Good Practices in Food Manufactures by andreasrahardja


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									Handout MK. Pengawasan Mutu

                   Good Practices
                 in Food Industries

                          Inneke Hantoro
      Prerequisites for Food Safety:
•   Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs)
•   Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) or
•   Good Hygiene Practices (GHPs)
•   Other GPs (GTP, GDP, GRP, etc)

        GAP        GHP           GMP
 Good Agricultural Practices
• A collection of principles to apply for on-farm
  production (pre-planting, planting, harvest) and
  post-harvest (sorting, packing and storage
  operations), resulting in safe and healthy food and
  non-food agricultural products, while taking into
  account economical, social and environmental
       Good Agricultural Practices
• GAPs may be applied to a wide
  range of farming system and
  at different scales.

• They are applied through
  sustainable agricultural
  methods, such as
    Integrated pest
    Integrated fertilizer
    Conservation agriculture.
Good Agricultural Practices
              • GAPs rely on four principles:

                   Economically and efficiently
                    produce sufficient (food
                    security), safe (food safety)
                    and nutritious food (food
                   Sustain and enhance natural
                   Maintain viable farming
                    enterprises and contribute to
                    sustainable livelihoods;
                   Meet cultural and social
                    demands of society.
GAPs focus on:
• Soils
   Maintaining “clean soil” reduces the risk of contaminating
    produce with illness-causing microorganisms found in soil
    during stages of growth and harvesting.
   Improper manure management and application can cause
    an increase in risks of product contamination.
   Although manure is a good fertilizer, all manure contains
• Water

   Water used for irrigation, cooling, processing, or for
    cleaning equipment and facilities should be free of
    microbial contaminants.
   Water quality and safety can be dependent on water
   Regularly testing water sources provides documentation
    that the water is not a source of contamination.
   The method and timing of water use also has an effect on
    its contribution to product contamination.
   Water quality becomes more important as harvest
    approaches and water contact with the product occurs or
• Hands

   Having “clean hands” refers to the human element
    involved in food safety during production and processing.
   The food producer and handler each have an important
    role in ensuring the safety and quality of foods grown and
   Poor hygiene and health, unclean clothing or shoes, or
    unsafe practices on the part of workers can threaten food
   Providing clean and appropriately stocked restroom and
    hand-washing facilities to field and processing employees
    helps prevent product contamination.
• Surfaces

   Produce items will have physical contact with
    many surfaces during harvest and processing.
   These may include harvest equipment and
    containers, transport bins, knives and other
    utensils, sorting and packaging tables, product
    packaging, and storage areas.
       GAP implementation covering:

• Water quality            • Worker health and
• Land history and           hygiene
  surrounding properties   • Tools and equipment
• Soil amendments          • Container and
• Field sanitation           packaging materials
• Pest control             • Transport
• Agricultural chemicals   • Post-harvest cooling
• Worker sanitation        • Storage
  facilities               • Product traceability

                                         (Sperber, 2005)
     Good Manufacturing Practices
• GMPs are applied as criteria    • GMPs describe the methods,
  to determine whether a            equipment, facilities, and
  food is adulterated (FDCA).       controls for producing
                                    processed food.
• That the food prepared and
  packed under unsanitary
  conditions where the food
  may become contaminated
  with filth, or where the food
  may be rendered injurious
  to human health
   Good Manufacturing Practices
• GMPs are guidelines for the production of safe food
• The umbrella GMPs address the basic sanitary
  requirements for food processing, handling and storage
   GHP
• The GMP regulations are generally principles identifying
  the problem areas of sanitation in the food industry.
• For performing GMPs, Standard Operating Procedure
  (SOP) and Sanitation Standard Operating Procedure
  (SSOP) are required.
           Range of Processor-Level Problems
          by Type of Food Safety Hazard Posed

Microbiological Safety   •Inefficient employee hygiene practices
                         •Ineffective training of employees
                         •Plant renovations
                         •Ineffective use of cleaning agents/disinfectants
                         •Lack of sanitary equipment design
                         •Reactive instead of routine maintenance
                         •Contamination of raw materials
                         •Post-processing contamination
Chemical Safety   •Raw material contamination with pesticides
                  •Spillage of pesticides
                  •Adding too much of an approved ingredient
                  •Raw material contamination with an allergen
                  •In-line cross-contamination with an allergen
                  •Cross-contamination from maintenance tools,
                   conveyor belts
                  •Older equipment (more difficult to clean)
                  •Raw material contamination with natural toxins
                  •Mycotoxin infestation due to drought, insect
                   damage, delayed harvesting, mechanical damage
                  •Corrosion of metal containers/equipment/ utensils
                  •Contamination with cleaner/sanitizer residue
Physical Safety   •Foreign matter in raw materials
                  •Poorly maintained equipment/lines
                  •Light fixture breakage
                  •Foreign matter introduction during storage

                                   Source: FDA, 2004
    Good Manufacturing Practices
• The food industry, and particularly the food processing sector, has
  relied on the use of GMPs in its efforts to ensure the safety of
  processed foods.
• Most of these GMPs are used by many national governments
  worldwide for monitoring the safety of consumer foods and for
  inspection of establishments that process, package, handle, and
  store foods.
• A good example of GMPs that are part of government regulations
  at the national level is the “Current Good Manufacturing Practice In
  Manufacturing, Packing, Or Holding Human Food” of the U.S. Code
  of Federal Regulations (CFR).
• The Current Good Manufacturing Practice can be considered the
  minimum criteria for the monitoring and inspection of food
  processing establishments by the U.S. Food and Drug
  Administration (FDA).
    Good Manufacturing Practices
• The recognized practices relating to food safety are described
  in the “Recommended International Code of Practice, General
  Principles of Food Hygiene” of the Codex Alimentarius
  Commission, Food and Agricultural Organization/World
  Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Food Standards Programme.
• These practices are covered in the following Sections of this
  standard :
   – Primary Production;
   – Establishment: Design And Facilities;
   – Control of Operation;
   – Establishment: Maintenance And Sanitation;
   – Establishment: Personal Hygiene;
   – Transportation;
   – Product Information and Consumer Awareness; and
   – Training.
   Good Manufacturing Practices
• Indonesia also has GMPs guidance, such as:
  for small scale food industry.
                 Current GMPs
Subpart A.   Definitions     Acid foods, adequate, batter,
                             blanching and etc.
             Current good    Criteria for determining adulteration.
             manufacturing   Food covered by specific GMP is also
             practices       covered by umbrella GMPs.
             Personnel       Requirements for: disease control,
                             cleanliness, education & training,
                             supervision of personnel with
                             regards to these requirements.
             Exclusions      Excluded operations (raw agricultural
                             FDA can issue special regulation to
                             cover excluded operations
Subpart B.      Plants and Grounds    Description of adequate maintenance
                                      of grounds
Buildings and
                                      Plant construction and design to
Facilities                            facilitate sanitary operations and
                Sanitary Operations   Requirements for:
                                      Cleaning/sanitizing of physical facilities,
                                      utensils & equipments
                                      Storage of cleaning & sanitizing
                                      Pest control
                                      Sanitation of contact surfaces
                                      Storage & handling of cleaned portable
                                      equipment & utensils
                Sanitary Facilities   Requirements for: water supply,
                and Controls          plumbing, sewage disposal, toilet
                                      facilities, hand washing facilities,
                                      rubbish disposal
Subpart C.        Equipment      Requirements for the design,
Equipment         and utensils   construction, and maintenance of
                                 equipment and utensils

Subpart E.     Processes and Delineates processes and controls for:
               controls      Raw materials and other ingredients
Production and
Process                      Manufacturing operations
                  Warehousing    Storage and transportation of food must
                  and            protect against contamination and
                  distribution   deterioration of the food and its
Subpart G.      FDA has established maximum defect
                action levels (DALs) for some natural or
Defect Action   unavoidable defects
Levels          Compliance with DALs does not excuse
                violation of 402 (a)(4)
                Food containing defects above DALs may
                not be mixed with other foods
GMP – Food Industry
• Example of equipment design

• A set of written instructions document a routine activity
  used by an organization (US. EPA, 2001).
• SOPs detail the work processes that are to be conducted.
• They document the way activities are to be performed to
  facilitate consistent performance to safety and quality
  system requirements.
• SOPs are intended to be specific.
• They assist an organization in maintaining their safety
  and quality control and in ensuring compliance with
• The procedures that must be followed in order to
  make sure that cleaning and sanitation activities are
  performed correctly.
• SSOPs is a key component of a safety plan.
• Involving the development of detailed descriptions
  of the cleaning procedures and sanitation operations
  that must be performed to prevent contamination or
  adulteration of the product.
• SSOPs also describe the frequency with which each
  procedure is to be conducted and identify the
  employee(s) responsible for the implementation and
  maintenance of each procedure.
• An SSOP usually includes:
   o Activity name
   o Place where it is performed
   o List of the equipment and material necessary to perform it
   o Frequency of performance
   o Approximate time to perform it
   o Responsible individual
   o Description of every step necessary to perform the procedure

• The SSOPs for an operational should detail the sanitation
  procedures to be used:
  1. Pre operational sanitation: cleaning the facilities,
     equipments and utensils prior to starting the operation
  2. Operational sanitation
        Good Hygiene Practice
• A guide for food manufacturers on
  compliance with food safety regulations
  (general food hygiene).
• GHP is prerequisite for GMP implementation.
GHP – Food Services
• Alli, I. 2004. Food Quality Assurance: Principles and Practices.
  CRC Press, Boca Raton.
• Swanson, B. G. (2003). Good Manufacturing Practices:
  Prerequisites for Food Safety. Food Safety Handbook.
  Schmidt, R.H. and Rodrick, G. E. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
• Da Cruz, A.G, Cenci, S. A. and Maia, M. C. A. (2005). Good
  agricultural practices in a Brazilian produce plant. Food
  Control. (inpress).
• FDA. (2004). Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) for the
  21st Century – Food Processing.
• von Bockelmann, B. and von Bockelmann, I. (1998). Long-Life
  Products: Heat-Treated, Aseptically Packed: A Guide to
  Quality. Sweden.

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