Revisional Lecture EDU 500 HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Theoretical Work on Human Development from Different Schools summaries Psychoanalytical School Behaviorist School Cognitive School Humanist School Social-Cultural School Psychoanalytical School Founder Sigmund Freud mainconcepts: conscious and subconcious The id The ego and the spuperego the psychosexual stages of development Others : Adler , Carl Gustav Jung Erikson psycho-social approach:total life development Eight stages: Erikson cont. Infancy-challenge between trust and mistrust 1-3 ,5 years -between autonomie and shame &doubt 3,5 -5,5 years between initiative and guilt 5,5-12 years, between industry and inferiority Adolescence between identity role & identity confusion Young adulthood between intimacy and isolation Adulthood between generativity and stagnation Late adulthood between Ego-integrity and despair Erikson Moral development Childhood: acquisition of specific moral learning Adolescence: ideological concerns Adulthood: ethical consolidation Behaviorist school Ivan Pavlov classical conditioing John Watson- conditioning by environment Frederic Skinner Operant Conditioned Response - consequences Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Cognitive school and social - cognitive school - Piaget Piaget suggested four cognitive stages He believed in selfconstrution: the person is active initiator of development by his nature Process: Assimilation entails dealing with a new object or event in a way that is consistent with a currently existing scheme. Accommodation occurs when new information doesn’t fit into existing schemes were previously understood; the schemes must be adjusted or accommodated. Equilibration: finding a balance between those things that were previously understooto be understoodd and those that are yet to be understood relatiiong new things with something he already knows. Bandura In this self-regulatory process, people monitor their conduct and the conditions under which it occurs, judge it in relation to moral standards, and regulate their actions by the consequences they apply to themselves. They refrain from behaving in ways that violate their moral standards because such conduct will bring self- condemnation.” Bandura Bronfenbrenner: Ecological approach • What develops: Focus relationship between individuals and their physical, cognitive, personality, and social worlds • How development proceeds: Development is unique and intimately tied to person’s social and cultural context; four levels of environment simultaneously influence individuals • Principles: Each system contains roles, norms, and rules that can powerfully shape development; • Other key terms: Microsystem; ecosystem; exosystem; macrosystem; chronosystem Lawrence Kohlberg developing of three moral stages with two levels of reasoning in each of the three stages Humanist School Abraham Maslow self actualtization : it is the full use and exploitation of potentials, talents, capacities ...etc. To reaching the top of pyramid of needs Carl Rodgers : The person has to be seen with unconditional positive regard (as being ), and empathy (being listened to and understood). The person has to be in Carl Rodgers (Humanist school)cont. This means that self-actualization occurs when a person’s “ideal self” (i.e. who they would like to be) is congruent with their actual behavior (self- image). Rogers describes an individual who is actualizing as a fully functioning person. The main determinant of whether we will become self-actualized is childhood experience. Self-Concept is the organized, consistent set of perceptions and beliefs about oneself". Eric Fromm Eric Fromm Love of the helpless, the poor and the stranger, are the beginning of brotherly love. To love ones flesh and blood is no achievement. The animal loves its young and cares for them. Only in the love of those who do not serve a purpose, does love begin to unfold. Compassion implies the element of knowledge and identification. "You know the heart of the stranger," says the Bible, "for you were strangers in the land of Egypt;... therefore love the stranger!" The greatest impediment of mankind is not desease.. it is dispair. By Erich Fromm The Art of Loving extracts Social cultural School School Vigotsky Zone of Proximal development Scaffolding until – the child can learn internally motivated by itself having the reins of learning into its own hands Vigotsky scaffolding Learning (internalization of tools) occurs most naturally and efficiently when we participate in authentic, social activities. Cognitive Apprenticeship model Modeling Scaffolding and Fading Providing support so that students can complete some task they couldn’t do alone. Then gradually removing the support as students gain competence. In other words, help student progress through their ZPD. Authentic Activity:Real world, Complex, Meaningful, Social Social Cognitive Theory Bandura In developing a “moral self, individuals adopt standards of right and wrong that serve as guides and deterrents for conduct. In this self-regulatory process, people monitor their conduct and the conditions under which it occurs, judge it in relation to moral standards, and regulate their actions by the consequences they apply to themselves. They refrain from behaving in ways that violate their moral standards because such conduct will bring self- condemnation.” Bandura (cited in Santrock, p. 249) Self esteem: Evaluating oneself Children evaluate themselves in terms of physical and psychological characteristics, but they also think of themselves as being good or bad (involves emotions) Different from Self-confidence Not all love is the same! We love different people in different ways PASSIONATE (OR ROMANTIC) LOVE is a state of powerful absorption in someone. COMPANIONATE LOVE is the strong affection we have for those with whom our lives are deeply involved. According to Elaine Hatfield and Ellen Berscheid's LABELING THEORY OF PASSIONATE LOVE, individuals experience romantic love when two events occur together: intense physical arousal and situational cues that indicate that "love" is the appropriate label for the feelings being experienced The INTIMACY COMPONENT encompasses feelings of closeness, affection, and connectedness. 2. The PASSION COMPONENT comprises the motivational drives relating to sex, physical closeness, and romance. 3. The DECISION/COMMITMENT COMPONENT embodies both the initial cognition that one loves another person and the longer-term determination to maintain that love.
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