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Find out all information regarding good practices in food manufactures
Find out all information regarding good practices in food manufactures
Handout MK. Pengawasan Mutu 2011/2012 Good Practices in Food Industries Inneke Hantoro Prerequisites for Food Safety: • Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) • Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) or • Good Hygiene Practices (GHPs) • Other GPs (GTP, GDP, GRP, etc) HACCP Other GAP GHP GMP GPs Good Agricultural Practices • A collection of principles to apply for on-farm production (pre-planting, planting, harvest) and post-harvest (sorting, packing and storage operations), resulting in safe and healthy food and non-food agricultural products, while taking into account economical, social and environmental sustainability. Good Agricultural Practices • GAPs may be applied to a wide range of farming system and at different scales. • They are applied through sustainable agricultural methods, such as Integrated pest management Integrated fertilizer management Conservation agriculture. Good Agricultural Practices • GAPs rely on four principles: Economically and efficiently produce sufficient (food security), safe (food safety) and nutritious food (food quality); Sustain and enhance natural resources; Maintain viable farming enterprises and contribute to sustainable livelihoods; Meet cultural and social demands of society. GAPs focus on: • Soils Maintaining “clean soil” reduces the risk of contaminating produce with illness-causing microorganisms found in soil during stages of growth and harvesting. Improper manure management and application can cause an increase in risks of product contamination. Although manure is a good fertilizer, all manure contains pathogens. • Water Water used for irrigation, cooling, processing, or for cleaning equipment and facilities should be free of microbial contaminants. Water quality and safety can be dependent on water sources. Regularly testing water sources provides documentation that the water is not a source of contamination. The method and timing of water use also has an effect on its contribution to product contamination. Water quality becomes more important as harvest approaches and water contact with the product occurs or increases. • Hands Having “clean hands” refers to the human element involved in food safety during production and processing. The food producer and handler each have an important role in ensuring the safety and quality of foods grown and processed. Poor hygiene and health, unclean clothing or shoes, or unsafe practices on the part of workers can threaten food safety. Providing clean and appropriately stocked restroom and hand-washing facilities to field and processing employees helps prevent product contamination. • Surfaces Produce items will have physical contact with many surfaces during harvest and processing. These may include harvest equipment and containers, transport bins, knives and other utensils, sorting and packaging tables, product packaging, and storage areas. GAP implementation covering: • Water quality • Worker health and • Land history and hygiene surrounding properties • Tools and equipment • Soil amendments • Container and • Field sanitation packaging materials • Pest control • Transport • Agricultural chemicals • Post-harvest cooling • Worker sanitation • Storage facilities • Product traceability (Sperber, 2005) Good Manufacturing Practices • GMPs are applied as criteria • GMPs describe the methods, to determine whether a equipment, facilities, and food is adulterated (FDCA). controls for producing processed food. • That the food prepared and packed under unsanitary conditions where the food may become contaminated with filth, or where the food may be rendered injurious to human health Good Manufacturing Practices • GMPs are guidelines for the production of safe food products. • The umbrella GMPs address the basic sanitary requirements for food processing, handling and storage GHP • The GMP regulations are generally principles identifying the problem areas of sanitation in the food industry. • For performing GMPs, Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) and Sanitation Standard Operating Procedure (SSOP) are required. Range of Processor-Level Problems by Type of Food Safety Hazard Posed Microbiological Safety •Inefficient employee hygiene practices •Ineffective training of employees •Biofilms •Plant renovations •Ineffective use of cleaning agents/disinfectants •Lack of sanitary equipment design •Reactive instead of routine maintenance •Contamination of raw materials •Post-processing contamination Chemical Safety •Raw material contamination with pesticides •Spillage of pesticides •Adding too much of an approved ingredient •Raw material contamination with an allergen •In-line cross-contamination with an allergen •Cross-contamination from maintenance tools, conveyor belts •Older equipment (more difficult to clean) •Raw material contamination with natural toxins •Mycotoxin infestation due to drought, insect damage, delayed harvesting, mechanical damage •Corrosion of metal containers/equipment/ utensils •Contamination with cleaner/sanitizer residue Physical Safety •Foreign matter in raw materials •Poorly maintained equipment/lines •Light fixture breakage •Foreign matter introduction during storage Source: FDA, 2004 Good Manufacturing Practices • The food industry, and particularly the food processing sector, has relied on the use of GMPs in its efforts to ensure the safety of processed foods. • Most of these GMPs are used by many national governments worldwide for monitoring the safety of consumer foods and for inspection of establishments that process, package, handle, and store foods. • A good example of GMPs that are part of government regulations at the national level is the “Current Good Manufacturing Practice In Manufacturing, Packing, Or Holding Human Food” of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). • The Current Good Manufacturing Practice can be considered the minimum criteria for the monitoring and inspection of food processing establishments by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Good Manufacturing Practices • The recognized practices relating to food safety are described in the “Recommended International Code of Practice, General Principles of Food Hygiene” of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Food Standards Programme. • These practices are covered in the following Sections of this standard : – Primary Production; – Establishment: Design And Facilities; – Control of Operation; – Establishment: Maintenance And Sanitation; – Establishment: Personal Hygiene; – Transportation; – Product Information and Consumer Awareness; and – Training. Good Manufacturing Practices • Indonesia also has GMPs guidance, such as: KEPUTUSAN KEPALA BADAN PENGAWAS OBAT DAN MAKANAN REPUBLIK INDONESIA NOMOR : HK. 00.05.5.1639 for small scale food industry. Current GMPs Subpart A. Definitions Acid foods, adequate, batter, blanching and etc. General Provisions Current good Criteria for determining adulteration. manufacturing Food covered by specific GMP is also practices covered by umbrella GMPs. Personnel Requirements for: disease control, cleanliness, education & training, supervision of personnel with regards to these requirements. Exclusions Excluded operations (raw agricultural commodities) FDA can issue special regulation to cover excluded operations Subpart B. Plants and Grounds Description of adequate maintenance of grounds Buildings and Plant construction and design to Facilities facilitate sanitary operations and maintenance Sanitary Operations Requirements for: Cleaning/sanitizing of physical facilities, utensils & equipments Storage of cleaning & sanitizing substances Pest control Sanitation of contact surfaces Storage & handling of cleaned portable equipment & utensils Sanitary Facilities Requirements for: water supply, and Controls plumbing, sewage disposal, toilet facilities, hand washing facilities, rubbish disposal Subpart C. Equipment Requirements for the design, Equipment and utensils construction, and maintenance of equipment and utensils Subpart E. Processes and Delineates processes and controls for: controls Raw materials and other ingredients Production and Process Manufacturing operations Controls Warehousing Storage and transportation of food must and protect against contamination and distribution deterioration of the food and its container Subpart G. FDA has established maximum defect action levels (DALs) for some natural or Defect Action unavoidable defects Levels Compliance with DALs does not excuse violation of 402 (a)(4) Food containing defects above DALs may not be mixed with other foods GMP – Food Industry • Example of equipment design SOPs • A set of written instructions document a routine activity used by an organization (US. EPA, 2001). • SOPs detail the work processes that are to be conducted. • They document the way activities are to be performed to facilitate consistent performance to safety and quality system requirements. • SOPs are intended to be specific. • They assist an organization in maintaining their safety and quality control and in ensuring compliance with regulations. SSOPs • The procedures that must be followed in order to make sure that cleaning and sanitation activities are performed correctly. • SSOPs is a key component of a safety plan. • Involving the development of detailed descriptions of the cleaning procedures and sanitation operations that must be performed to prevent contamination or adulteration of the product. • SSOPs also describe the frequency with which each procedure is to be conducted and identify the employee(s) responsible for the implementation and maintenance of each procedure. • An SSOP usually includes: o Activity name o Place where it is performed o List of the equipment and material necessary to perform it o Frequency of performance o Approximate time to perform it o Responsible individual o Description of every step necessary to perform the procedure • The SSOPs for an operational should detail the sanitation procedures to be used: 1. Pre operational sanitation: cleaning the facilities, equipments and utensils prior to starting the operation 2. Operational sanitation Good Hygiene Practice • A guide for food manufacturers on compliance with food safety regulations (general food hygiene). • GHP is prerequisite for GMP implementation. GHP – Food Services Retail References • Alli, I. 2004. Food Quality Assurance: Principles and Practices. CRC Press, Boca Raton. • Swanson, B. G. (2003). Good Manufacturing Practices: Prerequisites for Food Safety. Food Safety Handbook. Schmidt, R.H. and Rodrick, G. E. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. • Da Cruz, A.G, Cenci, S. A. and Maia, M. C. A. (2005). Good agricultural practices in a Brazilian produce plant. Food Control. (inpress). • FDA. (2004). Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) for the 21st Century – Food Processing. • von Bockelmann, B. and von Bockelmann, I. (1998). Long-Life Products: Heat-Treated, Aseptically Packed: A Guide to Quality. Sweden.
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