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					         HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION
             THROUGH CYBORGS




         ABSTRACT                          A basic goal of HCI is to
                                    improve the interactions between
                                    users and computers by making
      Human–Computer                computers more usable and
Interaction (HCI), alternatively    receptive to the user's needs.
Man–Machine Interaction (MMI)              A long term goal of HCI is
or Computer–Human Interaction       to design systems that minimize the
(CHI) is the study of interaction   barrier between the human's
between people (users) and          cognitive model of what they want
(computers).                        to accomplish and the computer's
                                    understanding of the user's task.

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       This paper describes an                  Methodologies and processes for
introduction of human computer                   designing interfaces (i.e., given a
interaction, cyborgs, features of
                                                 task and a class of users, design the
cyborgs, types of cyborgs and
limitations of cyborgs.                          best possible interface within given
                                                 constraints, optimizing for a desired
                                                 property such as learnability or
1. INTRODUCTION                                  efficiency of use.

          "Human-computer interaction is        Techniques     for   evaluating     and
a discipline concerned with the design,          comparing interfaces
evaluation     and   implementation    of       Developing     new     interfaces   and
interactive    computing   systems     for       interaction techniques
human use and with the study of major        1.1 Interaction Paradigms of
phenomena surrounding them."                     HCI:
          It is often regarded as the            The list of topics under human
intersection    of   computer    science,    computer interaction include
behavioral sciences, design and several           Brain Computer Interface
other fields of study. Interaction between
                                                  Virtual Reality
users and computers occurs at the user
                                                  Mouse Gestures and Handwriting
interface (or simply interface), which
includes both software and hardware, for
example, general purpose computer
peripherals and large-scale mechanical
systems, such as aircraft and power
plants.
          A basic goal of HCI is to
improve the interactions between users
and computers by making computers
                                                    Recognition
more usable and receptive to the user's
                                                  Speech Recognition
needs.
                                                  Wearable Computers and
   Specifically, HCI is concerned with:
                                                    Wearable Computing
                                                  Cyborgs


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      Natural Language Processing                Personality: Cyborgs are generally
                                                    either military personell or those
     Let us now study CYBORGS in                    who wish to prolong their lives and
detail.                                             drastically improve their capabilities
                                                    without completely sacrificing their
2. WHAT IS A CYBORG?                                natural body. They tend to have

          A   cyborg    is   a      cybernetic      somewhat superior attitudes towards

organism (i.e. an organism that is a self-          others,     including         cybers       and

regulating integration of artificial and            androids. They are fairly more daring

natural systems). The term was coined in            and outgoing than others because

1960 when Manfred Clynes and Nathan                 they have so much more going for

Kline used it in an article about the               them.

advantages of self-regulating human-              Physical Description: Cyborgs are
machine systems in outer space.The                  creatures that have replaced their
cyborg is often seen today merely as an             secondary arm, hip, and leg, their
organism that has enhanced abilities due            primary forearm, hand, shin, and
to    technology,      but   this     perhaps       foot, plus their left upper torso with
oversimplifies the category of feedback.            cybernetics.     They       also    have     a
          Real cyborgs are more frequently          cybernetic plate on the left side of
people who use cybernetic technology to             their face that runs down the neck to
repair or overcome the physical and                 the shoulder this plate includes a
mental constraints of their bodies While            cybernetic eye and ear. In addition,
cyborgs are commonly thought of as                  they have a cybernetic spine. Their
mammals, they can be any kind of                    augmentations         and     the      genetic
organism.                                           manipulation that is required for
                                                    them to fully integrate with the
                                                    augmentations         allow        them     to
          Fig 1: He is a kind of cyborg             generally live three times as long as
                                                    normal and some have reportedly

3. FEATURES OF CYBORG:                              been      able   to    stop     the     aging




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   processes. Cyborgs can be left or               feature (either specific or general)
   right handed.                                   that     they         have        some        general
 Relations: Cyborgs have the same                 knowledge of simply by viewing it
   relations with others as their race so          with         their    cybernetic            eye;   this
   long as the race or individual is not           requires a full-round action that
   disdainful of technology. Cybers and            provokes attacks of opportunity.
   Cyborgs generally are not on good
   terms, though they are not hostile        4. TYPES OF CYBORGS
   towards one another. Cybers see                       Generally, the term "cyborg" is
   Cyborgs as giving up their humanity       used to refer to a man or woman with
   and Cyborgs see Cybers as being           bionic, or robotic, implants.Today, the
   dabblers when they could be so            C-LEG system is used to replace human
   much more.                                legs that were amputated because of
 Religion:     Cyborgs      are   usually   injury or illness. The use of sensors in
   sporatic worshipers and often reserve     the     artificial         leg       aids    in     walking
   worship for deities of knowledge.         significantly. These are the first real
 Names: Cyborgs tend to take on             steps towards the next generation of
   new, invented, or exotic names.           cyborgs.
 Adventurers: Cyborgs usually have          4.1 Military Cyborgs:
   themselves augmented for the sole
   purpose of adventuring and therefore                  The "cyborg soldier" often refers
   almost all cyborgs take up the            to      a    soldier        whose           weapon       and
   adventuring lifestyle.                    survival systems are integrated into the

 Sleep - normal -2 hrs. (Min. 1 hr. for     self,        creating            a     human-machine

   creatures that normally sleep at lest 1   interface. A notable example is the

   hr.)                                      Pilot's Associate, first developed in

 Eating - 3/4 normal                        1985,        which         would        use        Artificial

 Drinking - 3/4 normal                      Intelligence to assist
                                             a combat pilot. The
 Breathing – normal
                                             push         for      further
 Database      (EX):       Cyborgs    can
                                             integration between
   identify any creature, location, or



                                                                                                      -4-
pilot and aircraft would include the Pilot      animal cyborgs come from the ocean,
Associate's ability to "initiate actions of     but such research is relatively new.
its own when it deems it necessary,             Technologies used range from simple
including firing weapons and even               radio transmitters attached for tracking
taking over the aircraft from the pilot.        purposes,    to   extremely     complex
                                                surgically implanted electrodes used to
         Military organizations' research
                                                record and manipulate behavior. One of
has recently focused on the utilization of
                                                the more fictionalized representations of
cyborg     animals     for      inter-species
                                                a marine cyborg includes Jones, a
relationships for the purposes of a
                                                cyborg dolphin from William Gibson’s
supposed a tactical advantage. DARPA
                                                Johnny Mnemonic. Jones is one of the
has announced its interest in developing
                                                more extreme examples, sporting a
"cyborg insects" to transmit data from
                                                purely mechanical head piece, while
sensors implanted into the insect during
                                                most real world examples go unnoticed.
the pupal stage. The insect's     Fig   4.1:
Cyborg – Insects DARPA motion
would be controlled from a MEMS, or
Micro-Electro-Mechanical System, and
would       conceivably      surveil       an
environment and detect explosives or
gas. Similarly, DARPA has developed a
neural implant to remotely control the
movement of sharks. The shark's unique
senses would be exploited to provide
data feedback in relation to enemy ship
movement and underwater explosives.


4.2 Marine Cyborgs:

        The term “cyborg” not only
applies to humans, but to animals as
well. Some of the best examples of such



                                                                                    -5-
            Fig 4.2 Marine Cyborgs                   The cyborgization of sports has
                                              come to the forefront of the national




       Most “enhancements” added to           conscious in recent years. Through the
marine organisms by humans are small          media, America has been exposed to the
or implanted directly into the skin, and      subject both with the BALCO scandal
are created as to not disrupt their natural   and the accusations of blood doping at
behavior patterns. In current news,           the Tour de France levied against Lance
DARPA,       the    Defense     Advanced      Armstrong and Floyd Landis. But, there
Research      Projects      Agency,      is   is more to the subject; steroids, blood
experimenting with surgically implanted       doping, prosthesis, body modification,
electrodes in shark brains to learn more      and maybe in the future, genetic
about their behavior in hopes of being        modification are all topics that should be
able to control some aspects of it. Shark     included within cyborgs in sports.
behavior is still a largely unstudied
subject in the biological sciences and the               Fig 4.3: Cyborg Runner
use of such electrodes might provide
biologists a vast amount of information             The most commonly used steroid
in short periods of time.                     in sports is anabolic steroids. Anabolic
                                              steroids are synthetically created to
4.3 Sports Cyborgs:                           function like male hormones. Athletes



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use it to enhance their strength and
performance beyond their natural means.
Anabolic steroids increase the amount of
testosterone in the body, which promotes
muscle and bone growth in the body.
Anabolic steroids also make it so an
athlete can workout for longer periods of
time than they naturally can.


4.4 Fiction Cyborgs:
 The 1972 science fiction novel
   Cyborg, by Martin Caidin, told the                          Fig 4.5: Fiction Cyborgs
   story of a man whose damaged body
   parts are replaced by mechanical                        5. LIMITATIONS
   devices.
                                                         Does Not Heal Body- Must be
 The 1987 science fiction action film
                                                           Repaired: The character does not
   RoboCop       features             a      cyborg
                                                           heal Body damage normally, but
   protagonist. After being killed by a
                                                           instead   must     be   repaired.      For
   criminal gang, police officer Alex
                                                           example, broken limbs and damaged
   Murphy is transformed by a private
                                                           armor plating must be replaced.
   company      into        a     cyborg         cop.
                                                           Internal injuries may heal normally,
   Murphy's     brain           and       face    are
                                                           or they might require the swapping
   preserved, but the rest of the body is
                                                           out of damaged artificial organs for
   replaced by machine parts.
                                                           new ones.
 Although      frequently            referred     to
                                                         Totally Helpless if Cybersystems
   onscreen     as      a        cyborg,         The
                                                           Shutdown:        The       character    is
   Terminator might be more properly
                                                           rendered helpless and immobile by
   an android. However, because it has
                                                           damage to his cybernetic systems.
   skin and blood (cellular organic
                                                           Damage sufficient to disable the
   systems),     the            Terminator         is
                                                           character's torso will shutdown the
   technically a cybernetic organism.
                                                           character's      primary       cybernetic


                                                                                                  -7-
   control system, turning off the
   cyborg's augmented Strength and           6. CONCLUSION
   Dexterity. Until these systems can be
   repaired, the cyborg is effectively          Cyborgs Are Already Here!
   helpless. If the cyborg in question
   has undergone extensive replacement              Cyborgs actually do exist; about
   of his internal organs, these may         10% of the current U.S. population is
   shutdown as well, causing further         estimated to be cyborgs in the technical
   problems.                                 sense, including people with electronic
 Cyber-Induced         Psychosis:   This    pacemakers,    artificial     joints,     drug
   limitation    represents      extensive   implant   systems,       implanted      corneal
   psychological damage resulting from       lenses, and artificial skin. This merging
   the   implantation       of   numerous    of the evolved and the developed, this
   cybernetic systems. The character         integration of the constructor and the
   suffers from varying degrees of           constructed, these systems of dying flesh
   psychopathic tendencies and is often      and undead circuits, and of living and
   prone to acts of extreme violence.        artificial cells has been called many

 Clone: The character is a genetic          things: bionic systems, vital machines,

   copy of another individual. In most       cyborgs. They are a central figure of the

   cultures a clone has no legal identity    late Twentieth Century. But the story of

   at all, and the usual practice is to      cyborgs is not just a tale told around the

   consider any clone the property of        glow of the televised fire. There are

   the being from which the genetic          many actual cyborgs among us in

   material came. According to the           society. Anyone with an artificial organ,

   legal code of United North America        limb or supplement (like a pacemaker),

   and of most other nations, killing a      anyone reprogrammed to resist disease

   clone is not considered murder, but       (immunized)         or      drugged          to

   destruction of property. Clones are       think/behave/feel                        better

   exceedingly rare and are usually          (psychopharmacology) is technically a

   used to supply needed body parts for      cyborg.

   a specific individual.



                                                                                        -8-
7. REFERENCES

   http://www.cyberpunkreview.co
    m/wiki/index.php?title=Cyborgs

   http://cyberartsweb.org/cpace/cy
    borg/haraway/definition.html

   http://cyberartsweb.org/cpace/bo
    dy/dgmt/text/simulation.html

   http://cyberartsweb.org/cpace/bo
    dy/dgmt/main.html




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posted:5/29/2012
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