APPAREL NECKTIE by umairsheikh2002

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									PREFACE

Necktie a part of the formal wear of men and women is increasingly gaining popularity as a result of which many companies which include big names like Zodiac, Park Avenue, Pantaloons etc. and also a huge number of unorganized players are making their necktie brand available for sale. Lets see how necktie becomes a part of people in South Mumbai. Project includes the overview on apparel industry and specifically about the market available for neckties in South Mumbai.

The objective of the project was to study the following :  To study the nature and significance of Apparel industry  Origin and History of neckties  Different types of neckties and knots  Some Facts about a necktie including raw materials used, how design are made, manufacturing process etc.  A survey on necktie and

All the above objective are being looked after in the project but the most important objective of me doing this project is that, I want to get into apparel industry and this has enhanced my knowledge and it will enormously help me in near future.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The project enables me to know about various aspects of apparel industry in India and mainly about neckties and how this piece of cloth is made , marketed and sold.

The features of apparel industry in India :  Apparels basically includes everything from a formal shirt to a trouser , from a suit to a necktie.  India is the world’s second largest producer of textiles and garments after China.  Employs 35 million people , second only to agriculture in India  The textile and garment industry in India is one of the oldest manufacturing sectors in the country and is currently its largest  India accounts for about 12% of the world’s production of textile fiber and yarns

To know how did the necktie actually became the necktie we wear today, who was the person who gave recognition to neckties, the types of neckties and the knots which are most commonly knotted, what are the views of the people in the South Mumbai about necktie and everything about the necktie would be studied through this project.

The project gives a domestic as well as international outlook of neckties in India. The various types of neckties are Bola tie ,Ascot tie ,Clip on tie, Bow tie and Cravat The project shows the manufacturing process of necktie. Also a survey which will help me to make better decision in my business by understanding what attitude Mumbaikars have towards Necktie.

Introduction to Neckties

As the Italian novelist Alberto Moravia put it: "As useful article of clothing, a vest for example, is insignificant precisely because of its utility... Modern man is permitted but one accessory allowing him to reveal his vision of the world, to signal his presence in it: the tie."

Necktie - The descendent of cravat , a long piece of cloth worn around the neck which rests under the shirt collar and is knotted at the throat. It is something we see alot these days as it has increasingly become a fashion trend , a must have thing in the wardrobe of an office going individual men and women. It is as well a part of military and school uniforms. The wide-ranging social and cultural changes of the 1960s and 1970s changed fashion for good. Ever since, under ordinary circumstances, wearing a tie has been an option rather than obligation. A tie offers its wearer the luxury of a beautiful object, as well as sophisticated means of self-expression. Because it serves no practical purpose, the tie speaks volumes about its wearer.

A fine tie is a work of art from beginning to end. Whether woven or printed, it is first designed, transformed into a pattern by skilled artisans and technicians, engineered, and sewn by experts to meet with the maker's approval before a label is stitched to the necktie by the maker.

For the smart buyer, the necktie is an opportunity to showcase fine taste, but it pays to know the range on offer – and the prices that matter – because valuing a good pick in ties is not an easy thing for many.

Zodiac Clothing Company Limited is the pioneering company in neckties and first got them to India in the early 1970s when ties were largely imported or were brought in by those who travelled abroad.

In the organized market, players like Genesis Colors, the company that owns the Satya Paul brand, began making waves in the early 1990s. Then there are labels like Bentleys, Reid & Taylor, Peter England and Park Avenue amongst others. Among designer labels we have names like Satya Paul and Study by Janak that offer special designs.

The most common material used for ties is silk and silk blends. One can get varieties like woven jacquard silk, printed silk and artificial silk. Designs like paisleys (droplet-shaped patterns of Persian origin) are also popular.

Overview of Indian Apparel and Textile Industry

The textile and apparels sector in India is a diverse and heterogeneous industry, which covers a wide variety of products from hi-tech synthetic and wool fibres to yarns to fabrics to apparels, cotton fibres to yarns to fabrics to home textiles to high fashion apparels (knitted and woven). This diversity of end products corresponds to a multitude of industrial processes, enterprises or market structures.

The Indian textile and apparels industry is in a stronger position now than it was in the last six decades. The industry, which was growing at 3-4 percent during the last six decades, has now accelerated to an annual growth rate of 9-10 percent. There is a sense of optimism in the industry and textile and apparels sector has now become a sunrise sector.

The catalysts, which have placed the industry on this trajectory of exponential growth are a buoyant domestic economy, a substantial increase in cotton production, the conducive policy environment provided by the Government, and the expiration of the Multi Fibre Agreement (MFA) on 31 December, 2004 and implementation of Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC).

The buoyant Indian economy, growing at the rate of 8 percent, has resulted in higher disposable income levels. The disposable income of Indian consumers has increased steadily. The proportion of the major consuming class (population that has an annual income of more than US$ 2000) has risen from 20 percent in 1995-96 to 28 percent in 2001-02. This is expected

to move up to 35 percent by 2005-06, and to 48 percent by 2009-10. This translates into a growth of 9.3 percent over the next 8 years, and will result in higher spending capacity, manifesting itself in the greater consumption of textiles and apparels.

To provide Indian consumers with world-class quality in textile and apparels and retail services, the government has recently allowed single-brand overseas retailers to set up retail shops in India. The multi-brand overseas retailers/super markets/investors are already in India to conduct wholesale business to feed existing retailers with quality products.

Quotas or quantitative restrictions imposed by developed nations, which restrained the export growth of the Indian textiles and apparels industry for over four decades, were eliminated with effect from 01 January 2005. This has unshackled Indian textiles and apparels exports, and this is evident from the growth registered in the quota markets. Apparels exports to the USA during 2005 and 2006 increased by 34.2 and 7.08 percent respectively, while textiles exports during 2006 to the US showed and impressive 12.42 percent growth. Similarly, in Europe, apparels exports increased by 30.6 and 17.50 % respectively in 2005 and 2006, while textile exports registered 2.2 and 3.5 percent growth in the similar period respectively. The increasing trends in exports is expected to continue in the years to come.

If we look at the US and EU import statistics for apparels alone, we find that these major global players are not inclined to source exclusively from China and India is considered as the second most preferred destination for major global retailers due to its strength of vertical and horizontal integration.

The Indian government has always and is continuing to consider the role of textiles and apparels manufacturing units in India as very critical in achieving the objectives of faster and more inclusive growth, and has laid emphasis on policies aimed at creating an environment in which entrepreneurship can flourish.

The textiles and apparels industry is targeted to grow at the rate of 16 percent in value terms to reach the level of US$ 115 billion (exports US$ 55 billion; domestic market US$ 60 billion) by 2012, while the fabric production is expected to grow at the rate of 12 percent in volume terms. Apparels alone are expected to grow at the rate of 16 percent in volume terms and 21 percent in value terms, while exports are expected to grow at the rate of 22 percent in value terms.

About a necktie

Raw Materials The most commonly used fibers for the manufacturing of neckties are silk, polyester, wool and wool blends, acetate, rayon, nylon, cotton, linen, and ramie. Neckties made from silk represent about 40 percent of the market. Raw silk is primarily imported from China and, to a far lesser extent, Brazil. Domestic weavers of tie fabrics buy their silk yarn in its natural state and have it finished and dyed by specialists. Technological advances have made possible the use of microfiber polyesters, which produce a rich, soft fabric resembling silk and which can be combined with natural or other artificial fibers to produce a wide range of effects.

Design The design of neckties is an interactive process between weavers and tie manufacturers. Because small quantities in any given pattern and color are produced, and because fabrics can be so complex, tie fabric weaving is seen as an art form by many in the industry.

If a new design is requested, time is spent developing ideas, producing sample goods, and booking orders against the samples. Most of the time, however, weavers work with open-stock items (designs that have been previously used and have a lasting appeal). Weavers use computerized silk screens, a process that has replaced the more time and labor-intensive manual silk-screening. When working with a standard design, the designer

fills in each year's popular colors, changing both background and foreground colors, making it broader or narrower, larger or smaller, according to demand. The manufacturer offers input and refinements in coloration and patterns. If willing to commit to a large amount of yardage, a manufacturer can also develop his or her own design and commission a weaver to produce it. Once the design is complete, it is sent to mills where it is imprinted onto 40yard bolts of silk.

The main components of a necktie are the outer fabric, or shell, the interlining (both cut on the bias), and the facing or tipping, which is stitched together by a resilient slip-stitch so that the finished tie can "give" while being tied and recover from constant knotting. The quality of the materials and construction determines if a tie will drape properly and hold its shape without wrinkling.

A well-cut lining is the essence of a good necktie. This interlining determines not only the shape of the tie but also how well it will wear. Therefore, it must be properly coordinated in blend, nap, and weight to the shell fabric. Lightweight outer material may require heavier interlining, while heavier outer fabrics need lighter interlining to give the necessary hand, drape, and recovery. Most interlining manufacturers use a marking system to identify the weight and content of their cloths, usually colored stripes, with one stripe being the lightest and six stripes being the heaviest. This facilitates inventory control and manufacturing.

A completed tie measures from 53 to 57 inches in length. Extra-long ties, recommended for tall men or men with large necks, are 60 to 62 inches long, and student ties are between 48 and 50 inches in length.

Cost price

A branded or a designer tie can set you back by anywhere between Rs 245 to Rs 10,000. Apart from leading names, there is also the unorganised market where polyester printed ties can be bought for as low as Rs 100. Industry sources say big brands often outsource work to a local manufacturer and then sell it at a fat price on their own labels. "The manufacturing cost of a tie varies between Rs 20 to Rs 1,000 and once branded it sells at a much higher cost," Mr. Shripal Rathod, a local manufacturer of necktie. And so, looking for a direct purchase with an eye for good design could save you money.

Manufacturing Process

Ties can be made three ways: by hand, by machine with hand finishing, or primarily by machine.

Handmade tie specialists, for the most part craftspeople working in home studios, can turn out no more than ten ties an hour. Designers who employ them can count on impeccable quality for each piece, every time.

Fashion houses that quality ties at higher volume resort to the next category of production: machine manufacture with hand finishing.

Cutting the outer fabric In the workroom, an operator first spreads the 40-yard bolts of cloth on a long cutting table. Cutting the outer fabric is done by a skilled hand to maximize the yield, or the number of ties cut from the piece of goods. If the fabric has a random design, the operator stacks between 24 and 72 plies of fabric pieces in preparation for cutting the fabric. If pattern of the fabric (or of the "goods") consists of panels, such as stripes with a medallion at the bottom, these panels are then stacked according to the pattern.

Adding the facing Using the chain stitch of a sewing machine, sewing operators join the tie's three sections on the bias in the neckband area. The operator now adds the facing, or tipping (an extra piece of silk, nylon, rayon, or polyester), to the back of the tie's ends. Facing gives a crisp, luxurious hand to the shell. Two types of facing are currently utilized. Three-quarter facing extends six to

eight inches upward from the point of the tie, while full facing extends even higher, ending just under the knot. A quarter to a half of an inch of the shell of the fabric is now turned under, to form a point. The point is then machine-hemmed by the sewing operator.

Piece pressing Quality silk ties are pocket or piece-pressed. This means that the joint at the neck (the piecing) is pressed flat so the wearer will not be inconvenienced by any bulkiness.

Interlining The interlining is slip-stitched to the outer shell with resilient nylon thread, which runs through the middle of the tie. Most ties are slip-stitched with a Liba machine, a semi-automated machine that closely duplicates the look and resiliency of hand stitching. Hand stitching is often used in the manufacture of high-quality neckties because it offers maximum resiliency and draping qualities. The technique is characterized by the irregularly spaced stitches on the reverse of the tie when the seam is spread slightly apart; by the dangling, loose thread with a tiny knot at the end of the reverse of the front apron; and by the ease with which the tie can slide up and down this thread.

Turning the lining Using a turning machine or a manual turner (with a rod about 9 1/2 inches long), an operator turns the tie right-side out by pulling one end of the tie through the other. While not yet pressed, the tie is almost complete. On silk ties only, the lining is then tucked by hand into the bottom corner of the long

end of the tie. If necessary, the operator hand-trims the lining to fit the point of the long end. (In all other ties, the lining does not reach all the way to the bottom corner.) A final piece to be sewn on is the loop, which serves both as a holder for the thin end of the tie when it's being worn and as the manufacturer's label.

The third way of making a necktie is by using solely machine to make a necktie, Currently such machines are not used in India extensively but they are in China which help them to produce a large quantity of necktie in way less time as compared to time taken by other two methods.

History of neckties

Many events in the history of mankind eventually fade into oblivion, but others, leave their indelible marks for the entire world to see. More than 350 years ago, the Croats initiated one such influential occurrence. Although started in the 17th century in a small region on the Adriatic coast, the consequences of this event are still very much evident the world over. 600 million people now wear the ubiquitous symbol of Croatia around their necks, close to their hearts. Believe it or not Croatia is the mother country of the modern necktie but archaeological evidence of the use of neckties goes back to the Chinese and the Romans almost two millenniums back.

China's First emperor. The earliest known version of the necktie has been found in the massive mausoleum of China's first emperor, Shih Huang Ti, who was buried in 210 B.C. Desperately afraid of death, the emperor wanted to slaughter an entire army to accompany him into the next world. His advisers ultimately persuaded him to take life-size replicas of the soldiers instead.

The result is one of the marvels of the ancient world. Unearthed in 1974 near the ancient capital city of Xian, the tomb contained an astonishing 7,500 life-size terracotta replicas of Shih Huang Ti's famed fighting force. Legions of officers, soldiers, archers and horsemen, all carved in meticulous detail, guard the emperor's sarcophagus. The armor, uniforms, hair, and facial expressions of the soldiers are reproduced in exquisite detail. Each figure is different except in one respect: all wear neck cloths.

An ancient mystery Historians say other records indicate the Chinese did not wear ties, so why the emperor's guards wore carefully wrapped silk cloths remains a mystery. Since silk was a great luxury, the cloths could indicate the ultimate honor Shih Huang Ti bestowed on his soldiers; they were trusted enough to guard him until the end of time.

Did Roman Wear Ties In 113 A.D., one of Rome's greatest Emperors, the military genius Trajan, erected a marble column to commemorate a triumphant victory over the Dacians, who lived in what is now Romania.

The 2,500 realistic figures on the column sport no less than three different styles of neckwear. These include shorter versions of the modern necktie; cloth wound around the neck and tucked into armor; and knotted kerchiefs reminiscent of cowboy bandannas.

While Roman orators often wore cloths to keep their throats warm, soldiers did not cover their necks. In fact, writers such as Horace and Seneca said only effeminate men covered their necks.

Skilled

warriors

Trajan's column is the only representation of legionnaires with neckwear. Historians believe the legionnaires wore cloths for reasons similar to those of Shih Huang Ti's terracotta army. Truly great fighters must be visibly

honored. And, the legionnaires were so skilled in battle that they were immune to perceptions of appearing feminine.

Croatian Cravats Dazzle a King "… Around the year 1635, some six thousand soldiers and knights came to Paris to give their support to King Louis XlV and Cardinal Richelieu. Among them were a great number of Croatian mercenaries led by a ban, or Croatian viceroy. The traditional outfit of these Croats aroused interest on account of the unusual and picturesque scarves distinctively tied about their necks. The scarves were made of various cloths, ranging from coarse material for common soldiers, to fine cotton and silk for officers. This elegant "Croatian style" immediately enamoured the French, who were delighted by the new article of clothing, which had been previously unknown in Europe. For the gallant French officers in the thirty-year war, the advantage of the Croatian neck scarf was its enviable practicality. In contrast to the lace collar that had to be kept white and carefully starched, the scarf was simply and loosely tied around the neck without need for any additional care. Just as elegant as the stiff, high collars, the new scarves were less awkward, easier to wear and remained visible beneath the soldiers’ thick, long hair. Around the year 1650, during the reign of Louis XIV, the Croatian scarf was accepted in France, above all in court, where military ornaments were much admired. The fashionable expression, ’a la croate’, soon evolved into a new French word, which still exists today: la cravate. Many experts believe the French word for tie, cravat, is a corruption of "Croat." In fact, French kings maintained an elite regiment, the Cravate Royale, until the French Revolution of 1789.

Other sources say cravat is derived from the Turkish word kyrabacs, or the Hungarian, korbacs, both meaning "whip" or "long, slender object." Researchers have also noted the word cravat appeared in French before the arrival of the Croatians. They suggest the term is a corruption of rabat, French for a hanging collar.

One thing is certain: the elegant French courtiers, and the military immediately began copying the Croatians. Ordinary soldiers began adorning their necks with lace, while officers sported muslin or silk, possibly trimmed with embroidery. Even poor people wore cotton cravats, sometimes of pleated black taffeta.

Cravats Go to England On his return to England from exile in 1660, Charles II reclaimed the throne that had been lost during the Puritan revolution and brought with him this new word in fashion "Cravat". Over the next ten years, this fashion novelty spread across Europe, as well as across the colonies on the American continent..." After nine years in exile, aristocrats flooded England, bringing with them a passion for the pleasures of the European courts. Weary of war, and tired of the austerity imposed by Oliver Cromwell; England wanted to have fun. Gambling, drinking, music, dancing, parties, theater, elaborate clothes, grand wigs, and yes, the stylish, new cravat, were suddenly all the rage. Soon no gentleman would have considered himself well-dressed without sporting some sort of cloth around his neck--the more decorative, the better. At times, cravats were worn so high that a man could not move his head without turning his whole body. There were even reports of cravats

worn so thick that they stopped sword thrusts. The various styles knew no bounds, as cravats of tasseled strings, plaid scarves, tufts and bows of ribbon, lace, and embroidered linen all had their staunch adherents. Nearly one hundred different knots were recognized, and as a certain M. Le Blanc, who instructed men in the fine and sometimes complex art of tying a tie, noted, "The grossest insult that can be offered to a man comme il faut is to seize him by the cravat; in this place blood only can wash out the stain upon the honor of either party."

Real Men Wear Lace Art museums throughout the U.S. and Europe are full of paintings from the 17th and 18th centuries showing generals, politicians, and aristocrats resplendent in their lace cravats. Lace was used for trimming, both men's and women's clothing, and also for decorating. Windows, beds, chairs, and tables were all festooned with lace.

Although England produced prodigious quantities of lace itself, lace from Flanders and Venice, considered the best, was imported in vast quantities. Because of strict trade regulations, lace smuggling became an international pastime.

For those who could afford it, no price was too costly. King Charles II is said to have once spent 20 pounds and 12 shillings on a single cravat. This was as much as five times an annual middle class salary.

Lace was not the only material used for cravats. Plaid scarves, ribbon, embroidered linen tasseled strings and ordinary cotton were all pulled into service. Some neckwear was so thick it was able to stop a sword thrust.

The Steinkirk The eighteenth century brought unprecedented innovation in neckwear. The Steinkirk, a loosely wrapped scarf like tie worn with the dangling end chastely tucked or pinned to the breast, began to take precedence over the lace cravat in the early part of the century. So popular was the style, that women were soon attracted to wearing the more demure version of the necktie, only in more lively colours than the gent's basic white. By the middle of the century, the feminine interlopers, in their crimson Steinkirks, had prompted tough young bucks to retrench their neckwear styles in something altogether more virile: the stock.

The Stock The stock was the most erect neckwear ever developed. It was especially designed for foot-soldiers in France and Germany in order to encourage the martial appearance of turgid necks and thrusting chins. The stock also had the effect of increasing blood flow to the face, giving soldiers a ruddy, healthful appearance. In fact, the effect of the stock was anything but healthful, as the officers obliged the men to tighten their stocks to the point that "caused the eyes almost to start from their spheres, and gave the wearers a supernatural appearance, often producing vertigo and faintings, or at least bleedings at the nose." The excess of stiffness made it impossible for the soldiers to face left or right, never mind to stoop or to fight. And these constraining effects were rendered even more severe as sparse military budgets ensured that the stocks came in only one size. However, the stock, unlike the cravat, did not have to be tied, and its horsehair, whale bone, pig-bristle, card, pasteboard, or wooden frame could be covered and recovered with satins, linens, cottons, muslins,

silks, or calicos as the latest fads dictated. Not only that, it was a practical military style, since it showed dirt less than the Steinkirk. Softening of the Stock As with the lace ruffs and millstone collars of nearly a century before, the stiff reign of the stock was gradually softened by changing men's hairstyles. Republican ideas were spreading as the eighteenth century progressed, and the trends were toward shorter and shorter hair. The most fashionable men began sporting a simple pigtail instead of a wig, with the trailing locks often tied or decorated with black ribbons. The long ribbons came to be fastened around the neck with a knot in front and the free ends dangling over the chest. This simple expedient led to the inevitable imitations and innovations, with coloured and multiple ribbons soon taking over from the basic black solitaire.

Cowboy Bandannas from India For workingclass Europeans, the bandanna at last provided a mark of masculine respectability at an affordable price. Of brightly coloured and robust material, the bandanna did not easily show the dirt, and was quite washable when it did. In addition, the material could be used to form a basket, lead an animal, or mop the sweat from a working brow when not being used to project the owner's dignity. Prohibited in England by the Calico Acts of 1700 and 1702, the lowly bandanna even acquired something of the cachet of the forbidden, as well as another name - "the Kingsman" for the King's man or customs officer who would normally seize the forbidden cloth. Soon,

however, European industrialists began to cash in on the craze, and knock-offs of the Bengali silk prints were being manufactured at home. Over the water, in North America, the cotton bandanna became an extremely popular and

affordable common sense form of neckwear for those colonists who could not wholly abandon the urbane fashions of the Old Countries.

Sailing the Seven Seas In the 18th and 19th centuries, British sailors often wore white and blue uniforms, complete with a silk or cotton bandanna, or scarf, usually blue.

The sailor suit began to be worn in the mid 1800s as yachting became popular. This has had its greatest impact on clothing for women and children. The modern sailor's suit was introduced for boys around 1860 and became an instant success. Still worn today, the white and blue outfit also comes with a dress for girls.

Bow Ties Take Center Stage The bow tie gets is name from the French, jabot, (pronounced ja-bow), a type of readymade 17th century lace cravat. In the 18th and 19th centuries, bow ties came in various materials and styles.

White bow ties were formal, but others were colored. For example, 19th century Irish immigrants to America favored brown, green, or red bow ties.

1920s-present day After the First World War, hand-painted ties became an accepted form of decoration in America. The widths of some of these ties went up to 4.5 inches (110 mm). These loud, flamboyant ties sold very well all the way through the 1950s.

In Britain, Regimental stripes have been continuously used in tie designs since the 1920s. Traditionally, English stripes ran from the left shoulder down to the right side; however, when Brooks Brothers introduced the striped ties in the States a century ago, they had theirs cut in the opposite direction. The 1960s brought about an influx of pop art influenced designs. The first was designed by Michael Fish when he worked at Turnbull & Asser. The term kipper was a pun on his name. The exuberance of the styles of the late 1960s and early 1970s gradually gave way to more restrained designs. Ties became narrower, returning to their 2-3 inch width with subdued colors and motifs, traditional designs of the 1930s and 1950s reappeared, particularly Paisley patterns. Ties began to be sold along with shirts and designers slowly began to experiment with bolder colors. This continued in the 1980s, when very narrow ties approximately 1 inch wide became popular. Into the 1990s, increasingly unusual designs became common, such as joke ties or deliberately kitsch ties designed to make a statement. These included ties featuring cartoon characters or made of unusual materials such as plastic or wood

Types of knots

The neckties that are worn today can be knotted in more than 85 ways. The famous book 85 Ways to Tie a Tie written by Thomas Yink and Yong Mao has made knotting a tie a science, a mathematical operation which is very complex. But the five types of knots that are largely known and which people usually knot and considerably simple are Four in hand, Windsor, Half-Windsor , Pratt and Small knot.

Four in hand

The four-in-hand knot is a method of tying a necktie. Also known as a simple knot or schoolboy knot, the four-in-hand is believed to be the most popular method of tying ties due to its simplicity. Some reports state that carriage drivers tied their reins with a four-in-hand knot, while others claim that the carriage drivers wore their scarves in the manner of a four-in-hand, but the most likely etymology is that members of the Four-in-Hand Club in London began to wear the neckwear, making it fashionable. The knot produced by this method is on the narrow side, slightly asymmetric, and appropriate for all occasions.

Windsor knot

The Windsor-knot, also sometimes referred to as a full Windsor to distinguish it from the half-Windsor, is a method of tying a necktie around one's neck and collar. The Windsor knot, compared to other methods, produces a wide triangular knot. The knot is often thought to be named after

the Duke of Windsor (Edward VIII after abdication). It is however named after his grandfather Edward VII. The Duke preferred a wide knot and had his ties specially made with thicker cloth in order to produce a wider knot when tied with the conventional four in hand knot. The Windsor Knot is worn on more formal occasions, and it is especially suited for a spread collar that can accommodate a larger knot, like the Windsor knot, properly. The Windsor knot is a British Knot in origin and not a popular choice for those outside Great Britain as it represents loyalty to the House of Windsor.

Half-Windsor knot

The half-Windsor knot is a way of tying a necktie which produces a neat, triangular knot. It is larger than the four-in-hand knot and Pratt knot but smaller than the Windsor knot. Despite its name, it is not half the size of the Windsor knot, and there is no evidence that it is derived from that knot. It works well with light- and medium-weight fabrics.

Pratt knot

The Pratt knot is a method of tying a tie around one's neck and collar. It is also known as the Shelby knot and the Pratt-Shelby. The knot was invented by Jerry Pratt, an employee of the US Chamber of Commerce. He had been wearing his tie in the Pratt knot for some twenty years before it became popular after TV personality Don Shelby wore it on air. The New York fashion press then promptly (and mistakenly) attributed the invention of the

knot to Shelby.The Pratt knot is unusual in that its starting position is 'reverse side out', as does the Nicky knot. It uses less length than the Half Windsor or Windsor knots, and so is well suited to shorter ties. Unlike the Four in Hand knot, the Pratt method produces a symmetrical knot. It is of medium thickness.

Small Knot

The Small knot, or Oriental knot, is the simplest method of tying a man's necktie, though some claim the simple knot is an alternate name for the fourin-hand knot. The small knot is not very well-known despite its simplicity. One of the reasons may be the fact that the small knot is not self-releasing, and may annoy people accustomed to four-in-hand and Windsor knots who pull at the tie to untangle the knot.

Types of neckties

Necktie a piece of cloth which add colors to the otherwise dull formal wear which men and women wear. In its initial stage it was largely referred to as a neckwear, today there are many variants of the age old cravat like the Bolo tie, bow tie, ascot tie, clip-on tie and stock tie.

Bolo tie ( Bola tie ) A bolo tie (sometimes bola tie) is a type of necktie consisting of a piece of cord or braided leather with decorative metal tips or aglets secured with an ornamental clasp or slide.Bolo tie slides and tips in silver have been part of Hopi, Navajo, and Zuni silversmithing traditions since the mid-20th century.

The bolo tie was made the official neckwear of Arizona in 1971. New Mexico passed a non-binding measure to designate the bolo as the state's official neckwear in 1987. On March 13, 2007, New Mexico Gov. Bill Richardson signed into law that the bolo tie is now the state's official tie. In the United Kingdom, bolo ties are known as bootlace ties.

Silversmith Victor Cedarstaff of Wickenburg, Arizona, claims to have invented the bolo tie in the late 1940s, and later patented his slide design. Victor Cedarstaff was riding his horse one day when his hat blew off. Wary of losing the silver-trimmed hatband, he slipped it around his neck. His companion joked, "That's a nice-looking tie you're wearing, Vic." An idea incubated, and Cedarstaff soon fashioned the first bola tie

Bow tie

The bow tie is a men's necktie popularly worn with formal attire, such as suits or dinner jackets. It consists of a ribbon of fabric tied around the collar in a symmetrical manner such that the two opposite ends form loops. Readytied bow ties are available, in which the distinctive bow is sewn into shape and the band around the neck incorporates a clip. Some "clip-ons" dispense with the band altogether, instead clipping to the collar. The traditional bow tie, consisting of a strip of cloth one must tie, may be known as a "self-tie" bow tie to distinguish it. Bow ties may be made of silk, polyester, cotton, or a mixture of fabrics.It is common to wear a bow tie with a dinner jacket than it is to wear a necktie with one; the latter, in fact, is technically incorrect. A "self-tie" bow tie, has usually two shapes available: the "bat wing", which is parallel-sided like a cricket bat, and the "thistle", sometimes known as the "butterfly".

Ascot Tie An ascot tie, or ascot, is a narrow neckband with wide pointed wings, traditionally made of pale gray patterned silk. This wide, formal tie is usually patterned, folded over, and fastened with a stickpin or tie tack. It is usually reserved for wear with morning dress for formal daytime weddings and worn with a cutaway morning coat and striped grey trousers. This type of dress cravat is made of a thicker, woven type of silk similar to a modern tie and is traditionally either grey or black. The ascot is descended from the earlier type of cravat widespread in the early nineteenth century,made of heavily starched linen and elaborately tied

around the neck. Later in the 1880s, amongst the upper-middle-class in Europe men began to wear a more loosely tied version for formal daytime events with daytime full dress in frock coats or with morning coats. It remains a feature of morning dress for weddings today. The Royal Ascot race meeting at the Ascot Race course, gave the ascot its name. In British English the more casual form is referred to as a day cravat to distinguish it from the highly formal dress cravat. It is made from a thinner woven silk that is more comfortable when worn against the skin, often with ornate and colourful printed patterns.

CLIP-ON TIE The clip-on tie is a bow tie or four-in-hand tie which is permanently tied into its knot with a dimple just below the knot, which is fixed only to the front of the shirt collar by a metal clip. The clip-on tie was invented on December 13, 1928
[1]

Many types of

occupations require their personnel to wear clip-on ties for safety or efficiency reasons. These occupations include police, paramedics, and engineers. Other people may wear a clip-on tie in lieu of a standard necktie if they do not know how to tie one, while others feel it is less constrictive than a standard necktie. Additionally, ties sized for children are almost always clipons.

CRAVAT

The cravat is a neckband, the forerunner of the modern, tailored necktie. From the end of the 16th century, the term "band" applied to any long-strip neckcloth that was not a "ruff." The ruff, a starched, pleated white linen strip, started its fashion career earlier in the 16th century as a neckcloth as a napkin. A "band" could indicate either a plain, attached shirt collar or a detachable "falling band" that draped over the doublet collar. The military styles often had broad, laced edges, while a gentleman's cravat could be of fine lace.

Stock Tie

A stock-tie , or stock, is a white tie worn around the neck of a competitor riding in an equestrian event. It is required in fox hunting, dressage, and the dressage phase of eventing, and is also seen in show jumping. It is always worn with a pin (usually plain and gold, although fancier pins are also seen), stuck through the knot or just below the knot. The stock is traditionally used in the hunt field as a safety measure: in case of injury, the tie can be used as a temporary bandage for a horse's leg or sling for a rider's arm. It is also useful in keeping rain or wind out of the rider's collar. Off the hunting field, the stock tie was a formal tie worn in the 19th century by gentlemen. These old stock ties were often black or white, made of gauze, fine cotton or silk. The stock tie was sometimes starched or otherwise

reinforced to be stiff around the neck: with the chin forced up, the wearer was thought to look more important and formal. Stocks buckled or hooked up the back and sometimes had bows or ruffles attached to the front.

TIE ACCESSORY

Tie bar A tie bar is a neckwear accessory that clips a tie to the fold of a shirt, preventing it from swinging and ensuring the tie hangs straight, resulting in a neat, uniform appearance. Rising to prominence in the 1920s, the tie bar is typically worn by necktie wearing professionals. Tie bars are usually made of metal and often have minor decorative patterns. Some tie bars have a small badge indicating membership to a club or an affiliation in the same way that ties themselves often have, or some other commemorative token.

Tie chain The tie chain is composed of two parts, a durable bar and a chain (typically of gold or silver). The bar attaches to a button on the shirt and when properly worn is covered entirely by the tie. The chain is then left to rest across the necktie, keeping the tie secure. Typically not seen in the business world, the tie chain appears most frequently at more formal affairs.

Tie pin A tie pin, a pin that tacks the tie directly to the shirt or to a chain, which slips through the buttonhole of the shirt. It is also much more subtle as it is much smaller than a tie clip or tie bar. However, the pin on a tie tack may eventually damage the tie because the pin must pierce the tie.

How To Care For A Necktie

If you have invested money in buying or time in making a nice seven-fold tie, you want to take of it. You can't simply throw it in the washing machine like your favorite pair of jeans. There is usually no need to dry clean it as well since it is worn over your shirt. The thing that destroys a tie is normal wear and tear. All that is needed is a little effort to not man handle it. If you have a nice car, do you just shift into neutral, jump out and let it cruise into the garage? But most of us take the effort to pull into the garage, hit the breaks, pull the parking break, and then take the key out of the ignition. A necktie will last longer if you simply untie it correctly and hang it up afterwards. Silk usually resists wrinkles fairly well, but it can still be creased.

Reverse Steps When Untying a Knot A necktie should not be untied just by pulling the small end though it would unknot buut after wearing it for a while with a tight knot, one will see that the silk will begin to stretch and have odd creases in it. Eventually it will start to shred a bit.The proper way to untie the knot is to simply follow the steps in reverse. Loosen the tie a little first, and then slip the large end through the knot.

Hang Your Tie Your necktie is made of fabric just like your other nice clothes. Do you fold up your suit and tuck it away in a drawer? Doing so for a long time would leave a fold and possibly an unpleasant crease. The same will happen if you leave your ties just scrunched away in your sock drawer. Rolling ties are

acceptable, but do not let the fabric return to its normal shape with the help of gravity. In the same way that you hang your suits, hang your ties with a tie rack. There are fancy motorized tie racks to simple non-slip hangers that hook into your closet the same way as a normal shirt hanger. Hanging the tie after it has been worn for a full day lets gravity return the section that is knotted back to its original shape.

Remove Wrinkles If there are a few minor wrinkles in a tie or if there is a bend from not storing it correctly, one can hang it for a while so that it drapes naturally again. But if one is short on time, he can steam it to relax the fabric making it hang straight again. An alternative to a steamer is to simply hang it up in a shower as it will get the necessary steam to loosen it a bit and get to its original form. Ironing may not be a good alternative because it could discolor or change the texture of the silk. But if one just have to iron, he can place a cloth over it and let the heat transfer through so that the iron does not directly touch the silk.

Neckties Do Not Double As a Handkerchief The easiest and fastest way to ruin a tie is to stain it. When eating, try not to spill food all over yourself like a baby. But when leaning forward, your tie will follow gravity and hang right below your neck. This is a wonderful opportunity to dip your tie into the soup and impress your date. The solutions are quite simple. The simplest solution is to tuck the tie into your shirt. Tie bars are another solution that clasps your tie to your shirt.

Remove Stains If one do happen to by mistake get a stain on the necktie, he can still get rid of the stain and save his necktie. There are various solutions depending on the type of stain one gets on his tie:Spot clean with vinegar or lemon juice Use mild detergent below pH 10 Leave talcum powder on stain to absorb grease Hand wash in a sink by gently swirling the clothes in cool water; never twist or wring out silk Be careful when dabbing with water because it could leave a water stain. Should be steamed off evenly with the surrounding fabric

Problems

Opponents of necktie wearing have cited risks associated with the wearing of neckties as an argument for discontinuing the practice. These risks have primarily involved entanglement, infection, and vascular constriction.

The risk of entanglement is generally well understood by people working around machinery or in situations where person-to-person confrontation may occur (e.g., police and prison personnel, and in certain medical fields). The answer is generally to avoid wearing ties, or use the clip-on variety which detach from the wearer when grabbed.

The risk of vascular constriction, in cases where ties are worn with overtight collars, has been noted. Studies have shown an increase in intraocular pressure in these cases which can worsen the condition of people with already weakened retinas. People with glaucoma should exercise special care Paramedics performing basic life support remove the tie from a victim as one of the very first steps when a victim is unconscious or has difficulty breathing to ensure it does not compromise the airway.

Ties can also be a health risk for persons other than the wearer. Ties worn by people working in medical professions are known as major vectors in the transmission of disease within hospitals. Notwithstanding this problem, doctors and dentists traditionally wear ties to project a professional image. The risk of cross-infection of patients by doctors wearing ties is being treated seriously by hospitals. It has been noted that ties are cleaned less often than most items of clothing and can carry bacteria. In fact, on

September 17, 2007, new rules were published for British hospitals to ban neckties. Doctors routinely lean across patients and ties frequently come into contact with patients — although this can be countered somewhat by a tie bar. As a result, bow ties have traditionally been popular with doctors. Medical professionals can mitigate this problem by changing into a newly washed tie each day.

Conclusion I think the best way to sum all of this up is with this quote from Chic Simple written by Michael Solomon, "They are not particularly comfortable. They always go out of style (or back in as soon as we have thrown them out). And they are not even practical. Yet the tie remains an essential part of a man's wardrobe because it unites all the elements of a man's outfit, giving him instant respectability and, above all, it is the ultimate symbol of individuality"

Marketing Research Survey
Project Name: Product/Category: Date: NECKTIE GARMENTS/APPARELS

Project Description:

Details: Name: Class: Roll No: College:

Questions:
ID Question Do you wear a neck 1 tie? What brands of necktie 2 do you wear / Know About? Do you know how to 3 tie a knot? 4 Selection 1. Yes 2. No Response/Comments

5

6

7

8

9

1. Yes 2. No 1 – 0-3 How Many neckties do 2 – 4-7 you have? 3 – 8 and above 1 – 0-1 month How often do you buy 2 – 1-3 months a necktie? 3 – 3 and above How important is that 1 – Not Important the necktie you 2 – Neutral purchase has a brand 3 – Important name? 4 – Very Important Please rate the 1. importance of each 1 – Least feature from 1 to 4: Important 2. 2 – Neutral 3 – Important 3. 4 – Most Important 4. Do you buy only a particular brand of necktie or u ready to switch to another brand? Where do you purchase a necktie from?

10

Why do you wear a necktie? Do you think necktie should be compulsory in an office? Have you purchased a necktie online? Do you think necktie is a good gift? Can u associate brand name ―HAWK‖ with a necktie? What is the price range within which you normally purchase a necktie?

1 – Discipline 2 – Fashion 3 – Status 4 – Compulsion 5 – Just 1. Yes 2. No 1. 2. 1. 2. Yes No Yes No

11 12 13 14

1. Yes 2. No 1. 100-1000 2. 1000-3000 3. 3000 and above

15

Bibliography

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Necktie

http://www.expresstextile.com/20050815/regulars02.shtml

(http://www.fibre2fashion.com/industry-article/10/925/indian-textile-andapparels1.asp ) http://www.textiletreasure.com http://www.fibre2fashion.com/industry-article/business-managementarticles-reports/the-evolution-of-neckties/the-evolution-of-neckties1.asp

http://www.fibre2fashion.com/industry-article/10/925/indian-textile-andapparels1.asp

http://www.necktie.com.sg/abtties/index.htm

www.Zodiaconline.com

The 85 Ways to Tie a Tie (ISBN 1-84115-249-8) is a book by Thomas Fink and Yong Mao

http://www.fibre2fashion.com/face2face/zodiac-clothing/ay-nooraniinterview.asp

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tie_pin

"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stock_tie

MR Magazine and the Neckwear Association of America's 1992 Handbook.

http://www.enotes.com/how-products-encyclopedia/necktie


								
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