Community radio is a radio service offering a third model of radio broadcasting in addition to commercial and public broadcasting. Community stations serve geographic communities and communities of interest. They broadcast content that is popular and relevant to a local, specific audience but is often overlooked by commercial or mass- media broadcasters. Community radio stations are operated, owned, and influenced by the communities they serve. They are generally nonprofit and provide a mechanism for enabling individuals, groups, and communities to tell their own stories, to share experiences and, in a media-rich world, to become creators and contributors of media. In many parts of the world, community radio acts as a vehicle for the community and voluntary sector, civil society, agencies, NGOs and citizens to work in partnership to further community development aims, in addition to broadcasting. There is legally defined community radio (as a distinct broadcasting sector) in many countries, such as France, Argentina, South Africa, Australia and Ireland. Much of the legislation has included phrases such as "social benefit", "social objectives" and "social gain" as part of the definition. Community radio has developed differently in different countries, and the term has somewhat different meanings in the United Kingdom, Ireland, the United States, Canada, and Australia. Vision, philosophy, and status Modern community radio stations serve their listeners by offering a variety of content that is not necessarily provided by the larger commercial radio stations. Community radio outlets may carry news and information programming geared toward the local area (particularly immigrant or minority groups who are poorly served by major media outlets). Specialized musical shows are also often a feature of many community radio stations. Community and pirate stations (in areas where they are tolerated) can be valuable assets for a region. Community radio stations typically avoid content found on commercial outlets such as Top 40 music, sports and "drive-time" personalities. A meme used by members of the movement is that community radio should be 10 percent radio and 90 percent community. This means that community radio stations should focus on getting the community talking and not solely on radio (which is a technological process); the social concerns of community radio are stressed over radio per se. There is also a distinction drawn in contrast to mainstream stations, which are viewed as pandering to commercial concerns or the personalities of presenters.  Conceptions of community in the literature Communities are complex entities, and what constitutes the "community" in community radio is subject to debate which varies by country. "Community" may be replaced by terms such as "alternative", "radical" or "citizen" radio. In sociology, a "community" has been defined as a group of interacting people living in a common location. Community radio is built around the concepts of access and participation, and the term "community" encompasses geographical communities based around the reach of the radio's signal (the people who can receive the message) and their potential to participate in the creation of the message. This is complicated by the fact that many radio stations broadcast over the internet as well, thereby reaching a (potentially) global audience.  Models Two philosophical approaches to community radio exist, although the models are not mutually exclusive. One emphasizes service and community-mindedness, focusing on what the station can do for the community. The other stresses involvement and participation by the listener. In the service model locality is valued; community radio, as a third tier, can provide content focused on a more local or particular community than a larger operation. Sometimes, though, providing syndicated content not already available within the station's service area is viewed as public service. Within the United States, for example, many stations syndicate content from groups such as Pacifica Radio (such as Democracy Now!) on the basis that it provides content not otherwise available (because of a program's lack of appeal to advertisers—in Pacifica's case, due to its politically controversial nature). In the access (or participatory) model, the participation of community members in producing content is viewed as a good in itself. While this model does not necessarily exclude a service approach, there is some disagreement between the two. India In India the campaign to legitimise community radio began in the mid-1990s, soon after the Supreme Court of India ruled in its judgment of February 1995 that "airwaves are public property".[dead link] This inspired groups across the country; however, only educational (campus) radio stations were originally permitted (under a number of conditions). Anna FM was India's first campus "community" radio station. Launched on 1 February 2004, it is run by the Education and Multimedia Research Centre (EM²RC); all programmes are produced by Media Science students at Anna University. On 16 November 2006, the government of India implemented new Community Radio Guidelines, which permit NGOs and other civil organizations to own and operate community radio stations. About 4,000 community radio licenses are being offered across India, according to government sources. By 30 November 2008, the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting of the Government of India had received 297 applications for community radio licenses (including 141 from NGOs and other civil organizations, 105 from educational institutions and 51 for "farm radio" stations to be run by agricultural universities and agricultural extension centers, or Krishi Vigyan Kendras). Of these, 107 community radio stations have been cleared for licensing through the issuance of Letters of Intent. 13 Grant of Permission Agreements (GOPA) have been signed with license applicants under the new plan. By 30 November 2008, there were 38 operational community radio stations in the country. Of these, two are run by NGOs and the rest by educational institutions. The first community-based radio station licensed to an NGO (as distinct from campus-based radio) was launched on 15 October 2008, when Sangham Radio[dead link] in Pastapur village, Medak district, Andhra Pradesh state went on the air at 11:00 am. Sangham Radio, which broadcasts on 90.4 MHz, is licensed to the Deccan Development Society (DDS) (an NGO which works with women's groups in approximately 75 villages in Andhra Pradesh). The community radio station is managed by General and Algole Narsamma. The second NGO-led community radio station in India was launched on 23 October 2008 at Taragram in Orchha, Madhya Pradesh state. Named Radio Bundelkhand[dead link] after the Bundelkhand region of central India where it is located, the radio station is licensed to the Society for Development Alternatives (DA) (a Delhi-based NGO). Radio Bundelkhand also broadcasts on 90.4 MHz for four hours a day (including two hours of repeat broadcasts). According to the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, 47 community radio stations were operational in India by 1 November 2009 (including 45 campus-based stations and two CRS run by NGOs). By December 2009, the number of CR stations run by civil groups had increased to seven: Sangham Radio (Pastapur, Medak District, Andhra Pradesh) Radio Bundelkhand (Orchha, Madhya Pradesh) Mann Deshi Tarang (Satara, Maharashtra) Namma Dhwani (Budikote, Karnataka) Radio Mattoli (Wayanad, Kerala) Kalanjiam Samuga Vanoli (Nagapattinam, Tamil Nadu) Barefoot (Tilonia, Rajasthan) Radio Banasthali ( Banasthali, Rajasthan) By 4 December 2009, the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting had issued Grant of Permission Agreements (GOPA) for 62 community radio stations. Most of the GOPAs were issued to educational institutions. Community Radio Sarang on 107.8 is managed by the Mangalore Jesuit Educational Society (MJES) and run by St. Aloysius College (Autonomous), Mangalore (a coastal town in southern Karnataka). Radio Sarang is campus radio, in that it is based in an educational institution; it is oriented towards local communities as well, producing programs with, for and by farmers, fishermen, hospital patients, vendors and service providers such as bicycle repairmen and cobblers. Radio Sarang broadcasts in Konkani, Kannada, Tulu, and English daily, and in Malayalam, Beary (the mother tongue of local Muslims) and Hindi on a weekly basis. It also broadcasts in Punjabi, by request of the local Sikh community. Since 15 June 2010, the CR station broadcasts 14 hours a day from 6:30 to 20:30. The format includes talks, interviews, phone-ins, songs, poetry, stories and chat shows. Richard Rego, SJ is founder and director of the station. Banasthali Radio was the first community radio station licensed in the state of Rajasthan. Reaching out to areas within the radius of 10-15Km, it primarily covers the north-eastern part of Tonk district. Banasthali Radio has been operating since January 2005 as a campus radio station for students. The transmission reaches 50 villages surrounding the campus; students started outdoor recordings as part of the extension activities of Vidyapeeth. The FM radio station is known as RADIO BANASTHALI and broadcasts radio programs for 12 hours daily currently and focuses on topics of entertainment,education, health, nutrition, environment, agriculture, depicting folk, art, culture rural and community development. To create a common platform for the local communities of Supi in Uttarakhand, TERI launched Kumaon vani (a community radio service) on March 11, 2010. Uttarakhand Governor Margaret Alva inaugurated the community radio station, the first in the state. Kumaon Vani airs programmes on the environment, agriculture, culture, weather and education in the local language and with the active participation of the communities. The station covers a radius of 10 km, reaching an audience of almost 2,000 around Mukhteshwar. Jnan Taranga (90.4 FM), the first community radio service in northeastern India, began regular broadcasts November 20, 2010. Krishna Kanta Handiqui State Open University[dead link], Guwahati, Assam, aired the first programme on 28 January 2009 as an experimental broadcast. Jnan Taranga literally means "knowledge wave". Under the 2006 community radio policy, any not-for-profit "legal entity"—except individuals, political parties (and their affiliates), criminal and banned organizations— can apply for a CR license. Central funding is not available for such stations, and there are stringent restrictions on fundraising from other sources. Only organisations which have been registered for a minimum of three years old and with a proven track record of local community service may apply. License conditions implicitly favour well-funded stations over inexpensive low-power operations, several of which (Mana Radio in Andhra Pradesh and Raghav FM in Bihar, for example) operated successfully on shoestring budgets before the imposition of a community radio policy. The licence entitles them to operate a 100-watt (ERP) radio station, with a coverage area of approximately a 12-km radius. A maximum antenna height of 30 meters is allowed. Community radio stations are expected to produce at least 50 percent of their programmes locally, as much as possible in the local language or dialect. The stress is on developmental programming, although there is no explicit ban on entertainment. News programmes are banned on community radio in India (as they are on commercial FM radio). However, the government recently clarified that certain categories of news are permitted on radio, including sports news and commentaries, information on traffic and weather conditions, coverage of cultural events and festivals, information on academic events, public announcements pertaining to utilities such as electricity and the water supply, disaster warnings and health alerts. Five minutes of advertising per hour is allowed on community radio. Sponsored programs are not allowed, except when the program is sponsored by the government at the local or state level. Activists and community workers from across the country have banded together under the aegis of the Community Radio Forum of India[dead link] to coordinate training and support for community radio stations, and to work for a more proactive community radio policy. The Community Radio Forum, India, was registered as a Society and Trust on 26 February 2008. In the meantime, mobile telephone operators have begun to offer commercial broadcast services over GSM, evading government restrictions built around traditional concepts of broadcasting technology. By 1 July 2010, the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting announced that 715 applications for CR licenses had been received, including 104 under the old campus-radio guidelines. 231 Letters of Intent were issued (including 63 under the old guidelines). Grant of Permission Agreements were signed with 102 applicants, and 68 community radio stations were on the air. 107 applications were rejected, and 377 applications were being processed.