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BP‘s Perspective on Future Fuels

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					BP‘s Perspective on Future Fuels
Wolfgang Dörmer, GFT, Bochum

Agenda

• What have been achieved in the past? • Why again is bio an issue for fuels?

• Bio target of politics and today’s fuel standards are not aligned
• BP’s biofuels developments

• Summary

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Many challenges were yet solved in the past
In the past much effort on fossil fuels quality was made

• to reduce emissions from both gasoline and diesel vehicles. • to allow introduction of improved vehicles technology with lower emissions and exhaust after treatment systems.
• to offer advantages for customers in
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Improved fuels quality result in lower emissions
Measures
Replacement of lead Reduction of sulphur Adjustment of distillation characteristics Reduction of Aromatics Increase of ignition quality Introduction of FM and Lubrifiers Introduction of performance additives

Gasoline
Lead free in most countries Down to max. 10mg/kg Volatility; vapour pressure Aromatics Higher octane numbers

Diesel
Down to max. 10mg/kg End point

PAH’s Higher cetane number

FM In the seventies

Lubrifiers 1987 in GY
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Drivers for change towards biofuels
Key drivers in moving towards sustainable mobility solutions:
• Climate change issues • Security of supply & Energy diversification Biofuels address both of these issues

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Absorption of CO2 by Plants results into better GHG-Balance of fossil Fuels
Both fossil and biofuels produce Carbon Dioxide (CO 2) emissions. But plants, from which biofuels are often produced, have absorbed CO2 from environment for growing. So use of biofuels can result in significant CO2

reductions.

Water (vapour) Nitrous oxide

etc.

Bio Fuels

Ozone FCKW Methan

CO2

Principle of a closed CO2 loop
Photosynthesis CO2-Absorption Biomass

GHG‘s from other sources

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How can biomass be used to manufacture renewable Fuels?
seed Energy from engines chemicals/fertiliser

A g r i c u l t u r e
rape
rape-oil (pure)

sugar beets/wheat

Oil mills / Raffination
rape-oil (refined) process energy

Production process
(distillation/dehydration)
or

Methanol

Esterificati onFAME (RME)
diesel HVO
Diesel engine

Etherificati ETBE on

Hydro carbons

Use in crude refinery (Coprocessing) or in separate process

Ethanol

Otto engine

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Politics push Biofuels Implementation
(Example Germany)

9 8

Energy content [EC %]

Combined quota*)

7 6 5 4 3 2 1
1.2% 4.4% 4.4%

6.75%

7.00%

7.25%

7.50%

7.75%

8.00%

6.25%

Discussion on increase up to 17% EC from 2020 on !!

4.8% FAME by volume

4.4%

4.4%

4.4%

4.4%

4.4%

4.4%

4.4%

Diesel-quota 3.6% 2.8% 2.0% Gasoline-quota Topping of a specific single quota can not be used to complete other failed quota 3.6% 3.6% 3.6% 3.6% 3.6% 5.6% EtOH by volume

0 2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015 [Year]

In 2007 und 2008 single quotas for biofuels are mandatory for blending into Gasoline and Diesel fuels. Until 2009 a combined quota regulates the total content of biofuels.
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Today’s EN fuel standards do not allow to fulfill bio quota from 2009 on (example
Germany)

2009
Required quota by Biofuel law Maximum achievable with current standards EN 228 and EN 590 allowing up to 5% Biofuels only Maximum achievable with updated standards allowing higher Bio-contents are higher * Values by volume up to 10%

Combined quota for all fuels [% Energy content *

6.25

4.8
6.5

Non compliance causes tax penalties

Enhancement of biofuels can result in higher CO2 savings. To use this advantage adjustment of today’s fuel standards to allow higher bio blend rates is mandatory. BP is supporting both higher blend rates to achieve higher CO2 savings and excellent fuel quality to satisfy customers.
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Biofuels: future potential world wide
The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates the global potential of biofuels up to 30% of the total demand of transport fuels in 2050:
200 180

s Ge sam t b e d arf Ean jKrafets t o f f e n (EJ) xa o u l

160 H y d ro g e n To t a l 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 B io fu e ls To t a l E le c t ric it y C N G /LP G G TL a n d C TL R e s id u a l F u e l Je t F u e l C o n ve n t io n a l D ie s e l C o n ve n t io n a l G a s o lin e

source: IEA, BP

According IEA estimates 30% biofuels possible in 2050
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On the way to 2nd generation biofuels better molecules for gasoline
Biobutanol for gasoline:
• Development of a new fermentation technology for the production of biobutanol from sugar together with our partner DuPont • Biobutanol - allows higher concentrations compared to ethanol without the necessity for vehicle adjustments. - has much lower fuel consuption increase than gasoline mixtures with ethanol. - Biobutanol used as cosolvent with ethanol provides positive effects on vapor pressure and better decomposition behavior in presence of water Biobutanol is a good alternative to Ethanol
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On the way to 2nd generation biofuels better molecules for diesel
Separate Hydro treating and Isomerization of vegetable oils: • Conversion to branched hydrocarbons in new units • Examples: Green Diesel (UOP), NexBTL (Neste)

Co-Processing of vegetable oils in refineries to diesel fuel: • Utilization of existing hydro treating units, feasibility demonstrated • Conversion to straight chain hydrocarbons in refinery unit
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BP Activities – Better Feed Stocks

• Joint Venture with D1 Crops to develop Jatropha plantations (non food crop)
• One million hectares of Jatropha to be planted over the next four years, with 300,000 hectares per year thereafter. • Plantation will generate 2.5 billion liters of Jatropha oil over the next four years. • Crops to be planted in South East Asia, Southern Africa, Central America, South America and India. • Also BP is investigating the feasibility of using algae oil (using our Energy Bioscience Institute) as a diesel feedstock. • Jatropha and Algae oil can be used to manufacture both traditional molecules (FAME) and advantaged fuel molecules (HVO)
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2nd generation biofuels EBI and BP BioFuels
BP BioFuels

• BP has entered into a partnership with the University of California Berkeley and the University of Illinois to establish the Energy Biosciences Institute (EBI). The EBI will focus itself on three key aspects of energy bio sciences:
 Development of new, more efficient bio-components for fuels.  Improvement and acceleration of bio-conversion processes and increase of

the portion of the biomass employment .  Utilization of modern biotechnologies for biofuel production for the development of those plants with a higher energy output - they are to grow also on land on which no useful plants for the food production can be cultivated.

• BP invested 500 million US-$ into the EBI (program start: July 2007) • BP has recently founded the new business division BP BioFuels. BP recognized and invested the growth potential of Biofuels
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Summary (1)
• The utilization of biofuels is not new, but today sustainability is of more importance than in former times. • Biodiesels made from vegetable oil, bioethanol & ETBE made of sugar are nowadays of importance. The trend to synthetic biofuels (e.g. BtL), bioethanol & ETBE from cellulose is clearly visible. • Politicians in the US, Europe and other areas of the world support biofuels • Oil and automotive industry want to implement factbased realistic objectives instead of group-centered lobbying • Biofuels avoid adding CO2 into the atmosphere, if the total CO2 balance is on the right side only. • Biofuels can only deliver a limited contribution to
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Summary (2)
• Biofuels are currently not economic. The only exception today seems to be: bioethanol from sugar cane in Brazil. • There are limited technical restrictions only that cannot be solved (ethanolate corrosion, engine oil dilution etc.) • Biofuels are a growing market • BP supports the development of biofuels with our own business and our own product line (biobutanol) • BP has recognized the growth potential of biofuels and invests. • The implementation of biofuels will not take place without substantial structural adjustments.
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Wolfsburg, 18th March 2008

Thank you very much for your attention.

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