Foundations of Child Development �Theories of Development - Download as PowerPoint by h412h04

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EDU 500 HUMAN GROWTH
AND DEVELOPMENT
Theoretical Work on Human
Development from Different
Schools summaries
 Psychoanalytical School
 Behaviorist School
 Cognitive School
 Humanist School
 Social-Cultural School
Psychoanalytical School
Founder Sigmund Freud
   mainconcepts: conscious and subconcious The id The
    ego and the spuperego
   the psychosexual stages of development
 Others : Adler , Carl Gustav Jung
 Erikson psycho-social approach:total life
  development
 Eight stages:
    Erikson cont.
   Infancy-challenge between trust and mistrust
   1-3 ,5 years -between autonomie and shame &doubt
   3,5 -5,5 years between initiative and guilt
   5,5-12 years, between industry and inferiority
   Adolescence between identity role & identity confusion
   Young adulthood between intimacy and isolation
   Adulthood between generativity and stagnation
   Late adulthood between Ego-integrity and despair
    Erikson Moral development
 Childhood: acquisition of specific moral
    learning
 Adolescence: ideological concerns
 Adulthood: ethical consolidation
Behaviorist school
 Ivan Pavlov
 classical conditioing
 John Watson- conditioning by environment
 Frederic Skinner
 Operant Conditioned Response -
  consequences
 Positive Reinforcement
 Negative Reinforcement
Cognitive school and social -
cognitive school - Piaget
   Piaget suggested four cognitive stages
    He believed in selfconstrution: the person is active
    initiator of development by his nature
   Process: Assimilation entails dealing with a new object
    or event in a way that is consistent with a currently
    existing scheme.
   Accommodation occurs when new information doesn’t fit
    into existing schemes were previously understood; the
    schemes must be adjusted or accommodated.
   Equilibration: finding a balance between those things
    that were previously understooto be understoodd and
    those that are yet to be understood relatiiong new things
    with something he already knows.
    Bandura
 In this self-regulatory process, people
  monitor their conduct and the conditions
  under which it occurs, judge it in relation to
  moral standards, and regulate their actions
  by the consequences they apply to
  themselves.
 They refrain from behaving in ways that
  violate their moral standards because
  such conduct will bring self-
  condemnation.” Bandura
Bronfenbrenner: Ecological
approach
•   What develops: Focus relationship between individuals
    and their physical, cognitive, personality, and social
    worlds
•   How development proceeds: Development is unique
    and intimately tied to person’s social and cultural
    context; four levels of environment simultaneously
    influence individuals
•   Principles: Each system contains roles, norms, and
    rules that can powerfully shape development;
•   Other key terms: Microsystem; ecosystem; exosystem;
    macrosystem; chronosystem
Lawrence Kohlberg

    developing of three moral stages with two
    levels of reasoning in each of the three
    stages
Humanist School
 Abraham Maslow
 self actualtization : it is the full use and
  exploitation of potentials, talents,
  capacities ...etc. To reaching the top of
  pyramid of needs
 Carl Rodgers : The person has to be seen
  with unconditional positive regard (as
  being ), and empathy (being listened to
  and understood). The person has to be in
Carl Rodgers (Humanist
school)cont.
   This means that self-actualization occurs when a
    person’s “ideal self” (i.e. who they would like to
    be) is congruent with their actual behavior (self-
    image). Rogers describes an individual who is
    actualizing as a fully functioning person. The
    main determinant of whether we will
    become self-actualized is childhood
    experience. Self-Concept is the organized,
    consistent set of perceptions and beliefs
    about oneself".
Eric Fromm
   Eric Fromm Love of the helpless, the poor and the
    stranger, are the beginning of brotherly love. To love ones
    flesh and blood is no achievement. The animal loves its
    young and cares for them. Only in the love of those who do
    not serve a purpose, does love begin to unfold. Compassion
    implies the element of knowledge and identification. "You
    know the heart of the stranger," says the Bible, "for you
    were strangers in the land of Egypt;... therefore love the
    stranger!"
   The greatest impediment of mankind is not desease.. it is
    dispair. By Erich Fromm The Art of Loving extracts
Social cultural School
 School Vigotsky
 Zone of Proximal development
 Scaffolding until – the child can learn
  internally motivated by itself having the
  reins of learning into its own hands
Vigotsky scaffolding
   Learning (internalization of tools) occurs
    most naturally and efficiently when we
    participate in authentic, social activities.
   Cognitive Apprenticeship model
     Modeling
     Scaffolding    and Fading
          Providing support so that students can complete some task
           they couldn’t do alone. Then gradually removing the support as
           students gain competence. In other words, help student
           progress through their ZPD.
          Authentic Activity:Real world, Complex, Meaningful, Social
Social Cognitive Theory
   Bandura
   In developing a “moral self, individuals adopt standards
    of right and wrong that serve as guides and deterrents
    for conduct.
   In this self-regulatory process, people monitor their
    conduct and the conditions under which it occurs, judge
    it in relation to moral standards, and regulate their
    actions by the consequences they apply to themselves.
   They refrain from behaving in ways that violate their
    moral standards because such conduct will bring self-
    condemnation.” Bandura
   (cited in Santrock, p. 249)
Self esteem: Evaluating oneself

 Children evaluate themselves in terms    of
    physical and psychological characteristics, but
    they also think of themselves as being good
    or bad (involves emotions)
   Different from Self-confidence
Not all love is the same! We
love different people in different
ways
   PASSIONATE (OR ROMANTIC) LOVE is a state of
    powerful absorption in someone.
   COMPANIONATE LOVE is the strong affection we have
    for those with whom our lives are deeply involved.
   According to Elaine Hatfield and Ellen Berscheid's
    LABELING THEORY OF PASSIONATE LOVE,
    individuals experience romantic love when two events
    occur together: intense physical arousal and situational
    cues that indicate that "love" is the appropriate label for
    the feelings being experienced
The INTIMACY COMPONENT encompasses
   feelings of closeness, affection, and
   connectedness.
2. The PASSION COMPONENT comprises the
   motivational drives relating to sex, physical
   closeness, and romance.
3. The DECISION/COMMITMENT COMPONENT
   embodies both the initial cognition that one
   loves another person and the longer-term
   determination to maintain that love.

								
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