Luxor Temple 2

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					guidance department
    Introduction about the site
• Luxor is one of the most
   beautiful governorates in
  it contains the largest and the
   most unique collection of
   ancient Egyptian temples. It
   lies some 671 km south of
   Cairo. Its divided in to two
   banks: the Eastern bank
   which contains the karnak
   and the Luxor temples and
   the Western bank which
   contains: the Valley of the
   kings, Valley of the Queens,
   the Valley of the nobles as
   well as funerary temples like
• Luxor used to be the 4th nome of Upper Egypt in the
  province of Qena. The ancient Egyptian name of Luxor
  was (w3st) which means symbol of rule and authority. It
  was also known (southern iwn) or iwn sm^, thus
  balancing the (northern iwn) which is Heliopolis. The
  Greeks called it Thebes and later on called it diospolis,
  “city of Zeus” Zeus being the god whom the Greeks
  identified with Amun. The Greeks named the city Magna,
  “the great”, to differentiate the city from numerous others
  named diospolis. The Romans rendered the name
  diospolis magna. It was called by the famous Greek poet
  (homer) as the city of (the hundred gates). When the
  Arabs came to Egypt they called the city (alqusur) which
  means city of palaces and from it, its modern name
  Luxor was derived.
• During the ancient times w3st played a very important
  role in the ancient Egyptian history as it was the capital
  of Egypt during middle kingdom. It was the home town of
  king Montohotep ll the founder of the 11th dynasty and
  the Middle Kingdom, who built his funerary temple upon
  its western bank in the area of “Dier el Bahari”
• it was also the capital during the new kingdom during
  which Egypt was a very powerful kingdom with great
  empire. It only lost it’s importance during the short reign
  of Akhenaton when he a banded it and moved to the
  new capital (Akhetnaton) “tell al Amarna” nowadays.
The religious Significance
• The chief god of Luxor during the middle was montu, the
  god of war. Later during the new kingdom the chief deity
  became god Amun who associated with god “Re” and
  together they formed god Amun Re.
• Thebes became the main cult center not only of Amun
  but also of his triad which is formed by his wife “mut” and
  his son “khunso”. Amun is represented as a man with
  two tall feathers on his head. Mut was represented as a
  lady with the double crown and khunso represented as
  mummified young man above his head the moon & the
  crescent, some times his face take the form of a falcon
  (as he had a close connection with the divine child hours
  and also god shu) .
Introduction about the temple itself
• King Amenhotep lll one of the kings of the 18th
  dynasty & the son of Tothmosis lV built the inner
  part of the temple of Luxor close to the Nile just
  south of the city. The temple was completed
  during the reign of Ramesses ll of the 19th
• The temple was planned along traditional lines
  like all Egyptian temples; it had a sanctuary with
  surrounding chambers, large colonnade hall, the
  hypostyle hall & an open court.
The avenue built by Naktanebo I
                      1 The Avenue of Sphinxes
•   Entrance to the temple was – and still is – from the north.
•   Before the main body of the temple runs the causeway lined by
    sphinxes that once led all the way to Ipt Swt in modern Al-Karnak for
    a distance of about 2 miles, it was revealed by recent excavations of
    OEA. This processional road, known as the Sacred Way or the Avenue
    of Sphinxes or the dromos, it was a later addition, dating from the
    time of Nectanebo I, it way was paved with sandstone slabs. Anyway,
    this road has not been brought to life completely and they are still
    working on it. Nevertheless, In front of the Luxor temple, it is well
•   First, Amenhotep III built an avenue of Sphinxes with ram-headed
    sphinxes to join the Temple of Karnak and the Luxor Temple for the
    procession during the Opet Festival. Then Horemheb rebuilt it and
    finally Nectanebo I in the 30th Dyn. once more rebuilt it, and the
    ram-headed sphinxes were replaced with human headed others, bear
    his facial features with beards to be dedications of him.
•   However, as the avenue was not in direct alignment with the Luxor
    Temple. Therefore, when Ramses II added the entrance hall, pylons
    and obelisks, they were skewed at an angle to line up with the avenue
    of Sphinxes.
•   On the way to the entrance, to the east are the remains of a small
    25th dyn. chapel of Taharqa dedicated to Hathor, which excavations
    show had been removed except for the foundations, some 5m thick. Of
    the Roman chapel of burnt brick dedicated to the god Serapis, which
    was built during the rule of Hadrian no trace remains.
The 1st Pylon
2 The Entrance
The avenue ended at the entrance of the temple of Luxor, marked by the
   large pylon erected by Ramses II.
2-a The First Pylon
The temple is fronted by a high gate pylon built by Ramses II (originally 24m
   high and 65m wide), it has part of the top course missing.
The outer front section of the towers of the pylon contains four vertical
   recesses or grooves, they were for the insertion of standards or the
   flagstaffs that were raised on feast days. The four square-openings above
   the recesses were made to receive the braces that would hold the
Both towers' outer faces were decorated with panoramic illustrated scenes and
   texts of Ramses II, and his relate stories in carved episodes, as it shows
   scenes of his military triumphs -in sunk reliefs- (particularly the famous
   Battle of Kadesh).The scenes are not in good condition and are somewhat
   difficult to bee seen.
On the inner eastern face of the pylon is a continuation of the record of the
   battle of kadesh found on the external walls; on the west side is a
   dedication inscription. On the jambs of the gateway, Ramses II stands with
   various gods.
Other later kings, particularly those of the Nubian 25th dyn. and Ethiopian
   dynasties, also recorded their military victories on these walls (on the
   entrance passage of the pylon are carvings of Shabaka (23rd dyn.) showing
•   On the western (right-hand) tower
    are reliefs of the Egyptian camp;
    Ramses II is depicted holding a
    conference on tactics with his
    princes and advisors, receiving his
    vanguard's reports, and consulting
    with his military commanders, with an
    illustration of the chaos in the
    Egyptian camp when it was overcome
    by its enemies. It shows also some
    of his other battles including the
    Syrian and Libyan wars, with details
    of named fortresses.

•   On the eastern (left-hand) tower
    he charges the enemy in his
    chariot managing to keep them
    engaged until reinforcements
    arrive, and he claimed final
2-b The Statues
In front of the entrance pylon of Ramses II, he originally placed six
   colossal figures of himself of granite leaning against the pylon, four
   standing made out of pink granite, and two seated on his throne
   made out of black granite, they are all flanking the entrance, with
   all the royal features wearing the double crown (Shmty). Fortunately
   they both survived, the seated statue on the east (left) shows a
   princess and queen Nefertari, carved at much smaller scale, next to
   king's legs.
On both statues, the sides of the throne are decorated with figures of
   Hapi (the Nile- God) binding together the two lands of Egypt (the
   sema tawy sign.
 However, of the four standing ones, the two to the east were given to
   France (now in the louvre), and only one of the two on the west
   remains in place.
There is also Ramses II head from a colossus in front of the pylon's
   eastern side.
Close view of the   1st   pylon
2-c The Obelisks
The Luxor Temple is easily identified from the front because it has only one
   obelisk, but Ramses II originally erected two red granite obelisks in front
   of the first pylon at the rear of the forecourt inscribed with his names and
   titles, however, both were presented by Mohammed Ali Pasha to France in
   as a gift to King Philip Louis, after he was given an elaborate French clock,
   The one on the west, 22.8m high and weighs about 227 tons, was removed
   (now in La Place de le Concorde in Paris), but its base still could be seen in
   front of the western tower of the pylon. However, fortunately the eastern
   one, 25m high and weighs about 254 tons, which was also included in the
   deal, turned out to be too much trouble to move, is still in place.
Each was erected on a base with four baboons (who were the first to greet
   the morning sun) carved on its face
The pyramidal tip of the tall shafts were covered in sheet gold, which flashed
   in the sunlight, symbolizing the sun god Re in his brilliance.
Decoration There are three lines of vertical inscription on every face of the
   obelisk repeat the names and titles of Ramses II the Great: The Mighty
   Bull, Exalter of Thebes, Favorite of the Two Goddesses Golden Horus, who
   established monuments in Luxor for his father Amun who placed him upon
   the throne, seeking excellent things for him who fashioned him; King of
   Upper and Lower Egypt, Usermaatre, Chosen of Re.
It is of interest to note that when the one obelisk was lowered -in order to be
   transported to France- Ramses II's name was also found inscribed on the
   bottom. Pharaohs were notorious for usurping other pharaoh's monuments
   and Ramses II was determined that this was to remain his own.
• 3 The Peristyle Courtyard (1st open court) of Ramses II
•   Although Amenhotep III built the temple proper runs parallel to the river
    and is therefore aligned North-South, the southern end of the it was an
    addition constructed by Ramses II during the 19th dynasty, so the pylon
    and the courtyard beyond, built by him, are slightly angled to the axes of
    the main temple. This non-alignment may have resulted from consideration
    for the small three earlier pre-existing barque shrines to the Theban triad
    built during the reigns of Tuthmosis III and Hatshepsut, located in the
    northwest corner of the court. Some scholars also think that this alignment
    may have been made so that the pylon would be on the same axis with the
    processional way leading to the Karnak Temple.
•   Anyway, the court is not square, but rather in the form of a parallelogram,
    measuring 57 by 50.9 meters.
•   Ramses II entirely surrounded and enclosed the court on all the 4 directions
    with a double row of 74 well-proportioned smooth cylindrical shafted
    papyrus-bud columns (not of finest quality) with closed papyrus-shaped
    capitals, and the narrow arcades used to be roofed.
•   This court contains a large number of grand colossal granite Osirit statues
    of Ramses II representing him striding -several usurped as those of
    Amenhotep III whom he later appropriated - stood in between the columns
    of the first row on the rear (southern) half of the court (some are
    damaged). Some others belong the early stage in his reign as they were
    made as idealized portraits of the young king, and where every available
    space was filled with those effigies.
•   The left-hand (northeastern) gallery has not been excavated yet, and the
    columns are still buried up to the capitals, The reason for this is that the
    spaces is occupied by a mosque.
•   Leading south Beyond the peristyle courtyard comes the processional
    colonnade built by Amenhotep III. The entrance of this Colonnade is guarded
    on its southern beginning by two colossal black granite magnificent seated
    sculptures of Ramses II inscribed with the his names, and on their bases are
    carved scenes representing the countries and trips conquered by him in Syria
    and Nubia.
•   On the back of the throne of one of them is carved a figure of goddess
    Seshat while on the other god Thoth.
•   Small statue of Queen Nefertari is carved beside the right leg of the
    western colossal.
•   Decoration
•   Reliefs cover the interior and exterior walls, on the outside walls of this cour
    are depictions related to Ramses II's campaigns against the Hittites in Syria.
•   On the right-hand rear internal (southern) wall on (south-western corner) of
    the court is an interesting representation, the façade of the temple of Luxor
    is represented in details in all its glory with its banners, obelisks and statues,
    with one seated and two standing colossi and one obelisk on each side of the
    entrance gateway. The flag-staffs are in position and pennants flutter.
•   Approaching (from the right) are some of Ramses II's sons. Behind them are
    fattened sacrificial animals being led by nobles.
•   It shows an illustration of the procession of the large beautifully garlanded
    bulls. They are adorned with flowers for sacrifice and are being led to the
    temple by a long procession of priests. Ramses II's seventeen children, who
    led the procession during the inauguration of the great pylon of Luxor,
    precede them and their names and titles are given beside each figure, and
    they appeared in birth order, the oldest (Amenherkhepshef) standing first at
    the left. Some of the bulls have decorated horns; one has metal tips in the
    form of hands. Queen Nefertari is shown shaking two sistra. Behind her are
    princes and princesses
•   On the eastern wall are scenes of the king offering to Min, and being
    received by Montu; most of the texts are of Ramses II but Pinudjem and his
    family also appear.
•   In addition, on the last two walls are the family of Ramses II
•   Also cryptographic inscription can be seen on the architrave.

•   While the columns are showing Ramses II before different deities.
• 3-a The Triple Shrine

• The first court of Ramses II embraces (on the right north west
  corner) abutting on the inner face of the northwestern tower of the
  pylon a small earlier triple shrine or way station which must
  originally have stood in the clear space before the temple
• It was built by Hatshepsut, usurped by Thutmose III and restored
  at the same location by Ramses II, using elements from the earlier
  sanctuary's building material, including the fine monolithic columns.
  And he incorporated it in the his entrance hall.
• It was one of the stopping points for the sacred barque during the
  procession which transferred it between karnak and luxor
• This shrine was originally consisted of three contiguous deep shrines
  dedicated to the sacred boats or barques of the Theban triad;
  Amon (center), Mut (western) and Khonsu (eastern).
• The shrines are preceded by a porch with four columns.
• Unlike the pylon and the surrounding columns, it is of granite and
  the work is of a greater delicacy
• Decoration
• In Amon's shrine Thutmose III is shown running towards Amon and
  there are additional cartouches of Merneptah.
• Both the shrines of Mut and Khonsu show the sacred boats.
The 3 shrines
• 3-b Abu Haggag Mosqu

• In the northeastern corner (left side), of the open court an ancient
  church was located, as the temple site was occupied by previous
  temples and was considered a holy site.
• The Romans used it for their worship and During the Christian era,
  the inner section was converted into a Christian basilica (church),
  and later a fatimide mosque dedicated to the Muslim saint (Sufi
  sheik) Yusuf Abu Haggag, a descendant of the Khalif Ali, was built
  over the site atop the columns of the courtyard on the eastern side
  using the buried walls of the temple as its foundation.
• It was a part of the mediaeval village built on the ruins and rubble
  that had accumulated in the temple, and it now sits perched high on
  the structure of Ramses II's first court, and is continued to be
  used today.
• The mud-brick minaret stands on a stone lintel of the temple. It
  has a base 4.5m square that tapers slightly. Wooden beams
  strengthen the sides and at the top of this section, there are small
  buttresses at the corners. Above this is a tapering cylindrical shaft
  surmounted by a small dome surrounded by crenellations.
• Traces of the colorful paintings of the mosque's wall still appear on
  its external western wall.
•   A doorway leads out into thin air some 8 meters above the ground with a
    small staircase leads to the eastern street.
•   Although the ancient mosque is cracked and the department of antiquities
    has built a new mosque just outside the walls to the west, this building is
    greatly venerated and the worshippers refuse to move.

•   Although it is quite strange, that one of the Moslem saints Abu Haggag who
    spent the last fifty of his ninety years in Luxor. established for himself
    this small mosque inside the Luxor temple. But one of the beautiful events
    tourists are keen to watch there is the celebration of the birth of Abu
The mosque of Al Hajaj
The colonnade

 The 2nd Open court
                       The colonnade
•   The colonnade it the first part of the temple made by Amenhotep lll. It
    consists of fourteen large open papyrus capitals columns about 16 meters
    high, arranged to mark a tall processional avenue. They still support their
    huge architrave blocks.
•   However, Tutankhamen, Horemheb. Seti l, Rameses ll & Seti ll inscribed
    their names on this colonnade.
•   Tutankhamen and Horemheb decorated the walls of the colonnade with the
    Opet festival when god Amun visited the southern harem. These scenes are
    considered one of the finest works of the 18th dynasty.
•     - on the right wall the processional begins at the gate      of the
    karnak temple.
•     - on the opposite wall the scenes of the return of the sacred bark       to
    the temple of Luxor including the sacrificial bulls.
•   This festival nowadays took place by the Muslims as a “mawled” celebrated
    each year in the month of shaaban closely to resemble the Opet festival.
•   Muslim sheikhs emerge from the mosque of Abu Al Hagag bearing 3 small
    boats which they placeof carriages to travers the city, the city is bedecked
    with flowers, dancing & clapping to greet the procession.
                     The OPET festival
•   when was the festival celebrated?
•   This festival was celebrated in the second month of Akhet, the season of
    the flooding of the river and linked to the symbolic fertility of the rising of the
    Nile. This was when people did not have a great workload, it was long past
    harvesting time and it was not yet time to plow and sow. From eleven days
    celebration in the times of Thutmose III, it grew to cover most of one month
    during the reign of Ramesses III. However, it is not documented before the
    18th Dynasty.
•   what does the opet festival means?
•   The word 'Opet' means 'Secret Chamber' so it is: "The Festival of the Secret
    Chamber" (Heb Ipt. By this is meant the innermost chamber of Ipet-Resut,
    the southern temple at Waset (Thebes/Luxor). The festival celebrates the
    birthday of the Kingly Ka , when the King got his Divine Right to rule re-
•   When the Opet festival was first celebrated, a great procession went from
    Karnak to Luxor. Amun-Re, carried on a veiled bark by waeb priests, made
    a visit to the 'inner chambers' (Opet of the South, Ipet-resyt) to Amun at
    The celebration in different Eras
•   In Hatshepsut´s reign :
•   In Hatshepsut´s reign, the god´s statue was carried in his bark by waeb priests by
    land to the Opet temple. Under way it stopped at several way stations, for the priests
    to rest and for offerings and prayers to be made. It travelled back to Karnak on the
    river, on the god´s ceremonial barque, which was escorted by the royal barque with
    the king himself on board.
•   In Amarna's period :
•   Later, after the Amarna period, the festivities covered about 27 days and the journey
    went by the river both ways. The whole Theban triad of Amun, Mut and Khonsu was
    towed southward on their barque, both by boats under sail and by men at ropes along
    the shoreline. The procession was followed by dignitaries, dancers, singers,
    musicians and common people. Priests carried incence, sistra were shaken, there
    were singing and clapping of hands. All along the way there were probably merchants
    and peddlers offering wares to the people gathered on the shores to catch sight of
    the barges. There were also Oracles performed for the people. The barge would stop
    and people could come forward and ask simple questions which could be answered
    with a 'yes' or a 'no'. The priest would then tip the barge forward for 'yes' and
    backwards for 'no'. It was the greatest Theban festival during they whole year.
        What dose the king do ?
• The King first offered at Karnak to Amun-Re and to Mut,
  and gave promises that he would renew the god´s cult.
  Next the King offered incence and water before the
  festival boats of Amun, Mut and Khonsu, while they were
  still resting at Karnak.
• From there they were carried, in the company of the
  King, to the quai, where they were put on big barges,
  they were either towed or sailed, to the Luxor temple
  (Ipet Resyt.(
• At Luxor, the god was greeted by high dignitaries and
  sacrifices were made. There were also acrobats and
  musicians performing for the god, as well as temple
  personnel out to welcome him. Here, the King and the
  priests disappeared inside the temple.
 Amun,Mut & Khonsu in the renewal
     of the king's right to rule
• Inside, Amun, Mut and Khonsu were brought to their respective
  shrines. We don´t know all the content or the meaning of the rituals
  which were now performed inside the temple. There might have
  been celebrated a sacred marriage in order to certify the ruling king
  as a true son of the gods but we don´t know. What is clear however
  is that it constituted the renewal of the King´s right and power to
  rule, and this happened as he entered the temple. As a
  manifestation, the coronation rites were repeated at this festival. The
  King received the various crowns and through presenting special
  offerings, he was renewed by the god. In this way, the Opet Festival
  served both as a renewal of the god Amnun-Re and the king, plus it
  emphasized the bonds between the gods and the people of the land.
  The importance of the renewal
• The reason this renewal was important,
  was that the ancients believed that during
  the course of a year, the gods grew weary
  and their power diminished. So did also
  the powers of the earth and the king. The
  rituals, performed correctly, would ensure
  that the power of the Cosmos would return
  and renew gods and king.
    The court of Amenhotep lll
• The court of amenhotep lll measures 148 feet
  long (45 m) by 184 feet wide (56 m), with double
  rows of paoyrus columns on three sides. The
  northern end was originally the entrance to the
  temple. These columns are well preserved
  except at the northern end.
• Luxor cachet :
• Here in this point of the temple in the court of
  amenhotep lll LIES THE 3RD CACHETTE AT
  LUXOR, twenty three of our masterpieces were
  found there.
The Hypostyle Hall
The 2nd Open court
                The hypostyle hall
• This hall is sometimes called the vestibule. It consists of
  32 papyrus bud columns grouped in 4 rows of 8 .
• In front of the central columns are fragments of an
  architrave with the cartouche of the 13th dynasty, king
  Sobek Hotep lll which must have come from the earlier
  temple. King Ramses lV & Rameses Vl have usurped
  these columns, by inscribing their cartouches.
• On the eastern wall: Amenhotep lll is shown bringing
  offerings before god Amun and Amunet.
• The king is killing a gazelle before the god .
• The southern sides of the hypostyle court leads to four
  long rooms, 3 of them are chapels to Amun, Mut &
  khonsu. Against the doors of theses rooms are
  inscriptions of Ramses ll indicating that he had repaired
  the temple. The fourth rooms on the west has stairs
  leading to the roof. On the side of the hall there is a
  roman alter dedicated to the emperor Constantine.
• It should be noted that starting from the hypostyle hall till
  the end of the temple is all roofed.
• The hypostyle hall opens into the first antechamber, also known as
  the roman sanctuary.
• This area was occupied by 8 columns which were removed when
  the area was converted into a roman church. The door of the roman
  church was walled into a curved recess flanked by two granite
  Corinthian columns. Also the reliefs on the walls were covered by a
  layer of pilaster and painted with Christians scenes. In pieces where
  the stucco has fallen off one can see the relief’s of amenhotep
• The first antechamber leads to the second antechamber with four
  columns. It is considered an offering chapel and it contains scenes
  of the king making offerings to Amun.
• To the east of this antechamber is a passage leading to a room with
  three columns this room in turn leads to the birth room of
  Amenhotep lll .
                         The birth room
•   On this room were depicted scenes of the divine birth of Amenhotep lll,
    shown in 3 registers
•   1)starting at the bottom from the right to left:
•   -Amun re and hathor and “mutmwia” the mother of the king is embracing.
•   -Amun disguised as Tothmosis lV is led by Thoth into the queen’s
•   -then Amun and the queen are seated together on the symbol of
    heaven supported by goddesses Selket and Neith.
•   -Amun reveals his divinity, holds the breath of the life to queen’s      nostrils
    and instructed that the fourth coming child be called           Amenhotep .
•   -He instructed khnum to model Amenhotep on the potter’s wheel.
•   2)In the middle register from (left to right), the Queen is taken to the birth
    room by khnum and hathor then by Bes and Tawert (patron gods of child
•   3)In the top register the children are shown suckled by cow goddesses and
    the last scene shown Amenhotep lll as afully grown man purified and
    blessesd by the gods.
      The last transverse hall
• The sanctuary of Alexander the great
  leads to the transverse hall with 12
  papyrus bud columns. The scene in the
  transverse hall are badly damaged except
  for some scenes: to the south there is a
  scene of the king in front of a tree before
  Amun Re and the king followed by the
  goddesses (Nekhbet & Wadjet).
 The sanctuary of Alexander III
• This hall is also known as the sanctuary of
  sacred Barques. It was built by Alexander
  the great. This hall was also converted by
  Christians into a church. Alexander the
  great is shown on the outer walls of the
  shrine making offering in front of the
  sacred boat of amun. Also in the sanctuary
  stood the gold plated statue of amun.
            The Sanctuary
• It is a small squared room with four
  columns. The scenes on its walls
  represent “god Amun”. The sanctuary also
  contains a bench carved in stone for god
  amun to rest. Finishing the temple there
  are group of rooms which were used as
  store rooms.
• Web sites :
• Books :
• Classical art tours karnak and luxor by
  alessandro roccati
• Thebes in egypt by nigel and helen strudwick
• * Egypt, blue guide, by Veronica Setlon-Williams& peter Stocks, published
  by A& C Black (publishers) limited.
• * Upper Egypt and Nubia, by Jill Kamil, published by Egyptian international
  publishing company-Longman.
• * The Illustrated Guide ti Luxor, Tomps, Temples and Museumes, by kent
  R. Weeks, published by The American University in Cairo Press.
• * The Art of Ancient Egypt, by Robins, Gay, published by Harvard
  University Press.
• *Ancient Egypt, The Great Discoveries, A Year by Year Chronicl , by
  Nicholas Reeves, published by Thames&Hudson Ltd.
• * The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt, by Richard H.Wilkinson,
  published by Thames&Hudson Ltd.
• * The Search for Ancient Egypt , by Jean Vercoutter, published by
  Thames&Hudson Ltd.
• * The Private Lives of the Pharaohs, by Joyce Tyldesley, published by
  T.V. Books.
• * Life in the Time of the Pharaohs, by Nabil Ebeid& Hamdy Omar,
  published by Nubar Printing House.
• * Atlas of Ancient Egypt, by Baines, John, published by Les Livres De
• * THE Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt, by Wilkinson, Richard H,
  published by Thames and Hudson, Ltd.
• * The Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, by Shaw, IanNicholson, Paul,
  published by Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers.
•   * The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, by Shaw, Ian, published by Oxford
    University Press.
•   * Sacred Sites of Ancient Egypt, by Oakes, Lorna, published by Lorenz Books.
•   * The Complete Valley of the Kings, Tombs and Treasures of Egypt's Greatest
    Pharaohs, by C. N. Reeves.
•   * The Splendors of Archaeology, by Fibio Bourbon, published by The American
    University in Cairo Press.
•   * High above Egypt, by Marcello Bertinetti& Omar Sharif, published by The
    American University in Cairo Press.
•   * Egypt from the Air, by Max Rodenbck& Rossi, published by Thames&Hudson Ltd.
•   * Architecture and Mathematics in Ancient Egypt, by Corinna Rossi, published by
    Cambridge Univeristy Press.
•   * City of the Dead, Thebes in Egypt, by Lise Manniche.
•   * Thebes in Egypt, A Guide to the Tombs and Temples of Anciebt Luxor, by Nigel
    and Helen Strudwick
•   * Treasures of Luxor and the Valley of the Kings, Cultural Travel Guide, by Kent
•   * Luxor and the Valley of the Kings, Treasures of Ancient Egypt, by Alesandro
•   * Luxor, A Guide to Ancient Thebes, by Jill Kamil.
•   * Luxor, Karnak, and the Theban Temples, Egypt Pocket Guide, by Alberto Siliotti.
•   * Art and History Luxor, by Giovanna Magi.
•   * Luxor, A Guide to the Temples and Tombs of Ancient Thebes, by Ian Portman.
•   * Egypt Classical Art Tours, Karnak and Luxor by, Alessandro Roccati.
                                                  ‫المراجع العربية‬    ‫•‬
     ‫* مصر الفرعونية، د/ أحمد فخري، مكتبة األنجلو المصرية0‬           ‫•‬
‫* الفن المصري، د/ ثروت عكاشة، الهيئة المصرية العامة للكتاب.‬          ‫•‬
  ‫* موسوعة مصر الحديثة، أ.د/ ع+++بد الحليم نور الدين، الهيئة‬
                                                 ‫المصرية للكتاب.‬
‫* معابد مصر القديمة، د/ عبد المنعم أبو بكر، مكتبة زهراء الشرق‬
‫* تاريخ الحضارة المصرية، د/ محمد شفيق غربال، مكتبة مدبولي.‬           ‫•‬
 ‫* آثار األقصر، د/ محمد عبد القادر محمد، الهيئة المصرية للكتاب.‬
 ‫* معابد آمون، د/ محمد عبد القادر محمد، الهيئة المصرية للكتاب.‬       ‫•‬
      ‫* مصر والنيل في كتابات عالمية، د/ مختار السويفي، الدار‬
                                               ‫المصرية اللبنانية .‬
• Electronic (web) References
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Special Thanks
Presented to you by …

•   Mohamed Abd El Bary
•   Haidy Tarek Galal
•   Mai Mohamed Ali
•   Marihan Habib
•   Hayam saed
•   Nada hesham

                    DR. Shaza

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