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4G : IT’S TIME TO CHANGE; ITS TIME TO RACE TO AN INNOVATIVE WORLD! Topics under discussion: 1. Introduction. 2. Why do we need 4G; Limitations of 3G. 3. History of 4G. 4. 4G vision; Features. 5. Aims and Objectives. 6. Technology. 7. Developments. 8. Threats for implementation. 9. Limitations. 10.Security. 11.Applications of 4G. 12.Advantages of 4G. 13.Conclusion. Abstract technology that is to be implemented to achieve 4G. Also puts forth the aims and objectives of 4G Ever thought of carrying a mobile which gives a speed technology, its features, developments in the research of that of your personal laptop? Yes you can with the and market sector and finally the enhanced security in advent of 4G. The time has come for a newer, faster 4G, applications, limitations and advantages of this and sophisticated technology i.e., 4G. new emerging . It also picks up the threats for The mobile phone which previously aimed at very few implementation of 4G. services like calls and sms has extended its features to Keywords: Data rate transmission, 3G, next generation a great extent by being able to introduce multimedia. mobile technology, 4G, OFDM, WCDMA2000, Now a days, there is a growing demand for services wireless networks, aims and objectives, features, over phone; starting from a simple service of making a developments, security in 4G, applications, limitations call, it has now acquired a position wherein one can and threats, advantages. click photos, listen to one's favorite music and even watch flicks; thus needing to cater for an increased 1. Introduction data rate transmission, which is the back hold of 3G, the present day technology. Thus, the attention has turned to the next generation of mobile The present day mobile technology has been developed communications i.e., the 4G. The implementation of almost up to the 3G. Although this technology has technologies like OFDM, WCDMA2000 will drive the many wonderful services to offer, it has not been able wireless networks to a desired level of present day to satisfy the human desires. Thus the 3G has its own mankind desires. limitations. This paper discusses the rise of mobile technology The generation by generation, each having its own pros is being developed to achieve a fully and cons, thus finally, a path leading to an innovative world through an excellent wireless mobile technology i.e., the 4G. This discussion emphasizes on the 4G converged services, ubiquitous cellular services, autonomous networks and software dependency. It is a convergence of all services like voice, non voice, each cell is served by a low power transmitter and internet, e-commerce, multimedia and entertainment at receiver. an attractive proposition and at a very faster data rates. In short, 4G is a NETWORK OF NETWORKS. The 1G, or First Generation: 1G was an analog 2. Why do we need 4G; Limitations of 3G system, and was developed in the seventies, 1G had two major The main aim of 3G was to provide multimedia, improvements, the invention of multirate, cellular communications anytime and the microprocessor, and the anywhere. It’s uneconomical to meet this requirement digital transform (of the signal) with only cellular radio. The short fall of 3G networks of the control link between the is clear, it’s just not fast enough, and offering 384kbps phone and the cell site. Advance doesn’t meet the requirements of the end user. Some mobile phone system (AMPS) people see 3G as a stop-gap, until a fully integrated IP was first launched by the US and is a 1G mobile network is created. system. This generation could provide only voice facility. Based on FDMA, it allows users to make voice calls in 1 country The 2G or Second Generation: 2G first appeared around the end of the 1980’s. The 2G system digitized the voice signal, as well as the control link. This new digital system gave a lot better quality and much more capacity (i.e. more people could use their phones at the same time), all at a lower cost to the end consumer. Based on TDMA, the first commercial network for use by the public was the Global system for mobile communication (GSM). This generation provided services like fax, data, messaging, etc. Figure 1. Data rates in different generations The 3G or Third Generation: 3G systems To enable new services and to lower high-speed data promised faster communication costs, the appropriate solution would be 4G. services, entailing voice, fax and "The current race is ultimately to wrestle control from Internet data transfer capabilities. The the UMTS and CDMA2000 platforms" aim of 3G is to provide these services anytime, anywhere throughout the 3. History of 4G globe, with seamless roaming between standards. In 2001, Japan saw the first At the end of the 1940’s, the first radio telephone 3G network launched. 3G technology service was introduced, and was designed to users in supports around 144 Kbps, with high cars to the public land-line based telephone network. speed movement, i.e., in a vehicle, 384 Kbps locally, These single-cell systems were severely constrained by and up to 2Mbps for fixed stations, i.e. in a building. restricted mobility, low capacity, limited service, and poor speech quality. Also the equipment was heavy, The 4G or Fourth Generation: Fourth generation bulky, and expensive. Then, in the sixties, a system mobile communications will have higher data launched by Bell Systems, called IMTS (Improved transmission rates than 3G. 4G mobile data Mobile Telephone Service), brought quite a few transmission rates are planned to be up to 100 mbps on improvements such as direct dialing and more the move and 1gbps stationary. This is a phenomenal bandwidth. The very first analog systems were based amount of bandwidth, only comparable to the upon IMTS and were created in the late 60s and early bandwidth workstations get connected directly to a 70s. The systems were called "cellular" because large LAN. coverage areas were split into smaller areas or "cells", To understand 4G, we need to know about 3G. So how given a time slot, as opposed to a frequency. Therefore did 3G start? The idea didn’t come from network many uses can sit on one frequency, and have different operators, but from device manufactures. In 1996 time slots, because the time slots are switched so Nippon Telephone & Telegraph (NTT) and Ericsson rapidly, it seems like the channel is permanently started development of 3G; then in 1997 in the USA connected. TDMA is used for 2G networks the TIA (Telecommunications Industry Association) As the wireless standards evolved, the access chose CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) as a techniques used also exhibited increase in efficiency, technology for 3G; and then in 1998 the ETSI capacity and scalability. The first generation wireless (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) standards used plain TDMA and FDMA. In the also chose CDMA; in the end, in 1998 wideband wireless channels, TDMA proved to be less efficient in CDMA or W-CDMA and cdma2000 were decided for handling the high data rate channels as it requires large the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System guard periods to alleviate the multipath impact. (UMTS). Similarly, FDMA consumed more bandwidth for guard to avoid inter carrier interference. So in second generation systems, one set of standard used the combination of FDMA and TDMA and the other set introduced a new access scheme called CDMA. Code Division Multiple Access uses the spread spectrum method, the way it works means it’s highly encrypted, so it’s no surprise it was developed and used by the military. Unlike FDMA, CDMA allows the user to sit on all of the available frequencies at the same time, and hop between then. Each call is identified by its unique code, hence the term Code Division. CDMA is very bandwidth efficient. It also allows for soft hand off, meaning it can communicate with more than one base station at any one time . Comparison of 4G with other technologies: Technol The two major radio standards used for 3G are W- 1G 2G 2.5G 3G 4G ogy CDMA (wideband code division multiple access), and CDMA2000. W-CDMA is used in Europe, where Design 197 198 1985 1990 2000 CDMA2000 is used in the USA. In CDMA, one signal began 0 0 carries the data, this is then multiplied with a signal with a faster rate, which is of more bandwidth, it uses TDM (Time Division Multiplexing). CDMA2000 uses Implem 198 199 1999 2002 2010? CDM (common code division multiplexing). entation 4 1 There is a need to know about the different access technologies, these are FDMA, TDMA and CDMA The most common analog system is FDMA, or, Service Ana Digi High Highe Highe Frequency Division Multiple Access. It is a method log tal er r r where the spectrum is cut up into different frequencies voi voic capac capaci and then this chunk given to the users. At one time ce e, ity, ty, capac only one user is assigned to a frequency. Because of SM pack broad ity, this the frequency is closed, until the call is ended. For S etize band comp a proper call to take place, two frequencies are needed, d data letely one for sending and one for receiving, FDMA has been data, IP, used for first generation analog systems only, this is MM due to the large bandwidth wastage highlighted above. S multi TDMA or Time Division Multiple Access makes use media of the whole available spectrum, unlike FDMA. Instead of splitting the slots by frequency, it splits them by time, over all of the frequency. Each subscriber is Standar AM TD GPR WCD division multiplexing. This leads to high spectral Singl efficiency in OFDM/COFDM technology. ds PS, MA, S, MA, e TA CD EDG CDM The first mobile phone was invented in the United CS, MA, E A200 stand States back in the 1960s by Bell Labs, but the US NM GS 0 ard mobile communications market has remained very T M, much closed and far behind the international movement PDC towards the open market of the global industry. Now the world is evolving rapidly into a personal communications era with true openness and freedom in Data 1.9 14.4 384k 2Mbp 200M mobile services, but in our opinion, the US is still bandwi kbp kbps bps s bps lagging about ten years behind other countries, such as dth s China, with regards to having a more open and competitive market in wireless communications. Multipl FD TD TDM CDM CDM exing MA MA, A, A A? 4. 4G vision; Features CD CDM MA A A 4G mobile communications system offering high speed transmission of large volume of data with wide Core PS PST PST Packet Intern coverage requires a bandwidth of approximately network TN N N, Netwo 100mbps. It is anticipated that 4G speeds could be as et high as 100mbps. Thus, 4G will represent another Pack rk et quantum leap in mobile Internet speeds and picture Netw quality. ork As the wireless market continues to grow at a frenetic pace, service providers that rely on circuit-switched technology are facing mounting pressure due to its disadvantage: The systems cannot sustain increasing bandwidth requirements for new services and Onto 4G: 4G will provide unconceivable amounts of applications. Due to these reasons, 4g is intended to be bandwidth to the palm of a user. Matching current an entirely packet-switched network. Local Area Network speeds, 4G networks will provide 100MBps on the move. This is enough for studio Among the newer wireless technologies under quality video, multi channel surround sound and much consideration for use in 4g systems are, OFDM, smart more. 4G will be based on OFDM – the next antenna systems and millimeter wireless. A 4G system will be able to provide a generation in access technologies comprehensive IP solution where voice, data and The ultra WCDMA access technology and orthogonal multimedia can be given to users on an "Anytime, frequency division multiplexing (OFDMA) - being spectral efficient- are the two major options that can Anywhere" basis, and at higher data rates than previous help to realize the expected features of 4G cellular generations. networks. 4G will be a fully IP-based integrated system. 4G will be capable of providing between 100 mbps and 1 gbps speeds, both indoors and outdoors, with premium Working of OFDM: First of all the FDM part - quality and high security. Frequency division multiplexing is a technology that transmits several signals at the same time over a single transmission path, in a medium such as a cable or Software-Defined Radio (SDR): A Software- wireless system. Each signal is transmitted inside its Defined Radio (SDR) system is a radio communication system where components that have typically been own unique frequency range (the carrier frequency), implemented in hardware (e.g. mixers, filters, which is then modulated by the data that is needed to amplifiers, modulators/demodulators, detectors. etc.) be transmitted. OFDM/COFDM allows many users to transmit in the are instead implemented using software on a personal allocated band by subdividing the available bandwidth computer or other embedded computing devices into mini narrow bandwidth carriers. Each user is SDR is one form of open wireless architecture (OWA).Since 4G is a collection of wireless standards, allocated several carriers to transmit his data. The the final form of a 4G device will constitute various transmission is generated such that the carries are standards. This can be efficiently realized using SDR orthogonal to each other. Thus allowing them to be packed together much closer than standard frequency technology, which is categorized to the area of the resources to meet the minimal requirements of radio convergence all the 4G enabled users. Things like watching the football game on your mobile device, watching movies, videoconferencing, paying your bills and downloading music to the palm of your hand will become second nature in the near future with 6. Technology: the advent of 4G. According to the 4G working groups, the infrastructure and the terminals of 4G will have almost all the standards from 2G to 4G implemented. Although 5. Aims and Objectives: legacy systems are in place to adopt existing users, the infrastructure for 4G will be only packet-based (all-IP). 4G is being developed to accommodate the quality of The design is that 4G will be based on OFDM service (QoS) and rate requirements set by forthcoming (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing), which applications like wireless broadband access, is the key enabler of 4G technology. Other Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), video chat, technological aspects of 4G are adaptive processing mobile TV, HDTV content, Digital Video and smart antennas, both of which are used in 3G Broadcasting (DVB), minimal service like voice and networks and enhance rates when used in with OFDM. data, and other streaming services. Adaptive processing detects interference on a channel and improves reception by actively switching channels to avoid interference. 4G networks will also use smart antenna technology, which is used to aim the radio signal in the direction of the receiver in the terminal from the base station. When teamed up with adaptive techniques, multiple antennas can cancel out more interference while enhancing the signal. The 4G data rates will vary depending on the number of channels The following are the objectives of the 4G wireless that are available, and can be used. communication standard: Currently 3G networks still send the data digitally over A spectrally efficient system a single channel. OFDM is designed to send data over High network capacity hundreds of parallel streams, thus increasing the more simultaneous users per cell amount of information that can be sent at a time over A nominal data rate of 100 mbps while the traditional CDMA networks. client physically moves at high speeds relative to the station, and 1 gbps while client and station are in relatively fixed positions as defined by the ITU-R A data rate of at least 100 mbps between any two points in the world Smooth handoff across heterogeneous networks Seamless connectivity and global roaming across multiple networks High quality of service for next generation multimedia support. Three dimensional virtual reality-imagine personal video avatars and realistic holograms, and the ability to feel the presence Figure 2. 4G technology at an event even if you are not present. Interoperability with existing wireless The 4G plans are on the way, but transitioning from 3G standards. to 4G should be seamless for customers because 4G An all IP, packet switched network. will have evolved from 3G. Users won't even have to In summary, the 4G system should get new phones. Digital applications are getting more dynamically share and utilize network common lately and are creating an increasing demand for broadband communication systems. The technical requirements for related products are very high but network that reaches as many as 100 million solutions must be cheap to implement since we are people in 2008 and has also announced WiMax essentially talking about consumer products. For service called Xohm. Tested in Chicago, this Satellite and for Cable; such cost-efficient solutions are speed was clocked at 100 mbps already about for the terrestrial link (i.e. original TV The Japanese company NTT DoCoMo has been broadcasting) the requirements are so high that the testing a 4G communication system prototype 'standard' solutions are no longer an option. with 4x4 MIMO called VSF-OFCDM at 100 Orthogonal FDM's spread spectrum technique spreads Mbps while moving, and 1 gbps while stationary. the data over a lot of carriers that are spaced apart at In February 2007, NTT DoCoMo completed a precise frequencies. This spacing provides the trial in which they reached a maximum packet orthogonality in this method which prevents the transmission rate of approximately 5 gbps in the receivers/demodulators from seeing frequencies other downlink with 12x12 MIMO using a 100MHz than their own specific one. The main benefit of frequency bandwidth while moving at 10 km/h, OFDM is high spectral efficiency, but with OFDM we and is planning on releasing the first commercial also get; high resiliency to RF interference and the network in 2010. multi-path distortion is lower. This is handy because in a standard terrestrial broadcasting situation there are high amounts of multipath-channels (e.g. the signal that was sent arrives at the receiving end using multiple paths of different lengths). Since the various versions of the signal interfere with each other, known as inter symbol interference (ISI) it becomes incredibly hard to extract the original information. Thus the advantage of OFDM. When OFDM was first implemented, it was by using banks of sinusoidal generators, e.g. just placing up a whole lot of single carriers in parallel. The use of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) was originally proposed in 1971 by Weinstein and Ebert, which greatly reduces the implementation complexity of OFDM systems. This was further reduced by the development of the fast Fourier transform (FFT). Shortly after equalization algorithm was implemented in order to help suppress both ISI and inter subcarrier interference, which is caused by the channel impulse Figure 3. Developments leading to achievement of 4G response and timing and frequency errors. In OFDM the subcarrier pulse which is used for Verizon Wireless announced on September 20, transmission is rectangular. This is why the capability 2007 that it plans a joint effort with the Vodafone of pulse forming and modulation can be performed by Group to transition its networks to the 4G an IDFT, which can be generated very efficiently as an standard LTE. IFFT. Because of this, the receiver only needs a FFT to Ericsson confirms that 4g could bring connection reverse this process. Taking into account the theories of speeds of up to 50 times more than 3g networks the Fourier Transform the rectangular pulse shape will and offer three-dimensions visual experiences for end up as a sin(x)/x style of spectrum of the the first time. subcarriers. In traditional FDM the sub-channels aren’t orthogonal therefore need to be separated by guard ITU’s IMT-2000 is a global standard for 3G and has bands which obviously wastes much needed spectrum. opened new doors to enabling innovative services and Thus, the edge of OFDM over traditional FDM. application for instance, multimedia entertainment, and location-based services, as well as a whole lot more. A handful of wireless technologies are set to join 7. Developments: existing 2.5G and 3G standards, , as 4G and NGN vendors find a foothold in the mobile market. Technology Companies with 4G networks are knocking on the door and mobile operators are beginning to answer. 8. Threats for implementation: Sprint plans to launch 4G services in trial markets by the end of 2007 with plans to deploy a Connecting all networks on one common platform: It will be a tough task to merge all the network services on one common platform with the same quality of service, same tariffs, etc, For merging GSM and CDMA on a common platform to provide services with the desired results, either of them has to change its standard or both have to compromise on new interfacing standards. Since 4G has CDMA or OFDM as the only option to use, definitely all the networks must update themselves to the desired level. Seamless connectivity and smart handoffs: Figure 4. Security plays a vital role in 4G technology. Providing seamless connectivity while moving between 4G Security: different networks using smart handoffs is a big Antivirus - high level of detection and challenge before the designers if all the networks are elimination of vast majority of viruses active using different standards. Therefore it becomes while we are sending and receiving e-mail, essential to design very complex air interfaces that will downloading files or working over the decide the quality of smart handoffs and the quality of Internet. service. Personal Firewall - protects PC from hackers trying to invade privacy and damage or Acquiring the required data rate and destroy your information bandwidth: The 4G is expected to have a much Anti-spam - keeps annoying, unwanted e- higher data rate even when the user is in motion. To mails outside e-mail box, support the high data rate, the devices to be designed ESET Smart Security is designed to protect computers must be very sensitive and smart enough to work with from a range of threats like: vehicular speeds at both the ends (user and the cellular base station terminal ends) Proactive Protection: Utilizing Threat Sense -the industry's most advanced heuristics technology. The 9. Limitations: included anti-spam and firewall software provide you with a total security solution. Although the concept of 4G communications Precise Detection: ESET accurately identifies shows much promise, there are still limitations that known and unknown threats. must be addressed. A major concern is interoperability between the signaling techniques that are planned for Lightweight Design: Smart Security requires less memory and CPU power, allowing computer to run use in 4G. fast, making more room for games, web browsing, and Cost is another factor that could hamper the progress of emailing. 4G technology. The equipment required to implement the next generation network are still very expensive. Fast Scanning Speeds: ESET Smart Security is a A key challenge facing deployment of 4G technologies highly efficient program ensuring fast file scanning and is how to make the network architectures’ compatible product updates, while running quietly in the with each other. This was one of the unmet goals of background. 3G. As regards the operating area, rural areas and many 11. Advantages of 4G buildings in metropolitan areas are not being served well by existing wireless networks. Support for interactive multimedia services like teleconferencing and wireless internet. 10. Security: Wider bandwidth and higher data rates Global mobility and service portability 4G Security service is an overall software solution for Scalability of mobile network protection of PC and Internet connection. This simple Entirely packet- switched networks and professional solution will eliminate our concerns in Tight network security respect to security of our PC, data and communication Higher bandwidths to provide multimedia over the Internet. services at lower costs 12. Applications of 4G Location application: 4G location applications will be based on visualized, virtual navigation schemes that will support a remote database containing graphical representations of streets, buildings and other physical characteristics of a large metropolitan area. This database could be accessed by subscribers in vehicles. Virtual navigation and tele- geo-processing: We will be able to see the internal layout of a building during an emergency rescue. This type of application is sometimes referred to as ‘telegeoprocessing.’ Telemedicine: A paramedic assisting a victim of traffic accidents in a remote location could access medical records (X- rays) and establish a video conference so that a remotely based surgeon could provide ‘on-scene’ assistance. Crisis management application: In the event of natural disasters where the entire communications Figure 5. A happy 4G user! infrastructure is in disarray, restoring communications quickly is essential. With wideband wireless mobile communications, limited and even total communications capability (including Internet and video services) could be set up within hours instead of References days or even weeks required at present for restoration EFY magazine of wire line communications. http://www.wikipedia.org High definition video: At the present rates of 15-30 Mbps, 4G is capable of providing users with streaming http://www.google.co.in high-definition television. At rates of 100 Mbps, the http://mobileinfo.com content of a DVD can be downloaded within about 5 Electronics and Communication minutes. systems by George Kennedy and Wireless services: 4G which has OFDM is being Bernard Davis considered for future broadband application such as wireless ATM services 13. Conclusion Thus, the drawbacks like low bandwidth, lesser data rates, data insecurity, high cost rates can be overcome by 4G technology. The end user can expect low cost per data bit, as well as speed and reliability, something which is greatly needed, and will become second nature in the future. Thus, 4G paves path for an innovative world in the field of mobile technology.
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