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Presidency Powered By Docstoc
۩ Article II, Section 1, of the Constitution sets forth the
  qualifications to be president.
۩ Must be 35, a natural-born citizen, and 14 year residency.
States in the Nation
2008 Presidential Election
The White House
The Expanding Presidency
   Presidential responsibilities, burdens,
    power, and impact have increased
    dramatically since the nation’s founding.
   The Founders’ conception of the office of
    President was much more limited than
    what we see in the modern Presidency.
   The vague language of the Constitution
    has been flexible enough to include the
    great expansion of the Presidency that
    has occurred.
The Dormant Presidency
   Until the end of the 19th century, the
    Presidency conformed basically to the
    designs and intentions of the Founders.
   The nation did not often require a very
    strong Presidency prior to the 20th
   Structural changes since the end of the
    nineteenth century: America becomes a
    world power with a corporate-dominated
   Important early
       Washington
       Jefferson
       Jackson
       Polk
       Lincoln
   In the 20th century, new structural conditions made an
    expanded Presidency both possible and necessary.
     Theodore Roosevelt

     Woodrow Wilson

     Franklin Roosevelt

           World War II
           Since FDR’s time, all U.S. Presidents have administered a
            huge national state with large standing armed forces,
            nuclear weapons, and bases all around the world.
       Harry Truman
       John F. Kennedy
       Ronald Reagan
    The Many Roles of the
   The many “hats” that presidents wear simultaneously
     Chief of State

     Chief Executive

       The Powers of Appointment and Removal

       The Power to Grant Reprieves and Pardons

     Commander in Chief

       Wartime Powers

       War Powers Resolution

     Joint Chief Legislator

       Getting Legislation Passed

       Saying No to Legislation

       The Line-Item Veto

       Congress’ Power to Override Presidential Vetoes
    The Many Roles of the
   More “hats” that presidents wear simultaneously
     Manager of the Economy

     Chief Diplomat

       Diplomatic Recognition

       Proposal and Ratification of Treaties

       Executive Agreements

     Head of the Political Party

     Other Presidential Powers

       Powers that Congress has bestowed on the president by
         statute (statutory powers) and those that are considered
         inherent powers.
   Each of the Presidential functions or “hats” is demanding;
    together, they are overwhelming.
The President’s Staff and
   White House staff
       Key aides who are the President’s closest and most
        trusted advisors
           Chief of Staff
           National Security Adviser
       The exact shape of the White House staff changes
        from one Presidency to another and is used by
        different presidents in various ways.
       Typically the White House staff has more influence
        over the president than the Cabinet.
   Executive Office of the President (EOP) —a
    group of permanent Presidential staff
    organizations that perform specialized functions
       Office of Management and Budget
       Council of Economic Advisers
       National Security Council
   Vice-Presidency

       Originally, the vice-president was the runner-up in the
        electoral college vote
       The 12th Amendment (1804) encouraged two candidates
        to run together as a presidential ticket
       No constitutional powers or duties except to serve as
        President of the Senate, a ceremonial function of no real
       Beginning in the 1950s, the role of vice president became
        more important
       Presidential succession
   The Cabinet —not mentioned in the Constitution,
    but all Presidents have had one; the cabinet is a
    highly visible symbol of the executive branch, but
    Presidents have usually not relied upon it as a
    decision-making body.

             A new administration taking shape
The President and the
   Presidents have significant controls with
    regard to the bureaucracy, but the President’s
    ability to give orders and to gain bureaucratic
    acquiescence is limited.
   Many people erroneously assume that the
    President has firm control over the executive
    branch of government.
   To a large extent, Presidents must persuade
    other executive branch officials to take certain
   “Presidential power is the power to persuade.”
Going Public
   By the beginning of the twentieth century, the
    presidency had undergone a basic transformation:
    presidents began to speak directly to the public.
   Woodrow Wilson created a new constitutional
    theory advocating close connections between the
    president and the public.
   All presidents now attempt to respond to public
    opinion, and all try to speak directly to the people
    about policy.
   Contemporary presidents frequently go public by
    using television to bypass Congress and the
Using the Media

   Modern Presidents have used television
    to enhance their power to shape public
   Leading public opinion
   Responding to the public
   Quiet influence
   Listening to the public
The President and the People: An
Evolving Relationship
   Early Presidents: seen as an elite leader,
    relatively distant from the public
   Quickly evolved into a more democratic
    system, in which the people played a more
    direct role.
   By 1880, the two-party system had begun to
   Early in the 19th century, state legislatures
    began to turn the power to choose Presidential
    electors over to the people through direct
   The base of suffrage broadened.
How Democratic Is the
   Determining how democratic the
    Presidency is becomes an extremely
    difficult task.
   However, the office is considerably more
    democratic than envisioned by the
    authors of the Constitution.
   The Powers of the Presidency
Divided Powers
Presidential Powers
  •Commander in Chief of the armed forces,
     but Congress is charged with declaring wars
     “Presidential prerogative” versus War Powers Act

  •Diplomat in Chief
        Appoint & Receive ambassadors
        Negotiate Treaties
        Executive Agreements
        Fast-track trade authority
        Meet with foreign leaders to forge
         ties and make formal alliances
     The Powers of the Presidency
•Administrator in Chief
•Additional Executive Powers
    Appointment
    Veto and pocket veto
    Pardon
    “Take care” power
        Article II, Sec. 3: Presidents take care that the laws are
         faithfully executed, even if they disagree with the purpose of
         those laws
        Sometimes used by presidents to claim inherent powers
         (powers that grow out of the very existence of government)
    Inform and convene Congress
        State of the Union address
The War Power
  Presidents  have defended their power to engage American
   military troops
  In 1973, Congress enacted the War Powers Act in order to
   limit the ability of the president to commit the armed forces
   of the United States; however, presidents have generally
   ignored it
  In Korea, Vietnam, Grenada, Panama,

  Iraq (twice), Kosovo, and Afghanistan, the president did not
   ask Congress for a formal declaration of war

Executive Orders
    Formal directives that are just as strong as laws and can be
     challenged in the courts
    Used frequently throughout American history
 Executive Orders
Presidents have
issued nearly
14,000 executive
orders since
Washington. The
average number
of the executive
orders has
declined over the
past six decades
presidents are
using other
Executive Privilege
  The courts have recognized that presidents have the power
  to keep secrets; however, some experts argue that executive
  privilege has no constitutional basis
  RichardNixon and George W. Bush created controversy by
  invoking executive privilege
                                   Boxes of newly released files from
     United States v. Nixon -   Richard M. Nixon's presidential papers
      limited executive
     Clinton’s Attempted
      Use of Executive
     The Structure of the Presidency
Presidential Succession:
  •Twentieth Amendment
  •Twenty-second Amendment
  •Twenty-fifth Amendment
     * Impeachment
        • Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton: Charged by
         House, acquitted by Senate
     * Resignation
        • Richard Nixon: Resigned while House was
         drafting charges
     * Reelection defeat
     * Retirement
     * Death
Abuses of Executive Power and

          Click the icon to open the movie
Roles Assumed by the President
Presidents as Crisis Managers
  • Emergency Powers
  • Executive Orders
Presidents as Morale Builders
Presidents as Recruiters
Presidents as Priority and Agenda
  • National Security Policy
  • Economic Policy
  • Domestic Policy
Roles Assumed by the President
Presidents as Legislative and
   Political Coalition Builders
Presidents and the Public
Presidents as Party Leaders
    Holding Presidents Accountable

Reelection and Legacy
Congress and the President
The Supreme Court and the President
The Media and the President
Public Opinion and Presidential Accountability
Judging Presidential Greatness
۩ So many opinions.

۩ Your educated opinion
  counts too.
         Presidential Mandates
   A president’s claim of broad public support
    for the president or a policy issue
   Depends in part on public approval, which
    generally falls over time
   Presidents also benefit from rally points,
    spikes in public approval following a crisis
The Role of Presidential Popularity
   The public’s influence works through Presidential
    popularity or unpopularity.
   Presidents have strong incentives to anticipate public
    reactions and to do things that will please the public.
   Determinants of Presidential popularity
       Time
       The economy• History tends to judge wars as the most
       War          significant test of a president’s leadership.
                     • Presidents also are judged by their ability to
                       promote a distinctive vision of where the
                       nation should go.
                     • Corruption and inability to deal with
                       economic problems are sure paths to failure.
   What makes a President successful with
       Party and ideology
       Foreign policy and
        national security
       Presidential vetoes
       Presidential
       Legislative skills

                              2008   Democrats      Barack Obama, Democrat
                              2010   S – D, H - D
Presidential Popularity
The President
& Congress:
Perpetual Tug-of-War
   Conflict by constitutional
     Separate elections

     Competing constituencies

     Competing calendars

     Competing campaigns

     Shared powers

     Potential for divided

      government and “gridlock”

                                  Presidential Vetoes

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