REGISTRATION NO: 94
DRIVE SAFE WITH SMART
DRIVE SAFE WITH SMART
(REAL TIME SYSTEMS)
New advances in technology have like 1. Protunik- Automatic decrease in
brought a practical system within reach. light intensity, Aid in negotiating turns
Majority of all accidents occur due to like L, T, X types etc. by giving a
human's error fatigue, which is the warning to the driver.
major issue. Increased emphasis by both
2. Smart alert- stay alert device an Anti-
governments and car manufacturers on
Drowsy Alarm system.
safety, modern cars and trucks are
equipped with air bags, and proximity
3. Assisted Road Information System-
and drift monitors. Developing on-board
provide drivers with real-time
automotive driver assistance systems
aiming to alert drivers about driving
environments, and possible collision 4. Accident prevention using RFIDs -
with other vehicles has attracted a lot of provide the driver with simple graphical
attention lately. This paper describes information, on the car's console about
some probable directions to prevent the relative cars.
road mishaps with the help of electronics
Advent of technology from wheel to industrialization out in city limits, it has
wheelers (automobiles) have made distances become necessary to take the support of
shorter with a high degree of reliability.
With the increase in infrastructure and
vehicles for transportation.
Well, these scenes are being enacted
Well, we all know how easy it is (with everyday on Indian roads as shown in
the increasing loans of banks) to own an figure2 and figure3.
automobile and driving license in There are always solutions and in some
India.With increased number of vehicles ways we are moving towards that. Better
the rate of road accidents is also high in
and wider roads for example. States are
making wearing of helmets compulsory.
But road accidents are not reducing. For
example one of our best roads, the
Mumbai Pune Expressway, sees a fair
amount of accidents.
Figure 1:scenario of cities
Increased emphasis by both governments
Incidentally, India holds the dubious and car manufacturers on safety, modern
distinction of registering the highest cars and trucks are equipped with air
number of road accidents in the world. bags, and proximity and drift monitors.
According to the experts the number of Both emit loud tones to alert the car's
road accidents in India is three times driver that the vehicle is entering a
higher than that prevailing in developed dangerous area.
countries .40. 2 % of accidental deaths
Vehicle automation technologies and
are accounted from Road Accident, two
systems can be described in four
wheelers contributes 16.4 % of road
Warning systems that sense and but this poses as a threat as it impedes
then advise drivers of potential the vision of the oncoming vehicle in the
hazards; opposite direction. The aim of the first
Control assistance systems that device is to detect if any vehicle is
augment the driver's ability to coming in the opposite direction (when
control the vehicle; the user is using high beam in his
Control override systems that vehicle, so that it won’t impede the on-
intervene in some aspect of the coming driver’s vision) at night. If the
control of the vehicle during device detects any vehicle coming in the
unsafe conditions; and opposite direction then it automatically
Automated control systems that switches the intensity of the head lamp
control all motions of the vehicle. to normal level.The requirement of high
beams are in places where the path is
dark and it is difficult to commute but
when another vehicle is coming from the
other side (and has normally lit head
lamp), then the intensity of light is
sufficient for the user to travel.
1.PROTUNIK The device ‘protunik’ safety Detection
Objectives: System (which refers to unique
- Automatic decrease in light intensity protection) developed by Umanath R
(of headlights) as the vehicle approaches Kamath and Ashwin Bhat has two
another vehicle from the opposite side modules: One is the devise to be
during night . installed in the automobile for automatic
- Aid in negotiating turns like L, T, X dip and dim of head light and the second
types etc. by giving a warning to the one is the system to negotiate ‘L’ turns.
Usually, high beam is required in
vehicles for timely detection of objects
If the device detects any vehicle coming
in the opposite direction then it
automatically switches the intensity of
the head lamp to normal level (i.e.
intensity is shifted to ground). We have
built a motion detector circuit using
ultrasonic transducers. The reason for
their use is because of their high range
detection capability and ruggedness.
Also ultrasonic detection is not affected Figure4: Automatic Dip and Dim of
by UV rays as in IR range detection. The Headlights.
output is interfaced with the Module2:
microcontroller which switches the The motion detector indicates if there is
intensity of lights if motion detected. any vehicle approaching the junction on
The module is placed on the roof the car; either side of the ‘L’ junction. This is fed
at an angle so that it can only detect the to the micro-controller (MC9S08QG8)
vehicles approaching from the other which indicates to each of the roads
lane. This module should be present on (which form the ‘L’ junction) if the other
every vehicle for effective operation. road is free or not by glowing a red bulb
During normal travel in the vehicle the for finite duration. The function of
distance of the sensor is constant with microcontroller is to give equal chance
respect to the road. Whenever a vehicle to both the vehicles (i.e. the ones
is approaching, the detector circuit approaching the ‘L’ turn from both ends)
detects and gives a high to the port of the and also not glow the bulb unnecessarily
micro-controller, which turns on the (i.e. if only one vehicle is approaching
circuit to shift the ‘L’ junction ,then there is no need of
the intensity. any warning to be given on the other
road) as shown in figure5.
and eliminate the possibility of driving
SMART ALERT, a low cost device is a
must to drivers who travel on the roads
and highway on daytime or night. It is a
small alarm device that fits onto your
right ear as shown in figure6. If you nod
off, your head will fall forward. Smart
Alert warns you audibly (<100 db) when
your head tilts down over certain angle,
allowing you to take corrective actions -
changing drivers, take a break or a
Figure5: System Negotiating Various
And here are some of the other systems
which are already at work.
1. SMART ALERT - STAY ALERT
-The exhausting and monotonous driving
often makes the driver dull and dozy.
This system detects a driver's head
noding and provides a warning
"beeping" or vibrate to alert the driver
Figure6: Smart Alert is very simple. - Nissan has been conducting large-scale
Just plug on your ear and stay alert
testing of an information system that
all the time!
furnishes drivers with information on
This clever, ingenious and a life saver
pedestrians using communications
Anti-Drowsy Alarm (SMART ALERT)
between vehicles and GPS cell phones
is the Electronic Balanced Sleepy
held by pedestrians.
Warning Device specialized for the
drivers and user that works on the
principle of electronic balance and it fits
on the ea of a driver.
2. Assisted Road Information System:
Nissan and West Nippon Expressway (
NEXCO ) have joined forces to research
systems that could help prevent
accidents and provide drivers with real-
Figure 7: System giving warning on
-The new GPS module will also help
warn drivers if they are going the wrong
way on a ramp near a service area or
-The new road information system will
use telematics to help warn drivers about
unintended speed changes on ramps and
long downhill stretches to help prevent Figure 8: System displaying messages.
accidents and congestion, by displaying
messages such as “Beware of speeding" 3. Accident prevention using RFIDs:
or "Beware of slowing" on the car's Objective:
navigation display.The Probe Data -This design addresses the problem of
Driver Assistance will help drivers on car collisions by providing the driver
expressways, giving them information with real-time simple graphical
about weather and road conditions. information, on the car's console, about
localized and monitored. Such an
arrangement is shown in the figure.
the relative distance and position, the
relative velocity and acceleration of its
neighboring cars, with the use of active
Currently available collision avoiding Figure 9: Car with RFID tags
systems use SONAR in place of RFID The antennae are sectoral antenna
for the detection of obstacles that is together forming an envelope around the
relies on the reflected ultrasonic wave car. Whenever a car comes in the
from the obstacle, whose performance overlapping field of at least two
depends on orientation of the surface; in antennas, it can be localized i.e. its
RFID the loss of information is less distance and position can be determined.
probable thus error-free detection
. To determine the relative velocity and
acceleration, the first and second
RFID based systems provide advantages derivative of the signal strength can be
over SONAR primarily in terms of cost used. In order to optimally utilize the
of production and robustness of the power of RFID tags, the sampling period
system. of the car detection can be adaptively set
Every car will be fitted with the active in different environments, increasing the
RFID tags at strategic positions so the sampling frequency in high traffic
every car in the neighborhood can be regions and low sampling frequency in
less congested areas.
This information will be provided to the
driver using a simple graphic, showing
the fast approaching cars with greater
One disadvantage of using RFID is that
it can detect only the cars with an RFID
system, thus making it dependent on
other cars and not able to detect
obstacles without an RFID tag.
As they say, “Better a thousand times
careful than once dead.” We are trying to
reduce the human fatigues implementing
the above ideas in a better way to the
automobiles shaping the future of the
nation's vehicle system by providing
safety, availability, reliability,
environmental considerations and costs.