The Pyramids in Giza

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					The Pyramids in Giza

 Graciela Montes de Oca
   Carolina Clemente
   The Great Pyramids of Giza
• The Giza Pyramids
  were plundered long
  ago of the bodies and
  anything entombed
  with them, despite the
  almost superhuman
  efforts of the
  Egyptians to protect
  the remains of their
          Egyptian Architecture
• It was only during the
  time of the Old Kingdom
  that the ancient Egyptians
  built pyramids to hold the
  royal tombs of their kings.
• Pyramids had storage
  rooms, courtyards, secret
  passageways, and all
  kinds of fancy traps
  designed to catch robbers
  who tried to break into the
  pyramid to rob it.
               Egyptian Crimes
• Pyramid construction was
  abandoned after the time
  of the Old Kingdom .
• Grave robbers knew
  exactly where the
  pharaohs were buried,
  and thus knew exactly
  where to find riches and
  wealth. If you were
  caught, the penalty for
  grave robbing was death
                  Hence’s Court
•    "From atop these
    pyramids, forty centuries
    look down upon you."

• Hence, he moved his
  court and residence
  farther north, where his
  prospectors had located a
  commanding rock cliff,
  overlooking present day
  Giza, appropriate for a
  towering pyramid
             Famous Pyramids
• This rock cliff was in the
  northernmost part of the
  first Lower Egyptian
• The Great Pyramids of
  Giza are some of the
  most famous manmade
  objects in the world, and
  they have been famous
  since ancient times
How Many Pyramids are in Egypt?

• However, there are
  actually over one
  hundred Pyramids in
  Egypt, including at
  least eight more at
  Giza (two belonging
  to kings and six to
      Where are the Pyramids
• Just about every
  pyramid, grand and
  small, is located
  within just a few miles
  of Egypt's modern
  capital, Cairo.
                 Pyramid - Tombs
• Pyramids in Egypt were only
  one type of tomb used mostly
  to bury kings and sometimes
  queens during a specific
  period of time.
• During the Pyramid Age, the
  mortuary temple was located
  right next to the pyramid itself,
  though after the Pyramid Age,
  the mortuary temple was
  separated from the tomb so
  that the tomb's location would
  be less obvious to grave
     Massive Stone Structures
• The Pyramids of Giza
  are the most famous
  monuments of ancient
• These massive stone
  structures were built
  around 4500 years
  ago on a rocky desert
  plateau close to the
• Giza is located only a few
  kilometers south of Cairo,
  several hundred meters
  from the last houses in
  the southernmost part of
  the city proper, where a
  limestone cliff rises
  abruptly from the other
  side of a sandy desert
• The ancient Egyptians
  called this place imentet,
  "The West" or kher neter,
  "the necropolis".
          What Was Used to
        Make the Great Pyramid?
• The older pyramids of the
  third and early fourth
  dynasty were built on
  thick layers of marl and
• These marl layers were
  easier to dig than
  limestone, so excavation
  of the large shafts that
  extended as much as 30
  meters beneath the step
  pyramids was
  accomplished in a
  reasonable time.
         Giza’s Great Wonders
• Giza can be subdivided
  into two groupings of
  monuments, clearly
  defined and separated by
  a wadi.
• The larger grouping
  consists of the three
  "Great" pyramids of
  Khufu, Khephren
  (Khafre), and Menkaure,
  the Sphinx, attendant
  temples and outbuildings,
  and the private mastabas
  of the nobility.
 One of the Seven Wonders in the
• During the Sixth
  Century BC onward,
  Greek travelers
  admired the pyramids
  at Giza, and it was
  they who eventually
  placed the
  monuments in the list
  of the Seven
  Wonders of the
  Ancient World.
             The 1st Pyramid
• The age of the first
  ancient wonders of
  the world began with
  the pyramids of
  Sneferu, he built three
  pyramids and may
  have had a hand in
         Pyramid Built by Slaves
• The Great Pyramid is an enigma - its origins
• Herodotus said that it would have taken 30 years
  and 100,000 slaves to have built it.
• Another theory is that it was built by peasants
  who were unable to work the land while the Nile
  flooded between July and November.
• They may have been paid with food for their
• The flooded waters would have also aided in the
  moving of the casing stones.
• These stones were brought from Aswan and
  Tura and the water would have brought the
  stones right to the pyramid.
• This pyramid is thought to have been built
  between 2589 - 2566 BC - the Fourth Dynasty by
  the Pharaoh Khufu.
  Pyramids for the Three Kings
• In the 26th century B. C.
  three kings ordered the
  construction of three huge
  pyramids that would be
  their tombs.
• The kings were Khufu, his
  son Khafre, and his
  grandson Menkure.
• The first of these three
  pyramids is known as the
  Great Pyramid.
• It was the largest pyramid
  ever built. It is so large that
  it can be seen from the
         The Smallest Pyramid
• Khafre's pyramid is only
  about 10 feet lower that
  his father's.
• Menkure's pyramid is
  much smaller at only 218
  feet tall.
• Three small pyramids
  built for Khufu's queens
  stand near his pyramid.
• Several temples and
  rectangular tombs of
  Khufu's relatives are near
  these pyramids.
                     The Khufu
• The jagged edges of the
  Pyramid of Khufu
  [Cheops; c.2585-2560
  B.C.E.] reveal the lack of
  the original smooth
  veneer of fine Tura
• This exterior stone was
  "quarried" away through
  the centuries to be used
  in other building projects.
• Only the Pyramid of
  Khafre [Chephren;
  c.2555-2532 B.C.E.]
  retains a small cap of its
  original veneer.
                Western Giza
• Giza is an important
  western district of the
  Egyptian capital Cairo
  - a city in its own
  right, but for a long
  time now absorbed as
  part of the heavily-
  populated and
  sprawling Cairo

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