Management
•  SAS, SPSS, PASW Statistics help in               •  Personal finance
   analyzing and summarizing large data sets           –  Intuit Quicken
•  Graphing capability as well to assist               –  Microsoft Money Essentials
   analysis                                            –  Do budgeting, bill paying, fund transfer
                                                          between banks, check balances
                                                       –  Keep track of income/ expenditures for tax
                                                          purposes


               Chapter 3 Computer Software   25                     Chapter 3 Computer Software   26




      Tax preparation software                                 Database Software

•  Calculate taxes due using latest rules, charts   •  Store and integrate data (using files)
•  Optional                                            –  Helps user organize, consistently update,
  –  Automatically transfer data from previously          generate reports, answer queries
     year                                              –  Microsoft Access, Oracle, MySQL are popular
  –  Automatically transfer data from personal            relational databases
     financial software                             •  Data Mining takes static databases and uses
  –  Automatically file on-line                        A.I. to find patterns in the data

               Chapter 3 Computer Software   27                     Chapter 3 Computer Software   28




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           Graphics software                                   Presentation Software

•  Paint, Corel Painter are examples of                •  PowerPoint, iWork Keynote
   graphics software                                   •  Graphical tools, spell check, search, font
•  Adobe Photoshop is photo editing software              and point size, colors
•  3-D graphics software - you create a frame;         •  Animation software
   the graphics program adds surface texture
  –  AutoCAD designed for architects and engineers
     to create blueprints and product specification
  –  Home graphics for laying out your kitchen, etc.
               Chapter 3 Computer Software   29                       Chapter 3 Computer Software   30




            Music Software                                                   Others

•  Sound recorder                                      •  Video editing
•  Audio editing                                       •  Educational software
•  Converting sound to MP3 or other audio              •  Entertainment software
   format for specific MP3 device                        –  Games
•  Software synthesizers for various types of          •  Business software
   musical instruments                                   –  Payroll
                                                         –  Accounting software

               Chapter 3 Computer Software   31                       Chapter 3 Computer Software   32




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 What utilities should be bought?                               Issues in buying utilities
•  Are utilities are included with the system
     •  Do these have sufficient quality & capability?   •  Third party vendors may offer utilities with
  –  Windows 7 includes Internet Explorer                   more functionality (possibly free) or utilities
     •  I recommend downloading another (free) browser      that are not on your system
  –  Windows Explorer for file & folder mgmt             •  Sometimes you may want duplication of
  –  WordPad for basic file creation, text entry            service (ex: browser)
     •  A Word Processor with more capabilities is
        recommended
  –  Backup – buy an External hard drive with
     software that automatically tracks changes
                 Chapter 3 Computer Software   33                        Chapter 3 Computer Software   34




              Software Suites                                     System Requirements
•  Application programs of different utility are
                                                         •  All software that you purchase (and
   bundled and purchased together
                                                            probably the web site of those you
•  These programs frequently can use each                   download) contain minimum requirements
   other’s data                                             –  Operating Systems (explain why)
•  Application programs of the same software                –  Processor (or equivalent)
   suite have a similar interface                           –  Memory
•  Cost to buy an entire suite is less than                 –  Hard Disk Space
   purchasing separate programs                             –  Network Protocol & connection (if appropriate)
                 Chapter 3 Computer Software   35                        Chapter 3 Computer Software   36




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              Counterfeiting                                                 Copying Software

 •  Software is copied onto CD-ROMS / DVD-                          •  Legitimate reasons
    ROMS                                                               –  Backup copy
 •  Package duplicates the original                                    –  Copy to hard disk
 •  Sold in flea markets or small stores                            •  Illegitimate reasons
 •  Cheaper price                                                      –  Obtain software without paying for it
 •  Occurs more overseas




         Software Copyrights                                                  Software Licensing
•  If software is copyright protected, purchaser                   •  Software license is a legal contract that
   CANNOT sell or distribute copies                                   typically restricts software use
•  Purchaser can copy and install onto his own                       –  Site license, multiple-user license, concurrent-
   hard disk                                                            use license, single-user license specify how
                                                                        many people can use the software – perhaps at
•  Typically can make a copy for backup                                 the same time
   purposes                                                          –  Shrink-wrap license becomes effective when
•  Parts of software can be used for reviews                            you open the shrink wrap
   and teaching                                                      –  End-user license agreement (EULA)
        –  @ 2011 copyright notice (not necessary for copyright)        •  User clicks on a designated box /button
                  Chapter 3 Computer Software      39                               Chapter 3 Computer Software   40




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   What to look for in a license                                 Software Piracy
                                                      •  Making illegal copies of copyrighted software
•  Restrictions on use
                                                      •  Why the fuss?
  –  How many machines will it cover?                   –  Very easy to duplicate software vs. a text book
  –  Does license have to be renewed (and paid for)     –  Software company may lose hundreds of dollars
     repeatedly?                                           per pirated copy
  –  Check license and consider alternatives.         •  Prosecution
                                                        –  Yes: Small-medium sized business who purchase
                                                           a few copies and distribute to many users
                                                        –  No: Individual users who probably would not have
                                                           purchased software on their own anyway

               Chapter 3 Computer Software   41




        Computers and People                              Computer Professionals

Users                                                 •  Management Information Systems (MIS)
•  Any individual who                                 •  Computer Information Systems (CIS)
   operates a computer
                                                      •  Computing Services
   to accomplish a task
•  Home                                               •  Information Services

•  Business                                           •  Information Technology (IT)




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     Computer Professionals                                        Operating systems
•  Data entry operators – key data into a machine-
   readable format                                      •  All computer systems have an operating
•  Computer operators – monitor the computer
                                                           system. Currently, there are three dominate
•  Librarians – catalog and keep secure the disks
•  Computer programmers – write, test, implement, and      typical user operating systems.
   maintain programs
•  Systems analysts – plan and design computer
   systems                                                –  Macintosh OS,
•  Network manager – oversees the network                 –  Microsoft Windows OS,
•  Chief information officer (CIO) – department
   manager; makes strategic decisions relating to the     –  Linux.
   flow of information in the organization




           Product Activation                            Portable software and live disks

•  Most software requires activation (typically         •  Users runs software off a disk or flash drive
   on the Internet), during which product key             –  Software is not copied to hard disk
   is entered                                             –  As machine is turned off, all temporary files are
                                                             erased
   –  Ensures that the software package is not
      installed on multiple computers (unless license
      permits)
•  Registration may be done at the same time

                 Chapter 3 Computer Software   47                       Chapter 3 Computer Software   48




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                               Web apps                                                              Uninstalling software

   •  Application software is in the “cloud” –                                        •  There may be a specific file included in
      some distant server (s)                                                            your program named something like
        –  Users execute remote code                                                      –  Uninstall.exe
        –  Multiple users from remote locations can                                   •  In Windows, place, in the “search programs
           collaborate on projects                                                       and file” box,
   •  Some web apps require downloading a                                                 –  uninstall programs
      client-side program
   •  Some utilize browser software
                            Chapter 3 Computer Software        49                                             Chapter 3 Computer Software   50




                                    Terms                                                                Disk capacities
•  A: Floppy disk   C: Local disk D: Local disk (partition)                          •  Floppy:                 1.4 MB
•  RAM = Random Access Memory. The thinking space available to a computer to
   use while performing operations. The space is emptied out when the computer is    •  Hard disk:    20 GB – 160 GB
   turned off.

•  DIRECTORY = An organizational structure on disks to file management easier.       •  CD                      700 - 800 MB
   Directories also become a local region for the computer to hunt for other files
   related to the current file.                                                      •  DVD                     4.7 GB
•  DOCUMENT = A file created using an application. The file is only useful using
   the application that created it or a similar application that can convert it.                                17 GB

•  APPLICATION = A program that allows a computer to perform a certain function.     1 KILOBYTE = 1000 BYTE
                                                                                     1 MEGABYTE = 1000 KB
                                                                                     1 GIGABYTE = 1000 MB




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                                                          Name, save, retrieve, revise a document
Backup

                                                     •    Name a document (!)
                                                     •    Save a document
Floppies, CDs                                        •    Retrieve a document from floppy disk
                                                     •    Retrieve a document from hard disk
                                                     •    Re-name a document
                                                     •    Edit and re-save a document
                                                     •    Print a document
                                                     •    Create and name folders
                                                     •    Save, open, and place documents inside folders




                                                     Install/reinstall and update system software
                Applications                                           and drivers

•  Open and work with more than one
   application at a time

    –  To switch between them for Windows: click
       on the application at the "TASKBAR" down on
       the screen

    –  Alt &TAB button




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                      Internet Applications                                                                     FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
BROWSERS                                                                                                •  The simplest and most secure way to exchange files over the Internet.
                                                                                                        •     FTP Client is the software that is designed to transfer files back-and-
   –  Netscape                                                                                               forth between two computers over the Internet. It needs to be installed
                                                                                                             on the computer and can only be used with a live connection to the
                                                                                                             Internet. (Browsers, WS-Ftp, SSH, Cute-Ftp,...)

   –  Internet Explorer


                                                 http: Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
                                                 edu: Education (gov, org, com, ...)                           PC                     ARF


                http://www.math.metu.edu.tr




                                        Viruses
•  Viruses are programs that reproduce themselves into the files of your computer
•  Anti-virus software and automatic update
    –  Mcafee Virus Scan
   Configuration of Automatic Mcafee Virus Update via FTP http://www.math.metu.edu.tr/department/doc/
   virus/virus_update.html

•  Current security patches applied to operating system and applications.
•  Do not open any unexpected attachments that are e-mailed to you. (Particularly
   “.exe” files.)




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