final 4G print out by playboy14


                  AN INNOVATIVE WORLD!

                     Topics under discussion:

 1.   Introduction.
 2.   Why do we need 4G; Limitations of 3G.
 3.   History of 4G.
 4.   4G vision; Features.
 5.   Aims and Objectives.
 6.   Technology.
 7.   Developments.
 8.   Threats for implementation.
    9. Limitations.
    11.Applications of 4G.
    12.Advantages of 4G.

                      Abstract                             technology that is to be implemented to achieve 4G.
                                                           Also puts forth the aims and objectives of 4G
Ever thought of carrying a mobile which gives a speed      technology, its features, developments in the research
of that of your personal laptop? Yes you can with the      and market sector and finally the enhanced security in
advent of 4G. The time has come for a newer, faster        4G, applications, limitations and advantages of this
and sophisticated technology i.e., 4G.                     new emerging . It also picks up the threats for
The mobile phone which previously aimed at very few        implementation of 4G.
services like calls and sms has extended its features to   Keywords: Data rate transmission, 3G, next generation
a great extent by being able to introduce multimedia.      mobile technology, 4G, OFDM, WCDMA2000,
Now a days, there is a growing demand for services         wireless networks, aims and objectives, features,
over phone; starting from a simple service of making a     developments, security in 4G, applications, limitations
call, it has now acquired a position wherein one can       and threats, advantages.
click photos, listen to one's favorite music and even
watch flicks; thus needing to cater for an increased       1. Introduction
data rate transmission, which is the back hold of 3G,
the present day technology. Thus, the attention has
turned to the next generation of mobile                    The present day mobile technology has been developed
communications i.e., the 4G. The implementation of         almost up to the 3G. Although this technology has
technologies like OFDM, WCDMA2000 will drive the           many wonderful services to offer, it has not been able
wireless networks to a desired level of present day        to satisfy the human desires. Thus the 3G has its own
mankind desires.                                           limitations.
This paper discusses the rise of mobile technology                                                             The
generation by generation, each having its own pros                          is being developed to achieve a fully
and cons, thus finally, a path leading to an innovative
world through an excellent wireless mobile technology
i.e., the 4G. This discussion emphasizes on the
                                                           4G               converged services, ubiquitous cellular
                                                                            services, autonomous networks and
                                                                            software dependency.
It is a convergence of all services like voice, non voice,   each cell is served by a low power transmitter and
internet, e-commerce, multimedia and entertainment at        receiver.
an attractive proposition and at a very faster data rates.
In short, 4G is a NETWORK OF NETWORKS.                       The 1G, or First Generation: 1G was an analog
2. Why do we need 4G; Limitations of 3G                                            system, and was developed in the
                                                                                   seventies, 1G had two major
The main aim of 3G was to provide multimedia,                                      improvements, the invention of
multirate, cellular communications anytime and                                     the microprocessor, and the
anywhere. It’s uneconomical to meet this requirement                               digital transform (of the signal)
with only cellular radio. The short fall of 3G networks                            of the control link between the
is clear, it’s just not fast enough, and offering 384kbps                          phone and the cell site. Advance
doesn’t meet the requirements of the end user. Some                                mobile phone system (AMPS)
people see 3G as a stop-gap, until a fully integrated IP     was first launched by the US and is a 1G mobile
network is created.                                          system. This generation could provide only voice
                                                             facility. Based on FDMA, it allows users to make voice
                                                             calls in 1 country

                                                             The 2G or Second Generation: 2G first appeared
                                                                                   around the end of the 1980’s.
                                                                                   The 2G system digitized the
                                                                                   voice signal, as well as the
                                                                                   control link. This new digital
                                                                                   system gave a lot better quality
                                                                                   and much more capacity (i.e.
                                                                                   more people could use their
                                                                                   phones at the same time), all at a
                                                             lower cost to the end consumer. Based on TDMA, the
                                                             first commercial network for use by the public was the
                                                             Global system for mobile communication (GSM). This
                                                             generation provided services like fax, data, messaging,
Figure 1. Data rates in different generations
                                                             The 3G or Third Generation: 3G systems
To enable new services and to lower high-speed data                         promised       faster      communication
costs, the appropriate solution would be 4G.                                services, entailing voice, fax and
"The current race is ultimately to wrestle control from                     Internet data transfer capabilities. The
the UMTS and CDMA2000 platforms"                                            aim of 3G is to provide these services
                                                                            anytime, anywhere throughout the
3. History of 4G                                                            globe, with seamless roaming between
                                                                            standards. In 2001, Japan saw the first
At the end of the 1940’s, the first radio telephone                         3G network launched. 3G technology
service was introduced, and was designed to users in                        supports around 144 Kbps, with high
cars to the public land-line based telephone network.        speed movement, i.e., in a vehicle, 384 Kbps locally,
These single-cell systems were severely constrained by       and up to 2Mbps for fixed stations, i.e. in a building.
restricted mobility, low capacity, limited service, and
poor speech quality. Also the equipment was heavy,           The 4G or Fourth Generation: Fourth generation
bulky, and expensive. Then, in the sixties, a system         mobile communications will have higher data
launched by Bell Systems, called IMTS (Improved              transmission rates than 3G. 4G mobile data
Mobile Telephone Service), brought quite a few               transmission rates are planned to be up to 100 mbps on
improvements such as direct dialing and more                 the move and 1gbps stationary. This is a phenomenal
bandwidth. The very first analog systems were based          amount of bandwidth, only comparable to the
upon IMTS and were created in the late 60s and early         bandwidth workstations get connected directly to a
70s. The systems were called "cellular" because large        LAN.
coverage areas were split into smaller areas or "cells",
To understand 4G, we need to know about 3G. So how           given a time slot, as opposed to a frequency. Therefore
did 3G start? The idea didn’t come from network              many uses can sit on one frequency, and have different
operators, but from device manufactures. In 1996             time slots, because the time slots are switched so
Nippon Telephone & Telegraph (NTT) and Ericsson              rapidly, it seems like the channel is permanently
started development of 3G; then in 1997 in the USA           connected. TDMA is used for 2G networks
the TIA (Telecommunications Industry Association)            As the wireless standards evolved, the access
chose CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) as a              techniques used also exhibited increase in efficiency,
technology for 3G; and then in 1998 the ETSI                 capacity and scalability. The first generation wireless
(European Telecommunications Standards Institute)            standards used plain TDMA and FDMA. In the
also chose CDMA; in the end, in 1998 wideband                wireless channels, TDMA proved to be less efficient in
CDMA or W-CDMA and cdma2000 were decided for                 handling the high data rate channels as it requires large
the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System               guard periods to alleviate the multipath impact.
(UMTS).                                                      Similarly, FDMA consumed more bandwidth for guard
                                                             to avoid inter carrier interference. So in second
                                                             generation systems, one set of standard used the
                                                             combination of FDMA and TDMA and the other set
                                                             introduced a new access scheme called CDMA.
                                                             Code Division Multiple Access uses the spread
                                                             spectrum method, the way it works means it’s highly
                                                             encrypted, so it’s no surprise it was developed and used
                                                             by the military. Unlike FDMA, CDMA allows the user
                                                             to sit on all of the available frequencies at the same
                                                             time, and hop between then. Each call is identified by
                                                             its unique code, hence the term Code Division. CDMA
                                                             is very bandwidth efficient. It also allows for soft hand
                                                             off, meaning it can communicate with more than one
                                                             base station at any one time

                                                             Comparison of 4G with other technologies:
The two major radio standards used for 3G are W-                         1G      2G       2.5G     3G         4G
CDMA (wideband code division multiple access), and
CDMA2000. W-CDMA is used in Europe, where
                                                             Design      197     198      1985     1990       2000
CDMA2000 is used in the USA. In CDMA, one signal
                                                             began       0       0
carries the data, this is then multiplied with a signal
with a faster rate, which is of more bandwidth, it uses
TDM (Time Division Multiplexing). CDMA2000 uses              Implem      198     199      1999     2002       2010?
CDM (common code division multiplexing).                     entation    4       1
There is a need to know about the different access
technologies, these are FDMA, TDMA and CDMA
The most common analog system is FDMA, or,                   Service     Ana     Digi     High     Highe      Highe
Frequency Division Multiple Access. It is a method                       log     tal      er       r          r
where the spectrum is cut up into different frequencies                  voi     voic     capac    capaci
and then this chunk given to the users. At one time                      ce      e,       ity,     ty,
only one user is assigned to a frequency. Because of                             SM       pack     broad      ity,
this the frequency is closed, until the call is ended. For                       S        etize    band       comp
a proper call to take place, two frequencies are needed,                                  d        data       letely
one for sending and one for receiving, FDMA has been                                      data,               IP,
used for first generation analog systems only, this is                                    MM
due to the large bandwidth wastage highlighted above.                                     S
TDMA or Time Division Multiple Access makes use                                                               media
of the whole available spectrum, unlike FDMA. Instead
of splitting the slots by frequency, it splits them by
time, over all of the frequency. Each subscriber is
Standar     AM      TD      GPR       WCD                  division multiplexing. This leads to high spectral
                                                Singl      efficiency in OFDM/COFDM technology.
ds          PS,     MA,     S,        MA,       e
            TA      CD      EDG       CDM                  The first mobile phone was invented in the United
            CS,     MA,     E         A200
                                                stand      States back in the 1960s by Bell Labs, but the US
            NM      GS                0         ard        mobile communications market has remained very
            T       M,                                     much closed and far behind the international movement
                    PDC                                    towards the open market of the global industry. Now
                                                           the world is evolving rapidly into a personal
                                                           communications era with true openness and freedom in
Data        1.9     14.4    384k      2Mbp      200M       mobile services, but in our opinion, the US is still
bandwi      kbp     kbps    bps       s         bps        lagging about ten years behind other countries, such as
dth         s                                              China, with regards to having a more open and
                                                           competitive market in wireless communications.
Multipl     FD      TD      TDM       CDM       CDM
exing       MA      MA,     A,        A         A?         4. 4G vision; Features
                    CD      CDM
                    MA      A                              A 4G mobile communications system offering high
                                                           speed transmission of large volume of data with wide
Core        PS      PST     PST       Packet    Intern     coverage requires a bandwidth of approximately
network     TN      N       N,        Netwo                100mbps. It is anticipated that 4G speeds could be as
                                                et         high as 100mbps. Thus, 4G will represent another
                            Pack      rk
                            et                             quantum leap in mobile Internet speeds and picture
                            Netw                           quality.
                            ork                            As the wireless market continues to grow at a frenetic
                                                           pace, service providers that rely on circuit-switched
                                                           technology are facing mounting pressure due to its
                                                           disadvantage: The systems cannot sustain increasing
                                                           bandwidth requirements for new services and
Onto 4G: 4G will provide unconceivable amounts of
                                                           applications. Due to these reasons, 4g is intended to be
bandwidth to the palm of a user. Matching current
                                                           an entirely packet-switched network.
Local Area Network speeds, 4G networks will provide
100MBps on the move. This is enough for studio              Among the newer wireless technologies under
quality video, multi channel surround sound and much       consideration for use in 4g systems are, OFDM, smart
more. 4G will be based on OFDM – the next                  antenna systems and millimeter wireless.
                                                              A 4G system will be able to provide a
generation in access technologies
                                                           comprehensive IP solution where voice, data and
The ultra WCDMA access technology and orthogonal
                                                           multimedia can be given to users on an "Anytime,
frequency division multiplexing (OFDMA) - being
spectral efficient- are the two major options that can     Anywhere" basis, and at higher data rates than previous
help to realize the expected features of 4G cellular       generations.
networks.                                                  4G will be a fully IP-based integrated system. 4G will
                                                           be capable of providing between 100 mbps and 1 gbps
                                                           speeds, both indoors and outdoors, with premium
Working of OFDM: First of all the FDM part -               quality and high security.
Frequency division multiplexing is a technology that
transmits several signals at the same time over a single
transmission path, in a medium such as a cable or          Software-Defined Radio (SDR): A Software-
wireless system. Each signal is transmitted inside its     Defined Radio (SDR) system is a radio communication
                                                           system where components that have typically been
own unique frequency range (the carrier frequency),
                                                           implemented in hardware (e.g. mixers, filters,
which is then modulated by the data that is needed to
                                                           amplifiers, modulators/demodulators, detectors. etc.)
be transmitted.
OFDM/COFDM allows many users to transmit in the            are instead implemented using software on a personal
allocated band by subdividing the available bandwidth      computer or other embedded computing devices
into mini narrow bandwidth carriers. Each user is           SDR is one form of open wireless architecture
                                                           (OWA).Since 4G is a collection of wireless standards,
allocated several carriers to transmit his data. The
                                                           the final form of a 4G device will constitute various
transmission is generated such that the carries are
                                                           standards. This can be efficiently realized using SDR
orthogonal to each other. Thus allowing them to be
packed together much closer than standard frequency
technology, which is categorized to the area of the                resources to meet the minimal requirements of
radio convergence                                                  all the 4G enabled users.
Things like watching the football game on your mobile
device, watching movies, videoconferencing, paying
your bills and downloading music to the palm of your
hand will become second nature in the near future with    6. Technology:
the advent of 4G.
                                                          According to the 4G working groups, the infrastructure
                                                          and the terminals of 4G will have almost all the
                                                          standards from 2G to 4G implemented. Although
5. Aims and Objectives:                                   legacy systems are in place to adopt existing users, the
                                                          infrastructure for 4G will be only packet-based (all-IP).
4G is being developed to accommodate the quality of       The design is that 4G will be based on OFDM
service (QoS) and rate requirements set by forthcoming    (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing), which
applications like wireless broadband access,              is the key enabler of 4G technology. Other
Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), video chat,           technological aspects of 4G are adaptive processing
mobile TV, HDTV content, Digital Video                    and smart antennas, both of which are used in 3G
Broadcasting (DVB), minimal service like voice and        networks and enhance rates when used in with OFDM.
data, and other streaming services.                       Adaptive processing detects interference on a channel
                                                          and improves reception by actively switching channels
                                                          to avoid interference. 4G networks will also use smart
                                                          antenna technology, which is used to aim the radio
                                                          signal in the direction of the receiver in the terminal
                                                          from the base station. When teamed up with adaptive
                                                          techniques, multiple antennas can cancel out more
                                                          interference while enhancing the signal. The 4G data
                                                          rates will vary depending on the number of channels
The following are the objectives of the 4G wireless       that are available, and can be used.
communication standard:                                   Currently 3G networks still send the data digitally over
     A spectrally efficient system                       a single channel. OFDM is designed to send data over
     High network capacity                               hundreds of parallel streams, thus increasing the
     more simultaneous users per cell                    amount of information that can be sent at a time over
     A nominal data rate of 100 mbps while the           traditional CDMA networks.
        client physically moves at high speeds relative
        to the station, and 1 gbps while client and
        station are in relatively fixed positions as
        defined by the ITU-R

       A data rate of at least 100 mbps between any
        two points in the world
       Smooth handoff across heterogeneous
       Seamless connectivity and global roaming
        across multiple networks
       High quality of service for next generation
        multimedia support.
       Three dimensional virtual reality-imagine
        personal video avatars and realistic
        holograms, and the ability to feel the presence   Figure 2. 4G technology
        at an event even if you are not present.
       Interoperability with existing wireless           The 4G plans are on the way, but transitioning from 3G
        standards.                                        to 4G should be seamless for customers because 4G
       An all IP, packet switched network.               will have evolved from 3G. Users won't even have to
       In summary, the 4G system should                  get new phones. Digital applications are getting more
        dynamically share and utilize network             common lately and are creating an increasing demand
                                                          for broadband communication systems. The technical
requirements for related products are very high but               network that reaches as many as 100 million
solutions must be cheap to implement since we are                 people in 2008 and has also announced WiMax
essentially talking about consumer products. For                  service called Xohm. Tested in Chicago, this
Satellite and for Cable; such cost-efficient solutions are        speed was clocked at 100 mbps
already about for the terrestrial link (i.e. original TV         The Japanese company NTT DoCoMo has been
broadcasting) the requirements are so high that the               testing a 4G communication system prototype
'standard' solutions are no longer an option.                     with 4x4 MIMO called VSF-OFCDM at 100
Orthogonal FDM's spread spectrum technique spreads                Mbps while moving, and 1 gbps while stationary.
the data over a lot of carriers that are spaced apart at          In February 2007, NTT DoCoMo completed a
precise frequencies. This spacing provides the                    trial in which they reached a maximum packet
orthogonality in this method which prevents the                   transmission rate of approximately 5 gbps in the
receivers/demodulators from seeing frequencies other              downlink with 12x12 MIMO using a 100MHz
than their own specific one. The main benefit of                  frequency bandwidth while moving at 10 km/h,
OFDM is high spectral efficiency, but with OFDM we                and is planning on releasing the first commercial
also get; high resiliency to RF interference and the              network in 2010.
multi-path distortion is lower. This is handy because in
a standard terrestrial broadcasting situation there are
high amounts of multipath-channels (e.g. the signal that
was sent arrives at the receiving end using multiple
paths of different lengths). Since the various versions
of the signal interfere with each other, known as inter
symbol interference (ISI) it becomes incredibly hard to
extract the original information. Thus the advantage of
When OFDM was first implemented, it was by using
banks of sinusoidal generators, e.g. just placing up a
whole lot of single carriers in parallel. The use of the
discrete Fourier transform (DFT) was originally
proposed in 1971 by Weinstein and Ebert, which
greatly reduces the implementation complexity of
OFDM systems. This was further reduced by the
development of the fast Fourier transform (FFT).
Shortly after equalization algorithm was implemented
in order to help suppress both ISI and inter subcarrier
interference, which is caused by the channel impulse         Figure 3. Developments leading to achievement of 4G
response and timing and frequency errors.
In OFDM the subcarrier pulse which is used for                   Verizon Wireless announced on September 20,
transmission is rectangular. This is why the capability           2007 that it plans a joint effort with the Vodafone
of pulse forming and modulation can be performed by               Group to transition its networks to the 4G
an IDFT, which can be generated very efficiently as an            standard LTE.
IFFT. Because of this, the receiver only needs a FFT to          Ericsson confirms that 4g could bring connection
reverse this process. Taking into account the theories of         speeds of up to 50 times more than 3g networks
the Fourier Transform the rectangular pulse shape will            and offer three-dimensions visual experiences for
end up as a sin(x)/x style of spectrum of the                     the first time.
subcarriers. In traditional FDM the sub-channels aren’t
orthogonal therefore need to be separated by guard           ITU’s IMT-2000 is a global standard for 3G and has
bands which obviously wastes much needed spectrum.           opened new doors to enabling innovative services and
Thus, the edge of OFDM over traditional FDM.                 application for instance, multimedia entertainment, and
                                                             location-based services, as well as a whole lot more.
                                                             A handful of wireless technologies are set to join
7. Developments:
                                                             existing 2.5G and 3G standards, , as 4G and NGN
                                                             vendors find a foothold in the mobile market.
Technology Companies with 4G networks are
knocking on the door and mobile operators are
beginning to answer.                                         8. Threats for implementation:
  Sprint plans to launch 4G services in trial markets
     by the end of 2007 with plans to deploy a
Connecting all networks on one common
platform: It will be a tough task to merge all the
network services on one common platform with the
same quality of service, same tariffs, etc, For merging
GSM and CDMA on a common platform to provide
services with the desired results, either of them has to
change its standard or both have to compromise on new
interfacing standards. Since 4G has CDMA or OFDM
as the only option to use, definitely all the networks
must update themselves to the desired level.
Seamless connectivity and smart handoffs:                   Figure 4. Security plays a vital role in 4G technology.
Providing seamless connectivity while moving between        4G Security:
different networks using smart handoffs is a big                    Antivirus - high level of detection and
challenge before the designers if all the networks are               elimination of vast majority of viruses active
using different standards. Therefore it becomes                      while we are sending and receiving e-mail,
essential to design very complex air interfaces that will            downloading files or working over the
decide the quality of smart handoffs and the quality of              Internet.
service.                                                         Personal Firewall - protects PC from hackers
                                                                     trying to invade privacy and damage or
Acquiring the required data rate and                                 destroy your information
bandwidth: The 4G is expected to have a much                     Anti-spam - keeps annoying, unwanted e-
higher data rate even when the user is in motion. To                 mails outside e-mail box,
support the high data rate, the devices to be designed      ESET Smart Security is designed to protect computers
must be very sensitive and smart enough to work with        from a range of threats like:
vehicular speeds at both the ends (user and the cellular
base station terminal ends)
                                                            Proactive Protection: Utilizing Threat Sense -the
                                                            industry's most advanced heuristics technology. The
9. Limitations:                                             included anti-spam and firewall software provide you
                                                            with a total security solution.
         Although the concept of 4G communications          Precise Detection:           ESET accurately identifies
shows much promise, there are still limitations that        known and unknown threats.
must be addressed. A major concern is interoperability
between the signaling techniques that are planned for
                                                            Lightweight Design: Smart Security requires less
                                                            memory and CPU power, allowing computer to run
use in 4G.
                                                            fast, making more room for games, web browsing, and
Cost is another factor that could hamper the progress of
4G technology. The equipment required to implement
the next generation network are still very expensive.       Fast Scanning Speeds: ESET Smart Security is a
A key challenge facing deployment of 4G technologies        highly efficient program ensuring fast file scanning and
is how to make the network architectures’ compatible        product updates, while running quietly in the
with each other. This was one of the unmet goals of         background.
As regards the operating area, rural areas and many         11. Advantages of 4G
buildings in metropolitan areas are not being served
well by existing wireless networks.                                  Support for interactive multimedia services
                                                                      like teleconferencing and wireless internet.
10. Security:                                                        Wider bandwidth and higher data rates
                                                                     Global mobility and service portability
4G Security service is an overall software solution for              Scalability of mobile network
protection of PC and Internet connection. This simple                Entirely packet- switched networks
and professional solution will eliminate our concerns in             Tight network security
respect to security of our PC, data and communication                Higher bandwidths to provide multimedia
over the Internet.                                                    services at lower costs

                                                            12. Applications of 4G
Location application: 4G location applications will
be based on visualized, virtual navigation schemes that
will support a remote database containing graphical
representations of streets, buildings and other physical
characteristics of a large metropolitan area. This
database could be accessed by subscribers in vehicles.
Virtual navigation and tele- geo-processing: We
will be able to see the internal layout of a building
during an emergency rescue. This type of application is
sometimes referred to as ‘telegeoprocessing.’
Telemedicine: A paramedic assisting a victim of
traffic accidents in a remote location could access
medical records (X- rays) and establish a video
conference so that a remotely based surgeon could
provide ‘on-scene’ assistance.
Crisis management application: In the event of
natural disasters where the entire communications           Figure 5. A happy 4G user!
infrastructure is in disarray, restoring communications
quickly is essential. With wideband wireless mobile
communications,        limited     and     even    total
communications capability (including Internet and
video services) could be set up within hours instead of     References
days or even weeks required at present for restoration          EFY magazine
of wire line communications.                                   
High definition video: At the present rates of 15-30
Mbps, 4G is capable of providing users with streaming
high-definition television. At rates of 100 Mbps, the          
content of a DVD can be downloaded within about 5               Electronics and Communication
minutes.                                                           systems by George Kennedy and
Wireless services: 4G which has OFDM is being                      Bernard Davis
considered for future broadband application such as
wireless ATM services

13. Conclusion

Thus, the drawbacks like low bandwidth, lesser data
rates, data insecurity, high cost rates can be overcome
by 4G technology. The end user can expect low cost
per data bit, as well as speed and reliability, something
which is greatly needed, and will become second
nature in the future.
Thus, 4G paves path for an innovative world in the
field of mobile technology.

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