The Piano by yurtgc548


 The term Baroque era describes the style or period of
 European music between the years of 1600 and 1750.
 The term Baroque was derived from a Portuguese word
 meaning "a pearl of irregular shape." The word
 Baroque was initially used to imply strangeness,
 abnormality and extravagance, applying more to art
 than music. It is only in the 20th century that this term
 has been employed to refer to a period in music
 The music in Baroque is distinctive due mainly for its
  several major components :
 1. Basso continuo or music that is played by one or
  more bass instruments and a keyboard instrument
 2. Emphasis of the vocal and instrumental
 3. Great separation of the melody line and
  accompaniment became widely accepted.
 4. The use of the doctrine of affections.
basso continuo
 A notated (pre written) bass line that could be
 improvised upon by a keyboard player or other soloist.

Vocal and instrumental
 Example; opera, and vocal solos
The Doctrine of Affections
 The Doctrine of the Affections or the Doctrine of
  Affects is derived from the German word
  Affektenlehre. This is as theory in musical aesthetics
  widely accepted by the Baroque composers in the
  Baroque era from 1600- 1750.
 The idea behind the Doctrine of the Affections is that
  one “rationalized” Affekt should be the focus of single
  movement of music and having more would lead to
The Piano
From the beginning
 The invention of the piano is credited to the Italian
  Bartolomeo Cristofori (1655-1731). Cristofori was
  a keyboard instrument designer for the prince
  Ferdinand d' Medici of Florence at the turn of the 18th
  century. At this time, the most popular keyboard
  instruments were the harpsichord and the clavichord
The Harpsichord
Harpsichord cont…
 Precursor to the piano
 Produced sound by plucking a tuned string
 Believed to have originated in the 1300’s
 The design was perfected by the Ruckers family in the
 late 1500’s. Their harpsichords used heavier
 construction and produced a louder/higher quality
Harpsichord cont…
The Clavichord
The Clavichord
 Believed to have originated in the 1400’s
 The clavichord was simply an improvement on the
 While a clavichord produced sound the same way as a
  harpsichord, The musician was now able to let a note
  sound as long as they held down the key.
Piano Cont…
 Keyboard enthusiasts during Cristofori's time wanted
  2 things:
 VOLUME (like the harpsichord)
 CONTROL (like the clavichord)
 Cristofori came up with the brilliant idea of replacing
  the wire hooks of the two instruments with leather
  padded hammers. The result was an instrument that
  played both piano (soft) and forte (loud). The new
 keyboard became known as the pianoforte, which
 over the years has shortened to piano.
Early Pianos
 Wood Framed
 Iron strings (sometimes plated)
 Reverse “black and white” keys
 Custom “one of a kind” parts
 5 octave range
Modern Pianos
 Cast iron frame
 Steel and brass strings
 Iconic black and white keys
 Machined parts
 6 to 7 octave range
 a musical composition in which one or two themes are
  repeated or imitated by successively entering voices
  and are developed in a continuous interweaving of the
  voice parts
 Similar to a fugue, but the imitating voices begin

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