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Work life balance (DOC)

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					Work–life balance is a broad concept including proper prioritizing between "work" (career and ambition)
on the one hand and "life" (Health, pleasure, leisure, family and spiritual development) on the other.
Related, though broader, terms include "lifestyle balance" and "life balance".

Contents

 [show]

[edit]History

                                                               [1][2]
The work-leisure dichotomy was invented in the mid 1800s.        In anthropology, a definition
                                                                                             [3][4]
of happiness is to have as little separation as possible "between your work and your play."         The
expression "Work–life balance" was first used in theUnited Kingdom in the late 1970s to describe the
                                                          [5]
balance between an individual's work and personal life. In the United States, this phrase was first used
in 1986.

Most recently, there has been a shift in the workplace as a result of advances in technology. As Bowswell
and Olson-Buchanan stated, “increasingly sophisticated and affordable technologies have made it more
feasible for employees to keep contact with work.” Employees have many methods, such as emails,
computers and cell phones, which enable them to accomplish their work beyond the physical boundaries
of their office. Employees may respond to an email or a voice mail after-hours or during the weekend,
typically while not officially “on the job.” Researchers have found that employees that consider their work
roles to be an important component of their identities, they will be more likely to apply these
                                                                        [6]
communication technologies to work while in their non-work domain.

Some theorists suggest that this blurred boundary of work and life is a result of technological control.
                                                                                    [7]
Technological control “emerges from the physical technology of an organization” . In other words,
companies utilize email and distribute smart phones to enable and encourage their employees to stay
connected to the business even when they are not in the real office. This type of control, as Barker would
argued, replaces the more direct, authoritarian control, or simple control, such as managers and bosses.
As a result, communication technologies in the temporal and structural aspects of work have changed,
defining a “new workplace” in which employees are more connected to the jobs beyond the boundaries of
                                        [8]
the traditional workday and workplace . The more this boundary is blurred, the higher work-to-life
                                       [9]
conflict is self-reported by employees

Many Americans are experiencing burnout due to overwork and increased stress. This condition is seen
in nearly all occupations from blue collar workers to upper management. Over the past decade, a rise in
workplace violence and an increase in levels of absenteeism as well as rising workers’ compensation
                                                           [citation needed]
claims are all evidence of an unhealthy work life balance.

Employee assistance professionals say there are many causes for this situation ranging from
personal ambition and the pressure of family obligations to the accelerating pace of technology.[1].
According to a recent study for the Center for Work-Life Policy, 1.7 million people consider their jobs and
their work hours excessive because of globalization.

These difficult and exhausting conditions are having adverse effects. According to the study, fifty percent
of top corporate executives are leaving their current positions. Although sixty-four percent of workers feel
that their work pressures are "self-inflicted", they state that it is taking a toll on them. The study shows that
seventy percent of US respondents and eighty-one percent of global respondents say their jobs are
affecting their health.

Between forty-six and fifty-nine percent of workers feel that stress is affecting their interpersonal and
sexual relationships. Additionally, men feel that there is a certain stigma associated with saying "I can't do
this".

[edit]United   States history
Main article: Work-life balance (United States)

The first enforceable hours' law in the United States was in 1874 when Massachusetts enacted a law
which limited the amount of time that women and children could work each week.[1] This limit was set at
sixty hours per week. Similar laws were later adopted by about half of the country’s states. Only men in
exceptionally hazardous jobs were covered in early legislation and most had no limit to the number of
hours their employers could have them work.

Ten-hour workdays were accepted in the agriculture industry during certain seasons and six-day
workweeks were not unheard of. Bakers did not win the right to work less than ten hours per day until
1905 with the court case of Lochner vs. New York.

The general presumption during this period was that the courts would allow regulation of labor concerning
women and children, who were thought to be incapable of bargaining on an equal footing with employers
and in special need of protection. Men were allowed freedom of contract unless it could be proven that
regulating their hours served a higher good for the population at large.[2]

During the turn of the twentieth century, the push for an eight-hour workday was geared primarily toward
raising the hourly wage. The idea was that by maintaining the current weekly pay while lowering working
hours, a fairer rate of pay would result. The slogan, “Whether you work by the piece or work by the day,
decreasing the hours increases the pay,” seemed to carry the mood of the day. [3]

The early twentieth century laid the groundwork for the idea of work-life balance. Advancements in social
sciences would move the focus towards the impact of long hours on the physical and mental health of the
employee.

At this time, however, the new information was used to enhance productivity for the company. The shorter
hours movement began to focus on the fact that an overworked employee is more prone to injury or
mistake and becomes less productive. Josephine Goldmark wrote a book in 1912 detailing this fact and
the Federal Public Works Act was passed the same year.

This new act required a forty-hour workweek for employees of government contracted firms. Over the
next ten years, the government passed legislation requiring a forty-hour work week for individual
industries nearly every time the issue arose in court.[4]

When the employees of the steel industry failed to obtain a reduction from their eighty-four-hour work
week in 1919, the industry soon allowed their employees an eight-hour workday, a four hour per day
reduction—a move brought about by much “arm-twisting” on the part of President Harding. [5]

By the 1920s, the average work week was fifty hours and was considered a great stride and well-earned
award for America’s working man. (Whaples) The push for fewer hours had come to a close, but they had
one more hurdle to overcome. The new concentration was on the ability to work half a day on Saturdays
or have the day off completely. The ability to have two days of rest was unprecedented, but was
considered vital to finalize an ethical work schedule. Pressure was put on businesses to make the
change, especially in industries and cities with a large number of Jewish workers (since the Jewish
Sabbath is on Saturday), and they finally achieved this goal by the end of the decade. Where only thirty-
two firms had a five-day workweek in 1920, nearly half had adopted the practice by 1927. [6]

Their success was short lived. In the 1920s, the workers were coaxed into believing that they wanted to
work longer hours and that they would be harmed by measures that limited how many hours they were
allowed to work. Social scientists would later name this force the “gospel of consumption.” Beginning in
the 1920s, advertisers persuaded Americans that happiness would not come from leisure time, but from
purchasing commodities, and he concluded that this made it easier for managers to “allow” workers to
make more money by working longer hours. [7]

Social scientists would conclude that a new work ethic began as Americans left the psychology of scarcity
and adopted one of abundance. Some argue that this mentality of consumption or “consumerism” persists
to this day. [8]

During the twentieth century, the average workweek has changed drastically. In 1900, the average
workweek in manufacturing was approximately fifty-three hours. However, the workweek is responsive to
business conditions. During the Great Depression, the average number of hours for production workers in
manufacturing dropped to 34.6 each week. During World War II, hours worked rose to forty-five each
week.

The normal range of hours worked during the four decades after World War II was thirty-nine to forty-one
hours; (Whaples) however, starting in the 1990s, factory workweek hours began to exceed forty-one
hours. As previously mentioned, Americans work approximately 47.1 hours each week; some employees
work up to seventy hours. Therefore, it is safe to state that the average number of hours Americans
presently work each week is the highest it has been in nearly seventy-five years.

In 1900, only nineteen percent of women of working age were in the labor force. In 1999 sixty percent of
women worked outside the home. Even if the hours worked were slightly higher at the turn of the century,
most households were supported by one paycheck. “In 1900, eighty percent of American children had a
working father and a stay-at-home mother; however, by 1999, that figure was only twenty-four percent.”
[9]

During the Great Depression, working hours were reduced. By 1932, approximately fifty percent of
Americans were working a shortened work week. Instead of reducing wages, employers decided to lay off
many workers and attempted to protect the employees that remained by encouraging them to job share.

President Hoover’s Commission for Work Sharing pushed voluntary hours reductions, and it is estimated
that nearly three to five million jobs had been saved. (Whaples) Companies such as Sears, General
Motors, and Standard Oil reduced the number of days worked each week, and Akron began a six-hour
workday. The AFL began to call for a federally-mandated thirty-hour workweek. [10]

By 1933, some experts were predicting that the “thirty-hour workweek was within a month of becoming
federal law.” [11] Congress began hearings on mandating the thirty-hour workweek, and the Senate even
passed the bill (which was written by Hugo Black and sponsored in the House by William Connery) fifty-
three to thirty.
Newly-elected President, Franklin Roosevelt initially supported the bill, but had second thoughts when he
realized that the bill had a provision to forbid importation of goods produced by workers who worked
longer than thirty hours a week. Instead, Roosevelt began to support the National Industrial Recovery Act.
Labor leaders were encouraged to support the NIRA instead of the Black-Connery Thirty-Hour Bill with a
guarantee of union organization and collective bargaining. With the threat of a mandated thirty-hour work
week, businesses “fell into line.” [12] When specifics codes for the NIRA were drawn up, shorter hours
were no longer a genuine concern.[13]

After the Great Depression ended, the average weekly hours worked began to rise. (According to the
Bureau of Labor Statistics, in 1934 the average hours worked each week was approximately thirty-four
hours). During World War II, hours increased by approximately ten hours a week but, in the aftermath of
the war, weekly work hours averaged forty hours. [14]

With automation of the workplace in “full swing” by the 1970s, large numbers of women began entering
the work force and an “awareness of stress rose to the forefront” [15] In the publication Type A Behavior
and Your Heart, cardiologists Meyer Friedman and Ray H. Rosenman wrote about the “hurry sickness”
common to “workaholics”—people who had no friends and who “never relaxed or went to museums” [16]

In the late 1970s, Professor Robert Karasek of the University of Lowell (now known as University of
Massachusetts Lowell) developed a method for analyzing stress-producing factors in the workplace. It
has been widely employed to examine workplace pressures and their relationship with research data on
coronary heart disease, musculoskeletal illnesses, psychological strain and absenteeism. Karasek
explains, “In situations where an individual has high demands on him and low control, the undesirable
stress of work and other situations becomes problematic.” [17]

The 1980s brought new complaints of work-life balance related stress. This time period was given such
names as “the ME generation,” “the age of narcissism” and “the pursuit of loneliness.”[18] The number of
cases of emotional depression in the United States was believed to have doubled between 1970 and
1990.

“What you do is what you are” was the common and unhealthy assumption. According to 'The Workaholic
Syndrome', written by Judith K. Sprankle and Henry Ebel, “By their sheer numbers and the consequently
narrowing opportunities at every upward run of the organizational ladder, the baby-boomers have been
compelled to do more, to move faster, to compete harder. They, in turn, have set the pace for other age
groups. The signs of increased stress are legion and have been intensified by an economic climate that
mandates that if we marry at all, we marry a working spouse.” [19]

In the late 1980s, the “computer revolution” was not only responsible for corporate downsizing, but also
increased the demand of employee output. Social critic Jeremy Rifkin states, “Back in the agriculture-
based society, people were more attuned to generatively [20], and middle-stress disorders and diseases
of affluence were not part of life. They weren’t triggered until the Industrial Age, and now the Information
Age has worsened them. Nowadays, instead of seconds, it’s nanoseconds. We have moved from
designing a schedule that real people can execute in whatever time it takes them, to a program which
people can monitor but can’t affect.” [21]

In the 1980s, the number of workers’ compensation claims for “gradual mental stress” began to rise.
Claims rose from 1,844 cases in 1981 to 15,688 in 1999 in the state of California alone. Because of the
large number of cases as well as evidence of numerous cases of fraud, efforts were made in the early
1990s to reform the workers compensation program. Led by Republican Governor of California Pete
Wilson and Democratic Party State assembly Speaker Willie Brown, the new law stated that claimants
had to prove that stress was at least 51 percent of the reason for their illness. [22]

Unfortunately, because of these reforms some feel that it is now extremely difficult to be approved for
workers compensation. John Burton, dean of the school of management and labor relations at Rutgers
University feels that part of the reason for the decline is that “a number of states made it difficult to get
stress into the system.

So even if the stress is out there, it’s not showing up (in the compensation statistics). Some of it shows up
in the rising violence, which is a crude proxy for the stress out there.” [23]

[edit]Work    statistics
According to a survey conducted by the National Life Insurance Company, four out of ten employees
state that their jobs are "very" or "extremely" stressful.[2] Those in high-stress jobs are three times more
likely than others to suffer from stress-related medical conditions and are twice as likely to quit. The study
states that women, in particular, report stress related to the conflict between work and family.

[edit]Stress    and work-life balance
                                                                                        [when?]
The number of stress-related disability claims by American employees has doubled             according to the
Employee Assistance Professionals Association in Arlington, Virginia. Seventy-five to ninety percent of
physician visits are related to stress and, according to the American Institute of Stress, the cost to
industry has been estimated at $200 billion-$300 billion a year.[3]

Steven L. Sauter, chief of the Applied Psychology and Ergonomics Branch of the National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health in Cincinnati, Ohio, states that recent studies show that "the workplace
has become the single greatest source of stress".[4] Michael Feuerstein, professor of clinical psychology
at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences at Bethesda Naval Hospital states, "We're
seeing a greater increase in work-related neuroskeletal disorders from a combination of stress and
ergonomic stressors".[5]

It is clear that problems caused by stress have become a major concern to both employers and
employees. Symptoms of stress are manifested both physiologically and psychologically. Persistent
stress can result in cardiovascular disease, sexual health problems, a weaker immune system and
frequent headaches, stiff muscles, or backache. It can also result in poor coping skills, irritability,
jumpiness, insecurity, exhaustion, and difficulty concentrating. Stress may also perpetuate or lead tobinge
eating, smoking, and alcohol consumption.

According to James Campbell Quick, a professor of organizational behavior at the University of Texas-
Arlington, "The average tenure of presidents at land-grant universities in the past ten years has dropped
from approximately seven to three-and-a-half years".[6]

The feeling that simply working hard is not enough anymore is acknowledged by many other American
workers. “To get ahead, a seventy-hour work week is the new standard. What little time is left is often
divvied up among relationships, kids, and sleep.” [7] This increase in work hours over the past two
decades means that less time will be spent with family, friends, and community as well as pursuing
                                                                                   [citation needed]
activities that one enjoys and taking the time to grow personally and spiritually.
Texas Quick, an expert witness at trials of companies who were accused of overworking their employees,
states that “when people get worked beyond their capacity, companies pay the price.” [8] Although some
employers believe that workers should reduce their own stress by simplifying their lives and making a
better effort to care for their health, most experts feel that the chief responsibility for reducing stress
should be management.

According to Esther M. Orioli, president of Essi Systems, a stress management consulting firm,
“Traditional stress-management programs placed the responsibility of reducing stress on the individual
rather than on the organization-where it belongs. No matter how healthy individual employees are when
they start out, if they work in a dysfunctional system, they’ll burn out.” [9]
[edit]Formation    of the “ideal worker” and gender differences
Formation of the “ideal worker” and gender differences Work-life conflict is not gender-specific. According
to the Center for American Progress, 90 percent of working mothers and 95 percent of working fathers
                           [10]
report work-family conflict . However, because of the social norms surrounding each gender role, and
how the organization views its ideal worker, men and women handle the work-life balance differently.
Organizations play a large part in how their employees deal with work-life balance. Some companies
have taken proactive measures in providing programs and initiatives to help their employees cope with
work-life balance (see: Responsibility of the employer).

Yet, the root of the work-life conflict may come from the organizational norms and ideologies. As a macro
structure, the organization maintains the locus of power. Organizations, through its structure, practices,
symbols and discourse, create and reproduce a dominant ideology. The dominant ideology is what drives
organizational power and creates organizational norms.

At the top of the organizational hierarchy, the majority of individuals are males, and assumptions can be
made regarding their lack of personal experience with the direct and indirect effects of work-family
         [11]
conflict . For one, they may be unmarried and have no thought as to what “normal” family
responsibilities entail. On the other hand, the high-level manager may be married, but his wife, due to the
demands of the husband’s position, has remained at home, tending solely to the house and children.
                                                                                 [12]
Ironically, these are the individuals creating and reforming workplace policies .

Workplace policies, especially regarding the balance between family/life and work, create an
organizational norm in which employees must fall into. This type of organizational behavior, according to
Dennis Mumby, “contribut[es] in some ways to the structuring of organizational reality, and hence
                       [13]
organizational power.”

In other words, the reality of what employees experience, specifically in regards to work-life balance, is a
direct result of power operating covertly through ideological controls. This is seen in the ideological norm
of the “ideal worker.” Many organizations view the ideal worker as one who is “committed to their work
                 [14]
above all else” . “Ideal workers” are those that demonstrate extra-role behaviors, which are seen as
positive attributes.

Alternatively, those who are perceived as having to divide their time (and their commitments) are seen not
as dedicated to the organization. As research has shown, a manager’s perception of a subordinate’s
commitment to the organization is positively associated with the individual’s promotabilty. Hoobler et al.’s
                                                                                [15]
(2009) findings mirrored the perceived commitment-to-promotabilty likelihood .
Often, these perceptions are placed on the female worker. Managers who perceived their female
employees of maintaining high work-family conflict were presumed as not as committed to the
organization, therefore not worthy of advancement. This negatively impacts working mothers as they may
be “inaccurately perceived to have less commitment to their organizations than their counterparts, their
                                                          [16]
advancement in organizations may be unfairly obstructed” .

Working mothers often have to challenge perceptions and stereotypes that evolve as a working woman
becomes a working mother. Working mothers are perceived as less competent and less worthy of training
                        [17]
than childless women . Another study, focusing on professional jobs, found that mothers were 79
percent less likely to be hired and are typically held to a higher standard of punctuality and performance
                        [18]
than childless women . The moment when she becomes a mother, a working woman is held at a
completely different norm than her childless colleagues. In the same Cuddy et al. (2004) study, men who
became fathers were not perceived as any less competent, and in fact, their perceived warmth
           [19]
increased.

The ways in which corporations have modeled the “ideal worker” does not compliment the family lifestyle,
nor does it accommodate it. Long hours and near complete devotion to the profession makes it difficult for
                                                                [20]
working mothers to participate in getting ahead in the workplace . A Fortune article found that among
the most powerful women in business (female CEOs, presidents and managing directors of major
                                                                        [21] [22]
corporations), 29 percent were childless compared to 90 percent of men ( ; ).

Should a woman seek a position of power within an organization, she must consider the toll on other
facets of her life, including hobbies, personal relationships and families. As Jeffrey Pfeffer states: “Time
spent on the quest for power and status is time you cannot spend on other things, such as … family…The
                                                     [23]
price seems to be particularly severe for women” . Many executive jobs require a substantial amount of
                                                                                     [24]
overtime, which as a mother, many cannot devote because of family obligations . Consequently, it is
nearly impossible for a working mother in a top management position to be the primary caretaker of her
      [25]
child .
[edit]Perceptions     of work-life balance and gender differences
This circumstance only increases the work-life balance stress experienced by many women employees.

Research conducted by the Kenexa Research Institute (KRI), a division of Kenexa, evaluated how male
and female workers perceive work-life balance and found that women are more positive than men in how
they perceive their company’s efforts to help them balance work and life responsibilities. The report is
based on the analysis of data drawn from a representative sample of 10,000 U.S. workers who were
surveyed through WorkTrends, KRI’s annual survey of worker opinions.

The results indicated a shift in women’s perceptions about work-life balance. In the past, women often
found it more difficult to maintain balance due to the competing pressures at work and demands at
home. [10]
[edit]Work-life   balance concerns of men and women alike
Similar discrimination is experienced by men who take time off or reduce working hours for taking care of
the family.

For many employees today—both male and female—their lives are becoming more consumed with a host
of family and other personal responsibilities and interests. Therefore, in an effort to retain employees, it is
increasingly important for organizations to recognize this balance. [11]
[edit]Young    generation views on work-life balance
According to Kathleen Gerson, Sociologist, young people “are searching for new ways to define care that
do not force them to choose between spending time with their children and earning an income" and “ are
looking for definition of personal identity that do not pit their own development against creating committed
                 [26][27]
ties to others".          Young adults believe that parents should get involved and support the children both
economically and emotionally, as well as share labor equally. Young people do not believe work-life
balance is possible and think it is dangerous to build a life dependent on another when relationships are
                                                                                                     [27][28]
unpredictable. They are looking for partners to share the house work and family work together.                Both
men and women believe that women should have jobs before considering marriage; for better life and to
be happy in marriage. Young people do not think their mother’s generations were unhappy. They also do
not think they were powerless because they were not economically dependent.
[edit]Identity   through work
By working in an organization, employees identify, to some extent, with the organization, as part of a
                 [29]
collective group . Organizational values, norms and interests become incorporated in the self-concept
as employees increase their identify with the organization. However, employees also identify with their
                                   [30]
outside roles, or their “true self” . Examples of these might be parental/caretaker roles, identifications
with certain groups, religious affiliations, align with certain values and morals, mass media etc.

Employee interactions with the organization, through other employees, management, customers, or
                                                                                  [31]
others, reinforces (or resists) the employee identification with the organization . Simultaneously, the
employee must manage their “true self” identification. In other words, identity is “fragmented and
constructed” through a number of interactions within and out of the organization; employees don’t have
just one self.

Most employees identify with not only the organization, but also other facets of their life (family, children,
religion, etc.). Sometimes these identities align and sometimes they do not. When identities are in conflict,
the sense of a healthy work-life balance may be affected. Organization members must perform identity
work so that they align themselves with the area in which they are performing to avoid conflict and any
stress as a result.
[edit]Women
Today there are many young women who do not want to just stay at home and do house work, but want
to have their careers. In fact, women may lose their self-esteem and identities when they stay at home;
                                                                             [27][28]
young women hope that their lives will include strong ties to the workplace.

[edit]Men
Men know that work alone may not provide their lives with meaning. Young men can lose their meaning
of life; they want a balance between paid work and personal attachments without being victimized at
       [27] [28]
work.
[edit]Facts
Regarding home life, men and women have similarities with work and home life. Today, home is not a
heavenly place which men and women could rest and feel comfort as before, but home is an additional
               [27] [32]
place of work.
[edit]Work-life   balance issues and their influence on children
An increasing number of young children are being raised by a childcare provider or another person other
than a parent; older children are more likely today to come home to an empty house and spend time
with video games, television and theinternet with less guidance to offset or control the messages coming
from these sources.

No one knows how many kids are home after school without an adult, but they know the number is in the
millions. Also, according to a study by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the
“more time that children spent in child care, the more likely their sixth grade teachers were to report
behavor problems.” [12] The findings are the results of the largest study of child care and development
conducted in the United States; the analysis tracked 1,364 children from birth.

[edit]Consequences            of an Imbalance
Mental health is a balancing act that may be affected by four factors: the influence of unfavourable genes,
                                                                                         [33]
by wounding trauma, by private pressures and most recently by the stress of working.          Many people
expose themselves unsolicited to the so-called job stress, because the "hard worker" enjoys a very high
social recognition. These aspects can be the cause of an imbalance in the areas of life. But there are also
other reasons which can lead to such an imbalance.

Remarkable is for example the increase in non-occupational activities with obligation character, which
include mainly house and garden work, maintenance and support of family members or volunteer
                                                                                 [34]
activities. All this can contribute to the perception of a chronic lack of time.      This time pressure is,
amongst others, influenced by their own age, the age and number of children in the household, marital
                                                                                   [35]
status, the profession and level of employment as well as the income level. The psychological strain,
which in turn affects the health, increases due to the strong pressure of time, but also by the complexity of
                                                                                              [36]
work, growing responsibilities, concern for long-term existential protection and more.             The mentioned
stresses and strains could lead in the long term to irreversible, physical signs of wear as well as to
                                                                           [37]
negative effects on the human cardiovascular and immune systems.
                                                                                                           [38]
Psychoanalysts diagnose uncertainty as the dominant attitude to life in the postmodern society.                This
uncertainty can be caused by the pressure which is executed from the society to the humans. It is the
uncertainty to fail, but also the fear of their own limits, not to achieve something what the society expects,
                                                                   [39]
and especially the desire for recognition in all areas of life.         In today's society we are in a permanent
competition. Appearance, occupation, education of the children - everything is compared to a media
staged ideal. Everything should be perfect, because this deep-rooted aversion to all average, the
                                                                     [40]
pathological pursue to excellence - these are old traditions.             Who ever wants more - on the job, from
the partner, from the children, from themselves - will one day be burned out and empty inside. He is then
                                                             [41]
faced with the realization that perfection do not exist.          Who is nowadays empty inside and burned out,
has in the common language a Burnout. But due to the definitional problems Burnout is till this date no
                      [42]
recognized illness.        An attempt to define this concept more closely, can be: a condition that get only the
passionate, that is certainly not a mental illness but only a grave exhaustion (but, lo and behold, can lead
                             [43]
to numerous sick days).           It can benefited to the term that it is a disease model which is socially
acceptable and also, to some extent, the individual self-esteem stabilizing. This finding in turn facilitates
                                                                                [44]
many undetected depressed people, the way to a qualified treatment.                  According to experts in the field
are, in addition to the ultra hard-working and the idealists mainly the perfectionist, the loner, the grim and
the thin-skinned, especially endangered of a burnout. All together they usually have a lack of a healthy
                    [45]
distance to work.
Another factor is also, that for example decision-makers in government offices and upper echelons are
not allowed to show weaknesses or signs of disease etc., because this would immediately lead to doubts
of the ability for further responsibility. It should be noted that only 20% of managers (e.g. in Germany) do
                                                                                   [46]
sports regularly and also only 2% keep regularly preventive medical check-up.           In such a position other
priorities seem to be set and the time lacks for regular sports. Frightening is that the job has such a high
priority, that people waive screening as a sign of weakness. In contrast to that, the burnout syndrome
seems to be gaining popularity. There seems nothing to be ashamed to show weaknesses, but quite the
                                                                                                [47]
opposite: The burnout is part of a successful career like a home for the role model family.          Besides that
the statement which describes the burnout as a "socially recognized precious version of the depression
and despair that lets also at the moment of failure the self-image intact" fits and therefore concludes "Only
losers become depressed, burnout against it is a diagnosis for winners, more precisely, for former
            [48]
winners.”.

However, it is fact that four out of five Germans complain about too much stress. One in six under 60
swallows at least once a week, a pill for the soul, whether it is against insomnia, depression or just for a
                                               [49]
bit more drive in the stressful everyday life.      The phases of burnout can be described, among other
things, first by great ambition, then follows the suppression of failure, isolation and finally, the cynical
attitude towards the employer or supervisor. Concerned persons have very often also anxiety disorders
and depressions, which are serious mental diseases. Depressions are the predominant causes of the
                                                                   [50]
nearly 10,000 suicides that occur alone each year in Germany.           The implications of such imbalances
can be further measured in figures: In 1993, early retirement due to mental illness still made 15.4 percent
of all cases. In 2008, there were already 35.6 percent. Even in the days of illness, the proportion of
failures due to mental disorders increased. Statisticians calculated that 41 million absent days in 2008
                                                                                                 [51]
went to the account of these crises, which led to 3.9 billion euros in lost production costs.          For
companies it is time to act and support their employees with a healthy work-life-balance.      source needed




[edit]Responsibility       of the employer
Companies have begun to realize how important the work-life balance is to the productivity and creativity
of their employees. Research by Kenexa Research Institute in 2007 shows that those employees who
were more favorable toward their organization’s efforts to support work-life balance also indicated a much
lower intent to leave the organization, greater pride in their organization, a willingness to recommend it as
a place to work and higher overall job satisfaction.

Employers can offer a range of different programs and initiatives, such as flexible working arrangements
in the form of part time, casual and telecommuting work. More proactive employers can provide
compulsory leave, strict maximum hours and foster an environment that encourages employees not to
continue working after hours.

It is generally only highly skilled workers that can enjoy such benefits as written in their contracts,
although many professional fields would not go so far as to discourage workaholic behaviour. Unskilled
workers will almost always have to rely on bare minimum legal requirements. The legal requirements are
low in many countries, in particular, the United States. In contrast, the European Union has gone quite far
in assuring a legal work-life balance framework, for example pertaining toparental leave and the non-
discrimination of part-time workers.

According to Stewart Friedman -- professor of Management and founding director of the Wharton
School’s Leadership Program and of its Work/Life Integration Project—a "one size fits all” mentality in
human resources management often perpetuates frustration among employees. “[It’s not an] uncommon
problem in many HR areas where, for the sake of equality, there's a standard policy that is implemented
in a way that's universally applicable -- [even though] everyone's life is different and everyone needs
                                                                                                [52]
different things in terms of how to integrate the different pieces. It's got to be customized.”

Friedman’s research indicates that the solution lies in approaching the components of work, home,
community, and self as a comprehensive system. Instead of taking a zero-sum approach, Friedman’s
Total Leadership program teaches professionals how to successfully pursue “four-way wins” -- improved
performance across all parts of life.

Although employees are offering many opportunities to help their employees balance work and life, these
opportunities may be a catch twenty-two for some female employees. Even if the organization offers part
time options, many women will not take advantage of it as this type of arrangement is often seen as
                        [53]
“occupational dead end” .

Even with the more flexible schedule, working mothers opt not to work part time because these positions
typically receive less interesting and challenging assignments; taking these assignments and working part
time may hinder advancement and growth. Even when the option to work part time is available, some
                                                                               [54]
may not take advantage of it because they do not want to be marginalized . This feeling of
marginalization could be a result of not fitting into the “ideal worker” framework (see: Formation of the
“ideal worker” and gender differences).

Additionally, some mothers, after returning to work, experience what is called the maternal wall. The
maternal wall is experienced in the less desirable assignments given to the returning mothers. It is also a
                                                                                        [55]
sense that because these women are mothers, they cannot perform as “ideal workers” . If an
organization is providing means for working mothers and fathers to better balance their work-life
commitments, the general organizational norm needs to shift so the “ideal worker” includes those who
must manage a home, children, elderly parents, etc.

[edit]Global   comparisons
According to a new study by Harvard and McGill University researchers, the United States lags far behind
nearly all wealthy countries when it comes to family-oriented workplace policies such as maternity leave,
paid sick days and support forbreast feeding. Jody Heyman, founder of the Harvard-based Project on
Global Working Families and director of McGill’s Institute for Health and Social Policy, states that, “More
countries are providing the workplace protections that millions of Americans can only dream of. The U.S.
has been a proud leader in adopting laws that provide for equal opportunity in the workplace, but our
                                               [56]
work/family protections are among the worst.”

This observation is being shared by many Americans today and is considered by many experts to be
indicative of the current climate. However, the U.S. Labor Department is examining regulations that give
workers unpaid leave to deal with family or medical emergencies (a review that supporters of the FMLA
worry might be a prelude to scaling back these protections, as requested by some business groups). At
the same time, Senator Chris Dodd from Connecticut is proposing newlegislation that would enable
workers to take six weeks of paid leave. Congress is also expected to reconsider the Healthy Families Act
which is a bill that would require employers with at least fifteen employees to provide seven paid sick
                 [56]
days per year.
At the state level, California has paid family leave benefits for its workers. New Jersey lawmakers are
pushing legislation that would make their state the second state to add this worker benefit. Under one
New Jersey proposal, workers who take leave would be paid through the state’s temporary disability
                                                                                     [57]
insurance fund, “augmented by a 0.1 percent charge on workers’ weekly wages.” Traditionally, many
conservatives have opposed paid family leave, but there is a sign that this mindset is beginning to
change. Reverend Paul Schenck, a prominent member of the National Pro-Life Action Center recently
stated that he would support paid maternity leave on the assumption that it might encourage women to
follow through with their pregnancies instead of having abortions. According to Heyman, “Across the
political spectrum, people are realizing these policies have an enormous impact on working families. If
you look at the most competitive economies in the world, all the others except the U.S. have these
                    [57]
policies in place.”

The United States is not as workplace family-oriented as many other wealthy countries. According to a
study released by Harvard and McGill University researchers in February 2007, workplace policies for
families in the U.S. are weaker than those of all high-income countries and even many middle-and low-
income countries.

For example, the study notes that the United States is one of only five countries out of 173 that does not
guarantee some form of paid maternity leave. (The other countries are Lesotho, Liberia, Swaziland,
                          [57]
and Papua New Guinea). Other differences include the fact that fathers are granted paid paternity
leave or paid parental leave in sixty-five countries; thirty one of these countries offer at least fourteen
weeks of paid leave. The U.S. does not guarantee this to fathers.

At least 107 countries protect working women’s right to breast-feed and, in at least seventy-three of them,
women are paid. The U.S. does not have any federal legislation guaranteeing mothers the right to breast-
feed their infants at work. When it comes to sick days, 145 countries provide sick days to their employees;
127 provide a week or more per year.

There is not a federal law requiring paid sick days in the United States. At least 134 countries have laws
setting the maximum length of the work week; the U.S. does not have a maximum work week length and
does not place any limits on the amount of overtime that an employee is required to work each week.
(survey) Sweden, Denmark and Norway have the highest level of maternity benefits—Sweden provides
68 weeks paid maternity leave, Norway provides 56 weeks paid maternity leave and Denmark provides
   [58]
52.

American workers average approximately ten paid holidays per year while British workers average
twenty-five holidays and German employees thirty. Americans work twelve weeks more a year in total
                       [citation needed]
hours than Europeans.

In Europe, the Working Time Regulation has implemented a maximum of forty-eight hours of work per
      [59]
week. Many countries have opted for fewer hours. France attempted to introduce a thirty-five hour
                                                                         [citation needed]
workweek, and Finland experimented with a thirty-hour week in 1996.                        In a 2007, the European
Quality of Life Survey found that countries in south-eastern Europe had the most common problems with
work-life balance. In Croatia and Greece, a little over 70% of working citizens say that they are too tired to
                                                                    [60]
do household jobs at least several times a month because of work.

In Britain, legislation has been passed allowing parents of children under six to request a more flexible
work schedule. Companies must approve this request as long as it does not damage the business. A
                                                                                                       [61]
2003 Survey of graduates in the UK revealed that graduates value flexibility even more than wages.
In all twenty-five European Union countries, voters “punish” politicians who try to shrink vacations. “Even
the twenty-two days Estonians, Lithuanians, Poles and Slovenians count as their own is much more
                                                   [62]
generous than the leave allotted to U.S. workers.”      According to a report by the Families and Work
Institute, the average vacation time that Americans took each year averaged 14.6 days.

Even when vacation time is offered in some U.S. companies, some choose not to take advantage of it. A
2003 survey by Management Recruiter International stated that fifty percent of executives surveyed didn’t
have plans to take a vacation. They decided to stay at work and use their vacation time to get caught up
                              [62]
on their increased workloads.

				
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