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COMPUTER HARDWARE NETWORKING

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					Pakistani Urdu Forum for IT Education                              www.itdunya.com




                               PROJECT REPORT
                                            ON

                            COMPUTER HARDWARE
                                           AND

                                 NETWORKING

                                ACCOMPLISHED AT

                        MASS INFOTECH (CEDTI) ,
                      YAMUNA NAGAR (HARIYANA)

                SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
                               OF
          BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING (COMPUTER ENGG. DEPT.) ,
                              2004



         UNDERTAKEN BY:-                          SUBMITTED TO:-
         PANKAJ ACHARYA                          HEAD
         COMPUTER ENGG.                          TRAINING & PLACEMENT CELL

                  "POORNIMA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING"

                                        JAIPUR




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                            ACKNOWLEDGEMENT


              " MASS INFOTECH "              is affillited by CENTER         FOR
       ELECTRONICS             DESIGN           AND         TECHNOLOGY        OF
       INDIA(CEDTI).            Govt. of India, Ministry of Information Technology.
       This certificate was acquried in 1997 for hardware and networking.Even
       though for a very short span, to be able to work in" Mass infotech " has
       been a valuable experience in the practical education and has given me a
       priceless insight into the functioning of a team of technology in aproven
       productive environment. I here by present my sincere thanks to all the
       concerned authorities for helping me in completing the training . I am glad
       to thank "Mr. Rajiv Lamba" who gave me this golden chance to gain
       knowledge at their basestation. I also extend my heartiest thanks to all the
       engineers and faculty members for sparing their valuable time in
       guiding me through my training. In short I would like to thank all the staff
       members of "Mass Infotech" for their co-operation and healthy support.

                                                                  PANKAJ ACHARYA




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                                    PREFACE
                Today is the world of technology. There will be 5 crore computers
       and 10 crore mobile phones in the country by the end of the year 2008,
       bringing plethora of related job opportunities in manufacturing, services
       and maintenance in this arena of technology.

                 As an engineering graduate, innumerable career options are
       available for you in varied fields but you will definitely agree that technical
       careers offers not only good remuneration and growth prospects but social
       status and job satisfaction too. Therefore apart from the engineering
       degree, which is more or less theoretical in nature you are required to
       undertake practical training, which can give you an edge over others when
       you apply for the vacancies in the organizations.




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                                CONTENTS
                  • 1) HARDWARE
   a) Introduction of hardware.

                   • 2) INSIDE THE SYSTEM BOX.
   a) Center processing unit.
   b) Memory.
   c) Mother board/Electronic circuit
      board.
   d) Secondary storage devices.
   e) Different types of connector.
   f) Different types of card’s
           .
                   • 3)POWER
   a) SMPS.
   b) UPS

                    • 4)NETWORKING
   a) Introduction to networking.
   b) Types of networking.
   c) Topologies.

                   • 5)NETWORK DEVICES
   a) Hub, switch, router.
   b) Ccommunication channel.
   c) Cbles and connector.

                   • 6)RULES OF NETWORK
   a) Layers architecture.
   b) Protocol.
   c) Ip addressing.
   d) Network model.

                •7) CONNECTIVITY
       a) Workgroup network using WINDOWS XP
       b) Domain networking using WINDOWS 2000 SERVER & WINDOWS XP

                 •8) FUTURE OF NETWORKING.




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     COMPUTER HARDWARE:-

        The Indian hardware industry is expected to reach a size of USD 62 BILLION by
   2010, 12 times its existing size, with the domestic market accounting for USD 37 billion
   and exports for another USD 25 billion. The factors that would bring such mega growth
   are:
      1. The government has taken aggressive steps in providing quality infrastructure
     with “Hardware Parks” flexible labor policies, availability of skilled workers, congenial
     business environment, level playing field, right policies and incentives, concessional
     import duty, reduction in excise duty, customs, SAD, CVD and sales tax. All these
     factors will make the market respond positively, economics of scale will come into play
     and big hardware companies will be attracted to set up local manufacturing units. That
     would result in high demand of computer hardware and subsequently prices would
     come down and make it affordable for a general customer.

     2. Another major segment is “SCHOOLS & COLLEGES”. According to cll, if 20
        PCs are installed in each of the country’s 9, 00,000 schools, the immediate demand
        would be 18 million, 10 times the current market figure.

     3. Increase in the use of IT technologies in the government’s interface with the public
        has also stimulated the demand for computer hardware.

           Migration from the old manual system to computing is taking place in large
     portion of government –public interaction, especially in providing statutory services
     such as land records, property transactions, authentication services, dealings of
     publicly owned utilities, collections of variety of taxes and transportation (Railways,
     Roadways and Airways etc). it will lead to a phenomenal demand for increase in
     hardware and would provide a big boost to the sagging national economy.


              Central processing unit

          There are many vendor of the cpu in the market same of them are
          Intel, AMD, VIA/CYRIX, Transumeta / Motorola but the most popular are Intel
          and AMD Athelon. The X86 CPU architecture invented by Intel is the most
          popular for desktop computers today all the computers run the windows_9X
          operating system use X86 CPU




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          Intel corporation manufactured various kind of CPU’s but in market the most
          selling CPU we are concerning. P-3 , Celeron and P-4

          Celeron processor is a substitution of P-3 having same performance so Celeron is
          taking place of P-3.

          When P-4 came the total architecture is different from P-3.
          P-3 has 0.18 micron technology and the P-4 has 0.13 micron technology.

          P-4 if focused on multimedia, multitasking, multithreading. This gives batter
          performance in gaming, internet computing speed.

          SYNTAX FOR CPU RECOGNITION

           Name – speed in MHz/cache (KB)/FSB

          e.g. --- Intel Pentium 3 –1133/256/100


          CACHE MEMORY OF CPU

          This is a memory associated with CPU, and often the motherboard. This is a type
          of memory that’s used to hold a duplicate of a larger store. This is faster than the
          main memory .By placing the most often accessed data in the cache memory,
          overall system speed increases.
          Type of cache memory.
                    (1) L1 cache
                    (2) L2 cache


          L1 CACHE MEMORY (LEVEL 1 CACHE)

          This is closet to the CPU is the level 1 or L1 since 80486 an L1 cache has been
          built in to the CPU itself. This cache run at the CPU’s internal speed and so is
          very fast.




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          Celeron ---------- L1 cache is 16KB+16KB
          Pentium 3 ------- L1 cache is 16KB+16KB
          AMD athlon----- L1 cache is 128KB

          Since L1 cache is part of the CPU it can’t be expanded or replaced.



          L2 CACHE MEMORY (LEVEL 2 CACHES)

          A L2 cache is more copious than an L1 cache, but it’s also slower. For CPU after
          Pentium Processor this is coated on the CPU package.


               CPU                                     L2 CACHE SIZE
          PENTIUM-3                                    256-512KB
          CELERON                                      0-128KB
          AMD ATHLON                                   512KB

          Placing the L2 cache on the CPU module improves performance relative to
          putting it on the motherboard largely because the cache can operate at a faster
          speed.


          FSB (FRONT SIDE BUS)/ CPU BUS
          Modern CPU’S run at two separate speeds: the core speed and the bus speed. The
          core speed is the no. associate most strongly with the CPU and is the speed at
          which most of CPU circuitry runs. The bus speed is the speed of interface
          between CPU and the motherboard. Now a days bus speed range from 66 MHz
          To theoretical maximum of 400 MHz for slot A.(Main socket).
          In order to set the CPU core speed motherboard includes jumpers or BIOS
          settings to specify a clock multiplier. The CPU runs its core at the bus speed
          multiplied by the clock multiplier.
          E.g. 113.3MHz bus speed with a 10X clock gives CPU speed 1133 MHz(core
          speed).


                 CPU VOLTAGE

          +Vcc supply to CPU is +5v and V core = 1.7 v.

          As the CPU speed increases it becomes desirable to reduce the CPU voltage. In
          order to reduce the heat buildup inside the chips. For cooling a heat sink fan is
          mounted on the CPU.




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          MEMORY.


                 IDEA BEHIND BIOS

                 ROM-BIOS It is short form for read only memory -basic input output
          system. The ROM-BIOS is a set of Program built into the computer ROM
          memory that Provides the most basic, low level and intimate control And
          supervision operation for the computer.
                 =>The task of the bios is to take care of the immediate needs of the
          hardware and to isolate all other programs from the details of how the hardware
          works.
                 =>fundamentally the bios is an interface a connection and a Translator
          between the computer hardware and the software Programs.

                 PARTS OF BIOS

                 There are three main part of the ROM-bios program.

                 First part:-
                                This part is used only when the computer is first turned ON;
          these are Test and Initialization program that check to see that the computer is
          working. The delay between powering on the computer and The moment when it
          start working for you is due to running of these test and initialization program
          which sometimes are Called the POWER ON SELF TEST (POST).

                 Second part:-
                                         Important parts of the bios are its routimes.These
          programs provides the detailed and intimate control of The various part of the
          computer, particularly for the input/output Peripherals, such as the disk drives.


                 Third part:-
                  Rom-bios are the boot strap loader program.

                 Basic content of bios:


                         Standard CMOS feature.
                         Advanced bios feature.



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                         Advanced chipset feature.
                         Integrated peripherals.
                         Power management setup.
                         PnP /PCI configuration.
                         Pc health status.
                         Frequency/voltage control.
                         Load optimized default.
                         Set supervisor password.
                         Set user password.
                         Save & exit setup.
                         Exit without saving.


                 Booting:-
                        The time duration between the appearance of the dos prompt or any
                 window and the switch on the power supply the whole process is known
                 as the booting process.

                 TYPE OF BOOTING
                         A) COLD BOOTING
                         B) WARM BOOTING

                 COLD BOOTING:-
                 When we switch off the computer completely and properly after some
          time we start Computer again is known as the cold booting.

                 WARM BOOTING:-
                  When we restart the computer from the restart button or using the key by
          simply pressing them i.e. ctrl+alt+del key is known as warm Booting.

                 MINIMUM REQUIREMENT FOR BOOTING:
                 For booting we required minimum three files-
                        1) ms_dos.sys
                        2) io.sys
                        3) Command.com
                 In these files first two files are hidden files and the third one is normal file.




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          MOTHERBOARD

                 If the CPU is the heart of the system the motherboard is its circulatory
          system. The CPU has to be fitted on the socket on the Board. The board has input
          output ports, ram, PCI slots, IDE port, chipset, Power connector, AGP slot, other
          expansion slots, floppy port.

          The key features of the motherboard.
          1. Socket
          2. memory support
          3. expansion slots
          4. onboard IDE channels
          5. Power supply and Power management
          6. chipset
          7. BIOS
          8. Battery
          9. Input/output ports.




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          SECONDARY STORAGE DEVICE

          HARD DISK DRIVE
                  Hard disk are thin but rigid metal platters covered with a substances
          That allows data to be held in the form of magnetized spots. Hard disk are
          Tightly sealed within an enclosed hard disk drive unit to prevent any foreign
          Matter from getting inside Data may be recorded on both sides of the disk
          Platters. These platters are made of either using glass or aluminum.




                          A head crash happens when the surface of the read write head or
          particles on its surface come into contact within the surface of the hard disk
          platter, causing the loss of some or all of the data on the disk.
                Both EIDE(enhanced integrated device electronics) and SCSI(small
          computer System interface) disks suffer from the limit of 1024 cylinder. The
          difficulty is that the old CHS (cylinder/head/sector) addressing mode uses a 10 bit
          number can hold a value of between 0 and 1023 , So the number of cylinders
          accessible by the BIOS is limited to 1024 hard disk performance measurements
          are-

                 (1)     disk head seek time
                 (2)     data transfer rate
                 (3)     disk’s cache size.

          Disk head seek time
          Time taken to seek the data by move the head is referred as the seek time. The
          seek Time measurement that’s most often used is the average seek time, which is




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          the average time move the head from one location to a randomly selected other
          location.


                    Another measurement closely related to seek time involves a second
          component beyond the head movement latency ‘Latency’ is the time it takes the
          desired sector to come up under the read/write head after a seek operation and
          average out to half the time it takes for a rotation of the disk platter. The
          combination of seek time and latency is known as access time. Seek time, latency
          , and access lime are all measured in milliseconds. Seek time of 5ms-10ms and
          spin at 5400 and 10000 Rpm( lower latencies being associated with higher spin
          rates.)

          DISK TRANSFER RATE
                  This simply means how quickly the disk can transfer data to and from the
          computer. The disk spins at the same rate no matter what cylinder is being read,
          but modern hard drive design place more sectors along outer cylinder than along
          inner ones. This means that data read from the outer cylinder transfer faster than
          to data read from inner cylinders. Hence the internal data rate is variable.

          DISK SPIN RATE
          The faster a hard disk spins, the faster it can transfer data for this reason
          manufactures speed up spin rate now a days 10000 rpm hard disk an popular

                  7,200 rpm HDD - Baracuda hard disk
                 10,000 rpm HDD - Cheetah hard disk

                A drive with fewer cylinders but more sectors per cylinder faster than one
          with more cylinders and fewer sectors per cylinder, all other things being equal.

          HEAT GENERATION AND DISSIPATION.
                  As hard drives have spun faster they are developed increasing problems
          with heat. The faster spin rate produce increased heat and from friction and from
          the increased demands placed on electronic circuits that process the data. The
          most common method of providing extra cooling to extra hot drives cooling fan to
          your system. These device mount in a 5.25 Inch drive bay and allow to mount a
          3.5 inch drive within adapter rails the front bezel incorporates two or three small
          fans that blow air onto the hard disk.

          DISK CACHE SIZE

                    All modern hard drives incorporate a disk cache typically between 512kb
          and 2mb in size. This cache is composed of RAM chips. Most Operating systems
          including LINUX maintain their own disk Cache in computer’s RAM this is more
          faster. In case of LINUX the disk cache can grow and shrink as necessary.



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          FLOPPY DISK DRIVE

                  A floppy disk drive is a storage device that stores data on removable
          3.5inch diameter diskettes These are encased in hard plastic but the mylar disk
          inside flexible or floppy Each can store 1.44 million Bytes(characters) or more of
          data. Floppy disk have a ‘Write protect notch’ which allows you to prevent a
          diskette from being written to. On the diskette data is recorded in concentrics
          circres called tracks.




          OPTICAL DISKS: CDs AND DVDs

                  An optical disk is a removable disk, usually 4.75 inches in diameter and
          less than one twentieth of an inch thick on which data is written and read through
          the use of laser beams.To read the data, a low power laser light seams the disk
          surface: pitted areas are not reflected and are interpreted as 0 bits, smooth areas
          are reflected and are interpreted as 1 bits.

          (1) CD-ROM(Compact disc read only memoly)

                 It only reads a CD and cannot after its contents A CD-ROM disk capacity
          is 650 mb -750mb the speed of a cd is read in x eg.’52x’ , which menas ->
          1x=150 kb/s of transfer rate, so 44x gives 6600 kb persecond.




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          (2)CD-R(Compact disk recordable)

          The disk can be written once but can be read many times.



           (3)CD-RW(compact disk rewritable)

                  This is an erasable optical disk allows user to record and erase data so that
          the disk can be used over and over again CD-RW disks can not be read by CD-
          ROM.


          CONNECTORS:




                 (1)keyboard connector
                 (2) mouse connector
                 (3) usb connector
                 (4)serial port connector
                 (5)power supply connector
                 (6)ATX connector
                 (7)AT and baby AT connector
                 (8)fan connector
                 (9)vcore connector
                 (10)cd audio jack connector

           USB Connector

                           Universal serial bus is the latest craze in external device connector
          It is faster than Rs-232 serial Most importantly, all the USB devices attached to a
          computer(up to 127) consume a single interrupt(IRQ). If we have other USB



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          devices such as a USB digital camera or modem we might able to save an
          interrupt by rutting mouse on the USB port as well .




                 When computer Boot up IRQ is reserved for all the peripherals connected
          to board but in case of the mouse or some other device is connected to the port
          than its driver will not be loaded and after starting operating system the
          connecting of mouse will not work but for the USB port whether the drive is
          connected or not the IRQ is reserved so that whenever we want to attach USB
          Camera it does not bother.

          Serial port connector

                  Conventionally serial ports more properly referred to as RS-232 These
          are mostly used to attach x86 computers modern computers use 9-pin serial port
          connectors generally that are used for mouse and connected at COM port m/b
          have 2 com ports COM 1 and COM 2 These days mouse port come separately and
          COM port are used for other devices to communicate.

          power supply connector

                  Generally it has 4 wires for power conduction .these are plugged into the
          device in only one way .3.5 inch floppy use smaller connectors. Power splitter is
          used to split the power to connect more devices. One or two splitter probably does
          not constitute problem.
                  The connector has 4 wires.
          (a)Red         +5v DC
          (b)Black        GND
          (c)Black         GND




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          (d)Yellow      +12v DC




             ATX Connector

                       At is the newer version of AT/Baby AT. ATX motherboard use a
          single keyed power connector in contrast to the dual connectors of AT and Baby
          AT boards. The keyed ATX power connector makes it nearly impossible to
          destroy a motherboard by connecting power supply incorrectly. In addition ,ATX
          boards run on 3.3v eliminating the need of voltage regulator.




                        ATX boards also host a series of power related changes, allowing
          the computer to power itself off when the o.s. shuts down power itself on in
          response to specified events, go into low power mode and so on .

          These are of 4 types-
               (a)ATX
               (b)Mini-ATX
               (c)Micro-ATX
               (d)Flex-ATX

          AT and Baby AT connectors

                    This kind of connectors are used in small system like laptop and small
          cabinets this was used before ATX come for home uses.Generally they have 5-pin



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          DIN connector.

                  AT and Baby AT motherboards used a pair of power connector, which had
          to be attached to the case’s power supply via cables permanently attached to the
          power supply in such case M/B voltage is 5v.




                 But today’s motherboard required 3.3v.so such m/B required voltage
          regulators which converts 5v to 3.3v these voltage regulators produced heat and
          depending upon the amount of current drawn by the CPU could overheat and
          cause unreliable operation.

          FAN Connector
                      CPU cooling FAN, system FAN has required power supply to move
          fan .these have 3 pin connector inserted at motherboard at particular place.




                 V-core Connector

                 In some m/B there is no provision for internally give voltage to CPU like
          new boards. They have this connector which is key locked to m/B and give
          required voltage to CPU.



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              CD audio jack Connector.
                   This connector has double ended. One inserted into CDROM drive and
          other end is connected to CD IN near the sound chip on motherboard. This is used
          in case of running audio CD without as interface.




                 Different types of cards

          There are of seven types of cards-

          (1)DISPLAY CARD

               (a) CGA->
                       color graphical adaptor
                       This is of 9 pin card.
                       8088,80286,80386
                       8bit isa slot



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               (b) VGA->
                       video graphical adaptor
                       15 pin cards.
                       m/b 80486,PI
                       16bit/32bit/64bit.

                 (c) Dual CGA card->
                        9pin+25pin
                        9pin->monitor
                        25pin->printer
                        4 MB in size

          (2)IDE CARD [integrated device electronics]

                        16 bit cards.
                        These cards are used for H.D.D and F.D.D control.

          (3)SIDE CARD [super integrated device electronics]

                        F.D.C/H.D.C/MOUSE/PRINTER/GAME CONTROLLER
                        16bit/32bit
                        Com1->mouse
                        Com2->external modem[10 pin]

          (4)SOUND CARD
                     (a) non-pci->
                               16bit/32bit
                     (b) pci->
                               64bit
                               in this card there is a 15 pin game controller and au out
                               ,mic,Line in
                               4 MB in size
          (5)NETWORK CARD (LAN card)

             (a) 32bit LAN card
                        Speed is 10 MBits/s.
                        There two types of connectors used.
                             • BNC->Broadcast network connector
                             • RJ->Register jack connector(RJ->45)




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                      Boot rom->it is an IC used to boot all the other pc’s which has no hard
          disk but they can be boot with the help of network boot this process is done by the
          help of Boot rom.



          b) 64 bit LAN card,
                                         Speed is 100Mb.

          (6)MODEM.

                                      Convert analog signal into digital signal and vice
                                      versa.
                                      There are two types of modem.
                              a) External Modem.
                                       Speed        of       the      modem         card
                                       24/28/33/40/50/56.6Kbps

                                b) Internal Modem.
                                        Having same speed as external card .it is also PCI
                                        Card (64bit).its speed which is now a day used is
                                        56.6Kbps.

          (7)TV-TUNNER CARD
                                It is also a PCI card of 64 bit.
                                it is two types
                                (a) Internal
                                (b)External



            POWER SUPPLY

                 Most of the cases come with power supplies. Each variety of case -ATX,
          AT tower. It is possible to overload a power supply but power splitter. Since we
          know
                    WATTS=VOLTS*AMPS

                  Capacity of power supply measures in wattage. eg. if a 5v device draws 10
          amps, it consumes 50 watts. As an example a computer with one 15a card, two PC
          cards, a 3.5 inch floppy disk ,two HDD, a cd-rom and two extra cooling fan.


                  Adding up these values, this computer requires 50.16w from 3.3v, 77.5w
          from 5v and 70.5w from 12v for a total of 198.16w. The motherboard consumes a




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          few more watts, as well perhaps 25w or so depending on the board and cpu. Not
          all devices require their max. amounts of power at the same time. Typically for
          instance, harddisk require a great deal of power when they start up to over come
          the inertia inherent in stopped disk platters.

          WIRES IN POWER SUPPLY

                 •       The green wire, it present is a grounding wire. Attach it to any
          convenient metal part of the case.
                 •       The black and white wires connect to the angled tabs on (toggle)
          the power switch.
                 •       The brown and blue wires connect to the tabs that are parallel to
          one another on the switch. The brown and blue wires always carry current when
          the power supply is plugged in. Therefore, we should only try to connect or
          disconnect these wires ofter unplugging.




                   SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLY(SMPS)

                  It is the power supply system used in the system box. The switch mode
          power supply(SMPS) is use 220v as the input and at the out it gives DC current
          with different values used by different component of the computer as +5v used by
          keyboard LED , +12v used by SMPS cooling fan and +12v for processor cooling
          fan. The out put power supply so we get form the SMPS while using the different
          type of color. They are basically of six color.

                   Different color wire from SMPS with the voltage they have-
                                         yellow ----------->+12v
                                         red   ------------>+5v
                                         black ------------>GND
                                         blue ------------>-12v
                                         white ------------>-5v
                                         orange------------->power signal identify

                   We have two type of the SMPS cabinate-

                         ATX--->Advance Technology Exchange
                         AT ---->Advance Technology

               •    ATX cabinate has ATX SMPS have 20 pin with lock system.




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               •   AT cabinate has AT SMPS have 12 pin with center wire black color.




          UNINTRRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY
                 It is an device which is used to store the elecric power when the main
          power supply is cut off by any reasion. Then we can use the power of the ups
          which is allready store in the UPS. It basically contain the storage battery which



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          store the power supply. It take 220v as the input and gave 220v as the output. It
          also contain the transformer used to step up the electricity.




                 NETWORKING



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            INTRODUCTION
                 A computer network is group of computers that are connected together to
          share resources, such as hardware, data, and/or Software. It is a data
          communication system that interconnects computer Systems at different sites.
          Networking is a collection of individual networks, connected by Intermediate
          Working devices that function as a single large network. Industries, colleges &
          many business organizations use internetworking. For many purpose such as fast
          communications internally, sharing a device for many computers and for many
          other purposes also.


          HISTORY & CHALLENGES of NETWORKING

                  The first networks were timesharing networks that use mainframes and
           attached terminals. LAN evolved around PC evaluation. LAN enabled multiple
          users in a limited geographical area. Lack of management and duplication of
          resources resulted in evolution of LAN. Challenges were connecting various



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          systems together having various Technologies. Making standards was again a big
          challenge. Challenges were face in mostly these areas such as connectivity,
          reliability, network management & flexibility. The final concern was related to
          network expansion & new technologies.




            TYPES OF NETWORKS

                 1.      LAN (local area network)
                 2.      MAN (metropolitan area network)
                 3.      WAN (wide area network




                  LOCAL AREA
                  NETWORK
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               INTRODUCTION TO LOCAL AREA NETWORK(LAN)

                    A local area network is a group of computers and associated devices that
          share a common Communications line or wireless link and typically share the
          resources of a single processor or server within a small geographic area. Usually,
          the server has applications and data storage that are shared in common by
          multiple computer users. A local area network may serve as few as two or three
          users or as many as thousands of users.

                 A non-public data Communications network Confined to a limited
          geographic area (usually within a few miles), used to provide communication
          between computers and peripherals. The area served may consist of a single
          building, a cluster of buildings, or a campus-type arrangement.

                  In a typical LAN configuration, one computer is designated as the file
          server. It stores all of the software that controls the network, as well as the
          software that can be shared by the computers attached to the network. Computers
          Connected to the file server are called work stations. The workstations can be less
          powerful than the file server, and they may have additional software on their hard
          drives. cables are used to connect the network interface cards in each computer.




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              OPEN SYSTEM INTERCONNECTION MODEL (OSI)

                The International Standards Organization developed a
          theoretical model of how networks should behave and how they
          are put together. The ISO's model is used through the industry
          today to describe various networking issues. This model is called
          the Open Standards Interconnect Model.

                The Open Systems Interconnection reference model for
          describing network protocols was devised by the Internet
          Standards Organization. It divides protocols in to seven layers to
          standardize and simplify definitions.



           SEVEN LAYERS OF OSI MODEL



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                 1.         Application Layer

                 2.         Presentation Layer

                 3.         Session Layer

                 4.         Transport Layer

                 5.         Network Layer

                 6.         Data-link Layer

                 7.         Physical Layer




  Layer                                                                  Protocol N/W
                                   Function                                       Device
Application             •       used for applications specifically DNS; FTP; Gateway
User            written to run over the network                        TFTP;
Interface                                                              TELNET;
                        •       allows access to network services that NCP;
                support applications;
                        •      directly represents the services that
                directly support user applications
                       •       handles network access, flow control
                and error recovery
                        •        Example apps are file transfer-mail.
Present-               Translates from application to network format           Gateway
ation           and vice-versa all different formats from all sources
Translation     are made into a common uniform format.
                Responsible for protocol conversion, character
                conversion, data encryption / decryption, data



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                compression.
Session "syncs        establishes, maintains and ends sessions NetBIOS          Gateway
and sessions" across the network provides synchronization services RPC
                by planning check points in the data stream => if
                session fails, only data after the most recent
                checkpoint need be transmitted manages who can
                transmit data at a certain time and for how long

Transport             •       divides streams of data into chunks or TCP, ARP, Gateway
packets; flow packets; the transport layer of the receiving computer RARP;     Brouter
control      & reassembles the message from packets
error-handling
                      •       provides flow control & error-
               checking to guarantee error-free data delivery, with
               on losses or duplications
                       •       provides      acknowledgment       of
                successful transmissions; requests retransmission if
                some packets don’t arrive error-free




  Network            •     translates logical network
              address and names to their MAC address IP;               Router
  addressing;
              responsible for addressing, determining ARP; RARP,
                                                                       ATM
  routing     routes for sending , managing network ICMP;
                                                                       Switch
              problem                                 IGMP;
                     •      If router can’t send data IPX
              frame as large as the source computer
              sends, the network layer compensates by OSI
              breaking the data into smaller units. At the
              receiving end, the network layer
              reassembles the data

  Data Link         •      Turns packets into raw bits at Logical Link bridge
  data      the receiving end turn bits into packets.     Control      Switch
  frames to                                                     error
  bits              •      handles data frames between correction and Hub




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              the Network and Physical layers                  flow control   NIC
                     •        the receiving end packages          802.1
              raw data from the Physical layer into data OSI Model
              frames for delivery to the Network layer
                                                                  802.2
                      •       responsible for error-free Logical      Link
              transfer of frames to other computer via the Control
              Physical Layer
                                                                  Media
                      •       This layer defines the Access Control
              methods used to transmit and receive data
              on the network. It consists of the wiring; the
              devices use to connect the NIC to the
              wiring, the signaling involved transmitting /
              receiving data.

  Physical           •       transmits raw bit stream over IEEE 802           Repeater
              physical cable                               IEEE 802.2         Multiplexer
  hardware;
  raw    bit        •       defines cables, cards, and ISO 2110               Hubs
  stream     physical aspects
                                                       ISDN
                    •       defines NIC attachments to
             hardware, how cable is attached to NIC
                     •        defines techniques to transfer
              bit stream to cable .




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             WORKING OF OSI MODEL




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                            COMMUNICATION
      SYSTEM -1                                           SYSTEM -2




           Components of LAN


          (a) Network Cabling

          (b) Network Devices

          (c) Network Topology




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          (d) Protocols



             What is Network Cabling?
                  Cable is the medium through which information usually moves from one
          network device to another. There are several types of cable which are commonly
          used with LANs. In some cases, a network will utilize only one type of cable,
          other networks will use a variety of cable types. The type of cable chosen for a
          network is related to the network's topology, protocol, and size. Understanding
          the characteristics of different types of cable and how they relate to other aspects
          of a network is necessary for the development of a successful network.


                  The following sections discuss the types of cables used in networks and
          other related topics.

               • Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable
               •   Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable

               •   Coaxial Cable

               •   Fiber Optic Cable



            Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable

                  Twisted pair cabling comes in two varieties: shielded and unshielded.
          Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) is the most popular and is generally the best option
          for school networks. The quality of UTP may vary from telephone-grade wire to
          extremely high-speed cable. The cable has four pairs of wires inside the jacket.
          Each pair is twisted with a different number of twists per inch to help eliminate
          interference from adjacent pairs and other electrical devices. The tighter is the

          twisting, the higher is supported transmission rate and the greater the cost per
          foot. The EIA/TIA (Electronic Industry Association/Telecommunication Industry
          Association) has established standards of UTP and rated five categories of wire.


          Unshielded Twisted Pair Connector

                 The standard connector for unshielded twisted pair cabling is an RJ-45
          connector. This is a plastic connector that looks like a large telephone-style
          connector . A slot allows the RJ-45 to be inserted only one way. RJ stands for
          Registered Jack, implying that the connector follows a standard borrowed from



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          the telephone industry. This standard designates which wire goes with each pin
          inside the connector

           Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable

                 A disadvantage of UTP is that it may be susceptible to radio and electrical
          frequency interference. Shielded twisted pair (STP) is suitable for environments
          with electrical interference; however, the extra shielding can make the cables
          quite bulky. Shielded twisted pair is often used on networks using Token Ring
          topology.


           Coaxial Cable

                 Coaxial cabling has a single copper conductor at its center. A plastic layer
          provides insulation between the center conductor and a braided metal shield .The
          metal shield helps to block any outside interference from fluorescent lights,
          motors, and other computers

          Fiberoptics

                 Fiber optics is a system which transmits signals from one location to
          another through a thin strand of glass which carries light pulses to carry data. This
          transmission system works on the same principle that copper wires do, but is done
          in a different way. Data is encoded from electrical signals into optical light pulses,
          sent through a glass medium and converted back and decoded at the other end.
          Both copper and optics use electricity at the end of their lines, but optics uses light
          in between to carry the data.




            NETWORK DEVICES


                 INTRODUCTION

                Network Devices is a machine or component that is attached to a
          computer. Examples of devices include disk drives, printers, mice, and DSL




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          modems. These particular devices fall into the category of peripheral devices
          because they are separate from the main computer.
                  Most devices, whether peripheral or not, require a program called a device
          driver that acts as a translator, converting general commands from an application
          into specific commands that the device understands.




                 Types of Network Devices: ─
                 1.      Hub
                 2.      Switch
                 3.      Router
                 4.      Repeater
                 5.      Network card
                 6.      Bridge
                 7.      Gateways
                 HUB

                  As its name implies, a hub is a center of activity. In more specific network
          terms, a hub, or concentrator, is a common wiring point for networks that are
          based around a star topology. Arcnet, 10base-T, and 10base-F, as well as many
          other proprietary network topologies, all rely on the use of hubs to connect
          different cable runs and to distribute data across the various segments of a



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          network. Hubs basically act as a signal splitter. They take all of the signals they
          receive in through one port and redistribute it out through all ports.

                         Hub works on Physical Layer of OSI model.


               SWITCH

                   A Switch is a devicethat provides a central connection point for cables
          from workstations, servers, and peripherals. In a star topology, twisted-pair wire
          is run from each workstation to a central switch/hub. Most switches are active,
          that is they electrically amplify the signal as it moves from one device to another.
          Switches no longer broadcast network packets as hubs did in the past, they
          memorize addressing of computers and send the information to the correct
          location directly. Switches are:
                         Usually configured with 8, 12, or 24 RJ-45 ports
                         Switch works on Data-Link Layer of OSI model.
                         Often used in a star or star-wired ring topology
                         Sold with specialized software for port management
                         Usually installed in a standardized metal rack that also may store
                         net DSL modems, bridges, or routers
                   Switches subdivide larger networks and prevent the unnecessary flow of
          network traffic from one segment to another, or in the case of cross-segment
          traffic, switches direct the frames only across the segments containing the source
          and destination hosts.
                   This ensures the integrity of our data; it does nothing to increase overall
          network speed. Switches help to ensure additional network access opportunities
          for attached devices (increasing speed and reducing traffic) by restricting data
          flows to local segments unless frames are destined for a host located on another
          segment. The switch examine the destination address and forward the requisite
          frames only across the destination segment, leaving all additional segments
          attached to that switch free from that particular broadcast and (theoretically) able
          to facilitate local-segment traffic. Rather than being a passive connection between
          multiple segments, the switch works to ensure that network traffic burdens the
          fewest number of segments POSSIBLE.

         Difference between a hub and a switch

                 Hubs and switches are different types of network equipment that connect
          devices. They differ in the way that they pass on the network traffic that they



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          receive. Switches differ in some ways. They can be of the store-and-forward type,
          storing each incoming packet in an internal buffer before forwarding it, or cut-
          through, beginning to forward packets already after their header is in and before
          the rest of the packet has been received. Hubs repeat everything they receive and
          can be used to extend the network. However, this can result in a lot of
          unnecessary traffic being sent to all devices on the network. Hubs pass on traffic
          to the network regardless of the intended destination.
                  In a small network (less than 30 users), a hub (or collection of hubs) can
          easily cope with the network traffic generated and is the ideal piece of equipment
          to use for connecting the users.
                 When the network gets larger (about 50 users), you may need to use a
          switch to divide the groups of hubs, to cut down the amount of unnecessary traffic
          being generated.




           Network Interface Cards

                  The network interface card (NIC) provides the physical connection
          between the network and the computer workstation. Most NICs are internal, with
          the card fitting into an expansion slot inside the computer. Some computers, such
          as Mac Classics, use external boxes which are attached to a serial port or a SCSI
          port. Laptop computers can now be purchased with a network interface card built-
          in or with network cards that slip into a PCMCIA slot.
                 Network interface cards are a major factor in determining the speed and
          performance of a network. It is a good idea to use the fastest network card
          available for the type of workstation you are using.
                 The three most common network interface connections are Ethernet cards,
          Local Talk connectors, and Token Ring cards. According to a International Data
          Corporation study, Ethernet is the most popular, followed by Token Ring and
          Local Talk.



          TOPOLOGY

                 The physical topology of a network refers to the configuration of cables,
          computers, and other peripherals. Physical topology should not be confused with
          logical topology which is the method used to pass information between
          workstations.




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           Main Types of Topologies:─
                   The following sections discuss the topologies used in networks .
                          Linear Bus
                          Star
                          Star-Wired Ring
                          Tree



            Linear Bus
                  A linear bus topology consists of a main run of cable with a terminator at
          each end. All nodes (file server, workstations, and peripherals) are connected to
          the linear cable. Ethernet and Local Talk networks use a linear bus topology

            Star
                 A star topology is designed with each node (file server, workstations, and
          peripherals) connected directly to a central network hub on a star network passes
          through the hub before continuing to its destination. The hub manages and
          controls all functions of the network. It also acts as a repeater for the data flow.
          This configuration is common with twisted pair cable & also used with coaxial
          cable or fiber optic cable.

           Tree
                  A tree topology combines characteristics of linear bus and star topologies.
          It consists of groups of star-configured workstations connected to a linear bus
          backbone cable.




            PROTOCOLS
                  A protocol is a set of rules that governs the communications between
          computers on a network. These rules include guidelines that regulate the
          following characteristics of a network: access method, allowed topologies, types
          of cabling, and speed of data transfer.
                   The most common protocols are:



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                 ♦Ethernet
                 ♦Token ring
                 ♦FDDI
                 ♦ATM
                 ♦IP protocol
                 ♦TCP protocol



          Ethernet
                 The Ethernet protocol is by far the most widely used. Ethernet uses an
          access method called CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision
          Detection). This is a system where each computer listens to the cable before
          sending anything through the network. If the network is clear, the computer will
          transmit. If some other node is already transmitting on the cable, the computer
          will wait and try again when the line is clear.
                  Sometimes, two computers attempt to transmit at the same instant. When
          this happens a collision occurs. Each computer then backs off and waits a random
          amount of time before attempting to retransmit. With this access method, it is
          normal to have collisions. However, the delay caused by collisions and
          retransmitting is very small and does not normally effect the speed of
          transmission on the network.
                 The Ethernet protocol allows for linear bus, star, or tree topologies. Data
          can be transmitted over twisted pair, coaxial, or fiber optic cable at a speed of 10
          Mbps up to 1000 Mbps.

          Fast Ethernet
                 To allow for an increased speed of transmission, the Ethernet protocol has
          developed a new standard that supports 100 Mbps. This is commonly called Fast
          Ethernet. Fast Ethernet requires the use of different, more expensive network hubs
          and network interface cards.

          Token Ring
                 The Token Ring protocol was developed by IBM in the mid-1980s. The
          access method used involves token-passing. In Token Ring, the computers are
          connected so that the signal travels around the network from one computer to
          another in a logical ring. A single electronic token moves around the ring from
          one computer to the next. If a computer does not have information to transmit, it
          simply passes the token on to the next workstation. If a computer wishes to
          transmit and receives an empty token, it attaches data to the token. The token then



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          proceeds around the ring until it comes to the computer for which the data is
          meant. At this point, the data is captured by the receiving computer.


                 The Token Ring protocol requires a star-wired ring using twisted pair or
          fiber optic cable. It can operate at transmission speeds of 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps.
          Due to the increasing popularity of Ethernet, the use of Token Ring in school
          environments has decreased.

           IP Addressing

                  The IP addressing scheme is integral to the process of routing IP data
          gram through an internet work. Each IP address has specific components and
          follows a basic format. These can be sub divided and used to create addresses for
          sub networks. Each host on a TCP/IP network is assigned a unique 32-bit logical
          address that is divided into two main parts: the network number and the host
          number. The network number identifies a network and must be assigned by the
          Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC) if the network is to be part of the
          Internet


           IP Address Format

                  The 32-bit IP address is grouped eight bits at a time, separated by dots,
          and represented in decimal format (known as dotted decimal notation). Each bit in
          the octet has a binary weight (128, 64, 32, 16, 8, 4, 2, 1). The minimum value for
          an octet is 0, and the maximum value for an octet is 255.




          IP Subnet Addressing
                 IP networks can be divided into smaller networks called subnetworks (or
          subnets). Subnetting provides the network administrator with several benefits,
          including extra flexibility, more efficient use of network addresses, and the
          capability to contain broadcast traffic (a broadcast will not cross a router).




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                 Subnets are under local administration. A given network address can be
          broken up into many subnetworks. For example, 172.16.1.0, 172.16.2.0,
          172.16.3.0, and 172.16.4.0 are all subnets within network 171.16.0.0. (All 0s in
          the host portion of an address specifies the entire network.)

           IP Subnet Mask

                  A subnet address is created by "borrowing" bits from the host field and
          designating them as the subnet field. The number of borrowed bits varies and is
          specified by the subnet mask




                 Subnet masks use the same format and representation technique as IP
          addresses. The subnet mask, however, has binary 1s in all bits specifying the
          network and subnetwork fields, and binary 0s in all bits specifying the host field.
          Subnet mask bits should come from the high-order (left-most) bits of the host
          field.

          Various types of subnet masks for Class B and C subnets




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                  The default subnet mask for a Class B address that has no subnetting is
          255.255.0.0, while the subnet mask for a Class B address 171.16.0.0 that specifies
          eight bits of subnetting is 255.255.255.0. The reason for this is that eight bits of
          subnetting or 28 - 2 (1 for the network address and 1 for the broadcast address) =
          254 subnets possible, with 28 - 2 = 254 hosts per subnet.
                 The subnet mask for a Class C address 192.168.2.0 that specifies five bits
          of subnetting is 255.255.255.248.With five bits available for subnetting

                  25 - 2 = 30 subnets possible, with 23 - 2 = 6 hosts per subnet. The reference
          charts shown in table 30-2 and table 30-3 can be used when planning Class B and
          C networks to determine the required number of subnets and hosts, and the
          appropriate subnet mask.

          How Subnet Masks are Used to Determine the Network Number

                  The router performs a set process to determine the network (or more
          specifically, the subnetwork) address. First, the router extracts the IP destination
          address from the incoming packet and retrieves the internal subnet mask.
                  It then performs a logical AND operation to obtain the network number.
          This causes the host portion of the IP destination address to be removed, while the
          destination network number remains.
                 The router then looks up the destination network number and matches it
          with an outgoing interface. Finally, it forwards the frame to the destination IP
          address. Specifics regarding the logical AND operation are discussed in the
          following section




              CASE STUDY

                 Our aim was to establish a LAB of e-learning for the students of MASS
          INFOTECH through wire networking.



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              We were given :

                        Ten computer
                        Ten 3com LAN card
                        Twenty two RJ 45 connectors
                        UTP cable
                        One 12 port switch
                        One multimeter
                        Screwdriver
                        Windows 98cd
                        Crimping tool


                What we have done :

                  Φ Analyzing the Location

                         we saw the location of the lab where we have to connect the
          system in network. As the networking here was in structured form so we have to
          keep in view that every thing done should be in structured way. Initially we
          consider following points for the location

                        Location for Switch
                        Location of wall mounting
                        Location of power point
                        Location and sequence of computer


                    Φ   Checking connection of power supply and wall mounting

                        We check the voltage between earth and neutral with the help of
                        multimeter which must be less than two Volts .
                        We check the voltage between phase and neutral with the help of
                        multimeter which should be 220 Volts.

                        As we use only four wires for communication in patch chords thus
                        we connect
                          One ,Two, Three, Six
                        Cables in wall mounting accordingly


                  Φ making of patch chords

                        We cut the UTP cable as required. We made the patch chords as per
          the lucent standards followed by MASS TNFOTACH.



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                       The lucent standards is as follows :
                                                   Orange white
                                                   Orange
                                                   Green white
                                                   Blue
                                                   Blue white
                                                   Green
                                                   Brown white
                                                   Brown
                       after that we crimp the chords with connectors .

                 Φ assembling of system

                        We check the RAM, CMOS battery and confirm that each and
                        every system is ready to be assembled.

                 ΦInstallation of network card

                       We plug the network card in PCI bus and connect the system
                       Start the system, computer will deduct the new hardware device
                 Which is 3comm network card?
                       We load the driver of 3COM NIC card and Microsoft client
                       We loaded TCP/IP protocol




                        We install TCP/IP protocol & give the IP address to each computer
                        as per given .




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                        We give the IP address to each system as per given
                        Subnet mask of each of them were of class A i.e. 255.255.0.0
                        Then we give the address of DNS server




                        Then we restart the system and check whether each of the system
                        is in network or not (by PING command )
                        c:/>ping 127.0.0.1 (in DOS prompt)
                        we ping the with server




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                 RESULT:
                        Each of the system are in network and PINGING with our
          network with no loss




             CAREER PROSPECTS IN COMPUTER HARDWARE

                  1.     The work of computer hardware engineering’s is to research,
          design & develop, supervise manufacture and installation of computers related
          equipment and implementing solutions.
                  2.     Another major responsibility of computer hardware engineers is to
          integrate advanced microprocessors, chipsets, digital/analog components and
          firmware into motherboards, networking adapters and systems that meet the
          requirements of leading original Equipment Manufactures (OEM’s) in the
          industry.
                  3.     Consulting opportunities for computer hardware engineers would
          grow as business need help managing, upgrading and customizing increasingly
          complex systems. Growth in embedded systems, a technology that uses computers
          to control other devices such as applications or cell phones, also will increase the
          demand for computer hardware engineers.
                  4.     In India, apart from being a PC support specialist, with networking
          knowledge a hardware engineer can become internet Engineer and be responsible
          for managing and maintaining the networking architecture for an organization’s
          website and Wide Area Network (wan) connectivity.
                  5.     Another option is that of a network security analyst, responsible
          for design, implementation and maintenance of network and computer security
          policies.

                 Computer Hardware Engineers are expected to have favorable job
          opportunities as this field will open the largest number of doors to fulfilling and
          high-paying careers.

                 Thus the hardware industry can be a solution to the unemployment in the
          country as it has the potential of generating a million jobs every year. All this
          makes hardware industry an attractive career option.



                 CAREER PROSPECTS IN NETWORKING



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                     Several types of positions exist in networking; each with different
          average salaries and long-term potential, and one should possess a clear
          understanding of these.
                  Unfortunately, job titles in networking and in information technology (IT)
          generally, often lead to confusion among beginners and experienced folks alike.
          Bland, Vague or overly bombastic titles often fail to describe the actual work
          assignments of a person in this field.
                    The basic job titles one sees for computer networking and networking-
          related positions include.

                 •       Network administrator
                       Network administrator is responsible for analysis, installation and
          configuration of company networks. Daily activities include monitoring network
          performance, troubleshooting problems and maintaining network security.

                 •      Network(system) Engineer
                      Network engineers focus primarily on system upgrade, evaluating
          vendor products, security testing, and so on.

                 •       Network(service) Technician
                       Network technician tends to focus more on the setup,
          troubleshooting and repair of specific hardware and software products. Service
          technicians in particular often travel to remote customer sites to perform “field”
          upgrades and support.

                 •       Network Programmer/Analyst
                       They generally write scripts that aid in network analysis, such as
          diagnostics or monitoring utilities. They also specialize in evaluating third party
          products and integrating new software/hardware technologies into an existing
          network environment or to build a new environment.

                 •      Network/Information Systems Manager
                        They supervise the work of administrators, engineers, technicals
          and programmers. Network/information systems managers also focus own longer-
          range planning and stragracy considerations.

                 •        Network Security Analyst
                         The work of the security analyst is basically confined to the security
          solutions in large networks. They basically check the unauthorized of the network
          by any external user.

                 OCCUPATIONS IN THE INDUSTRY

                 •       Computer Support Specialist
                 •       Electrical & Electronics Engineers



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                  •         Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technicians
                  •         First-line supervisors/managers of mechanics, installers and
          repairer
                  •         Telecommunications equipment installers and repairers, except
          line installers
                  •         Electrical power-line installers and repairers
                  •         Telecommunications line installers and repairers

                          About 12 percent of the industry’s employees are professional
          workers. Many of these are specific and technical personnel such as engineers and
          computer specialist. Engineers plan cable routes, central office and PBX
          equipment installations, and the expansions of existing structures, and solve other
          engineering problems. Some engineers also engage in research and development
          of new equipment. Specializing in telecommunications design voice and data
          communications systems, and integrate communications equipment with
          computer networks. They have closely with clients, who may not understand
          sophisticated communications systems, and design systems that meet their
          customers’ needs. Network systems and data communications analyst design,
          develop, test and debug software products. These include computer-assisted
          engineering programs for schematic cabling projects; modeling programs for
          cellular and schematic cabling project; modeling programs for cellular and
          satellite systems; and programs for telephone options, such as voice mail,
          electronic mail, and call waiting. Televommunicatons specialist coordinate the
          installations of these systems and may provide follow-up maintains and training




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