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									                         19                Politics                                                                                    Small shopkeepers were
                                                                                                                                         enlisted to write
                                                                                                                                      protests to members of                                                                                                                                               We have got the unions
                                                                                                                                      Parliament; the letters                                                                                                                                             to support industry in
The tobacco industry spends                the US Congress have received          fundraisers. As well as campaign
                                                                                                                                        some with deliberate                                                                                                                                                 several countries.
millions of dollars trying to              over $5 million in contributions       contributions, tobacco companies                    typographical errors to                                                                                                                                            Prominent have been the
influence public policy. It makes          from tobacco companies, and            conduct direct lobbying and                            create the aura of                                                                                                                                               efforts they have made
major contributions to elected             nearly six out of ten have             sophisticated public relations                        authenticity, were                                                                                                                                               on the tax issues in the
                                                                                                                                           prepared by the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Philip Morris and the
officials and political parties,           accepted tobacco money.                campaigns, including paid media,                                                                                                                                                                                        UK where they were very
                                                                                                                                       (tobacco) industry for                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           industry are positively
payments to governments to                   The tobacco industry sought to       to influence the opinions of                                                                                                                                                                                              involved in a letter
                                                                                                                                          the shopkeepers.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              impacting the government
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             writing campaign to
support infrastructure such as             delay, and eventually defeat, the      political decision-makers.                                                                                                                                                                                              Members of Parliament.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          decisions of Bahrain,
mass transit and large investments         EC directive on tobacco                  Comprehensive tobacco                               Philip Morris, 1990                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Arabia and the UAE through
in sophisticated public relations          advertising and sponsorship by         legislation was defeated in the US                                                                                                                                                                                                           Philip Morris, 1985
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       the creative use of market
campaigns. The industry also               seeking the aid of figures at the      Senate in 1998. Those who voted                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      specific studies, position
gives money to civic, educational          highest levels of European politics    against the legislation had                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              papers, well briefed
and charitable organisations and a         while at times attempting to           received on average, nearly four                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       distributors who lobby,
host of others.                            conceal the industry’s role.           times as much money from the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               media owners and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              consultants
  Since 1995 US tobacco                    Parliamentarians in Europe have        tobacco industry in the two years
companies have donated more                accepted money and even senior         before their last election, as those                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Philip Morris, 1987
than $32 million in political              positions in tobacco companies.        who voted in favour of the bill.
contributions to state and federal           Tobacco companies also attempt         Buying influence and favours
candidates and political parties in        to influence the political process,    through political contributions is
the USA, with over 80 percent of           by subsidising the air travel of       common practice; however, most                      Turning now to primary
this paid to influence federal             candidates and their staff, funding    countries do not require                           and passive smoking To
                                                                                                                                        get more favorable
elections and officeholders. From          political conventions and              mandatory reporting.                                        press,
1995 to 2000 current members of            inaugurations, and hosting                                                                  we are contemplating
                                                                                                                                        organizing another
                                                                                                                                     journalists conference
                                                                                                                                      similar to the one we
                                                                                                   Buying influence                   put together in Madrid
                                                                                             Expenditure on lobbying by
                                                                                                                                        for Latin American
                                                                                                 US tobacco companies
                                                                                                                                      journalists in 1984.
                                  Smokeless Tobacco Council $1.8m                                             USA 1997

                                    Tobacco Institute $2.1m                                                                            Philip Morris, 1985

                                 Lorillard-Loews $2.6m

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Buying favours                                                                                 The International




                                                                                                                                             Philip Morris $10.2m
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Top tobacco contributions




                                                                                                                                                                                                                   $2.9m Brown and Williamson (BAT)
                                             $3.7m                            $15.8m                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Tobacco Growers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              to federal candidates
                                                                            Philip Morris




                                                                                                                                                                                        $3.4m US Tobacco Company
                           Brown & Williamson (BAT)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Association could
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   USA 1995–2000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           front for our third
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          world lobby activities




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            $0.6m Smokeless Tobacco Council
                                                $4.1m                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    at WHO, and gain support




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     $0.2m Pinkerton Tobacco Company
                                   US Tobacco Company                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      from nations hostile




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      $1.2m Tobacco Institute
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             to multinational




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                $0.4 Swisher International


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             $0.3m Conwood Company
                                                                $5.4m
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               corporations




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                $0.6 Lorillard Tobacco
                                                              RJ Reynolds

                                                                                                                                                                    RJ Reynolds $4.7m
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 INFOTAB,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (tobacco industry
                                                                                         “What are we trying to accomplish?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                pressure group), 1988
                  “Unless countervailing                                                Prevent further deterioration of overall
            steps are taken (such as lobbying),                                        social, legislative and regulatory climate,
                                                          Total: $35.5 million           and ultimately, actually improve the
            public decision-making will march
                   with public opinion.”                                                 climate for the marketing and use of
                    RJ Reynolds, 1978                                                               tobacco products.”
                                                                                                   Philip Morris, 1990



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