The Textile Industry

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					The Textile Industry
• To understand the textile industry as the
  primary material source for the apparel,
  interior furnishings, and industrial products
• To know the various segments of the
  textile industry
• To be able to follow the channels of
  distribution of textile products
• To be aware of the careers requiring a
  professional knowledge of textiles
General Fields of Textile
• Three Large Groupings
  – Apparel
     • Textiles used in clothing
  – Interior Furnishings
     • Textiles used in furniture, bath, kitchen and
  – Industrial
     • Textiles used in luggage, flags, boat sails,
       gauze, bandages, dust filters, and so on
Major Textile Production
• Fibers
• Yarns
• Fabrics
• Dyeing and Printing
• Finishing
• Textile Put-Up
• The smallest part of the fabric
• Fine, hair-like substances,
  categorized as either natural or
• Cotton and wool are natural fibers
• Acrylic, nylon and polyester are
  manufactured fibers
• Continuous thread-like strands
  composed of fibers that have been
  twisted together
• There are various types of yarn, from
  flat and dull to slubby and lustrous
• Made from yarns and are either
  woven or knitted
• Springs Industries and Milliken &
  Company are two of the largest U.S.
• The range of fabric types and
  weights is tremendous, fulfilling a
  variety of consumer demands
Dyeing and Printing
• Color is usually applied to the woven or
  knitted fabric by either dyeing or printing
• Dyeing is the process for imparting a solid
  color to textiles
• Printing is the process of imparting designs
  to textiles
• The purpose is to make the fabric more
• Most fabrics need additional
  treatments called finishes before
  they can be used
• For example, special chemicals are
  used to make a fabric water-
  repellent and suitable for a raincoat
Textile Put-Up
• Put-up is the term used to indicate
  the way fabric is packaged when it
  is sold
• Most fabrics sold to garment and
  other manufacturers are in a rolled
  put-up, where the fabric is wound
  around a cardboard tube
Primary Sources of Fabric
• Mills
   – A company that owns textile machinery and
     makes fabric
• Converters
   – An individual or organization that buys greige
     goods (that is, unfinished fabric)
• Importers
   – Direct Importer buys fabric or manufactured
     textile products
   – Import Mill is a foreign company that owns
     machinery and makes the fabric and then
     exports it to the US
Secondary Sources of
• Jobbers
  – Buys from mills, converters, and
    garment manufacturers
• Retail Stores
  – Home sewers purchase fabrics sold in
    retail stores
• Overseas Agents
  – A person or company that represents
    an exporter or importer in the countries
    overseas where it conducts business
  Buying and Selling Fabric
• Fabrics are purchased either according to
  written specifications or from a sample
• If it is according to specifications it must
  be exact.
• Specifications: yarns per inch, width,
  weight, thickness, breaking strength and
  degree of colorfastness
• If fabric is purchased from a sample, the
  seller is required to deliver a fabric almost
  identical to the sample
Buying and Selling Fabric
• Fabric is sold either as greige or as
  finished fabric
• Frequently fashion designers or other
  end-product designers work closely
  with textile mill designers to create
  specific fabrics to meet their needs
Private Label
• Very large quantities of textiles are sold
  directly to department stores, mail order
  houses, or discount chains for
  manufacture by the retailer or a
  contractor into private label clothing
• A private label is a retail brand in which
  apparel or other sewn products are
  manufactured specifically for a retailer
  and sold exclusively by that retailer
    Market and Production
• Each segment of the textile industry must
  plan well ahead of the next selling season
• Unless schedules are maintained and
  deadlines met by the fiber producers,
  fabric mills, and other textile companies, it
  may not be possible to ship products when
  the buyers are ready to buy
• The two main selling seasons for
  apparel are fall and spring
• Fall season starts around August 1
• Spring season starts February 1
• The other seasons are summer and
Environmental Problems
• Air and water pollution
• Disposal of waste products
• Health of workers in mills
• Possible water pollution from home
• Recycling must be an integrated
  effort between consumers, retailers,
  manufacturers, recyclers and the
• Recycled products include fibers,
  yarns, fabric, garments, and used
International Trade Shows
• Interstoff - (Fabric Exposition)
• SEHM - The Salon International de
  l’Habillement Masculin - (Men’s and
  Boys Fashions)
• Techtextil - (Technical Textiles)
• Heimtextil - (Home Textiles)
• ITMA - International Exposition of
  Textile Machinery
Domestic Trade Shows
• ATME - American Textile Machinery
• IFFE - International Fashion-Fabric
• Magic Internations (Men’s Apparel)
Textile Careers
• Nearly every country in the world is
  involved with textiles
• Requires areas such as design,
  creative talents, technology,
  merchandising and management
• Combines art, structured
  engineering, technical styling,
  marketing, and business
Textile Careers
• Administrative   •   Forecasting
  Assistant        •   Museum Curator
• Consultant       •   Production
• Converter        •   Public Relations
• Coordinator      •   Quality Assurance
• Education        •   Reporter
• Environmental    •   Sales
  Protection       •   Sourcing

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