Chapter 8 Psychosocial Devel infancy by z949YdRJ

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									Chapter 8

  Psychosocial Development During
  the First Three Years
Psychosocial Development

  Emotions
    Subjective reactions to experiences that are
     associated with physiological and
     behavioral changes
    Serves several protective functions such as
     stranger anxiety
    Emotional development is closely tied to
     nonorganic failure to thrive
Psychosocial Development

    Emotional development is an orderly
     process; complex emotions build on
     simpler ones
    Closely tied to other aspects of
     development
    Culture influences feelings about situations
     and emotions shown
Psychosocial Development

    Crying is the most powerful way of
     communicating
        Four patterns have been identified
        Parental responses to crying varies
        Earliest smiles are spontaneous and involuntary
        Earliest waking smiles may be elicited by mild
         sensations
        Later changes in responses reflects cognitive
         development
Psychosocial Development

  Emotions Involving the Self
    Self-conscious emotions arise after self-
     awareness is developed
    Demonstration of self-evaluative emotions
     occurs when children have a good
     knowledge of society’s accepted standards
Psychosocial Development

    Empathy arises during approximately the
     2nd year and increases with age
    Empathy depends on social cognition

    One-year-olds can pick up emotional cues
     from television performances
Psychosocial Development

  Temperament
    Biologically based way of approaching and
     reacting to people and situations
    Relatively consistent and enduring with an
     emotional basis
    3 main types: “easy,” “difficult,” and “slow-
     to-warm-up” children
Psychosocial Development

  EarliestSocial Experiences: The
  Infant in the Family
    Infant care practices and patterns of
     interaction vary greatly around the world,
     may be culture-based
    Close bodily contact with mothers is more
     important than feeding for babies
Psychosocial Development
    Fatherhood has different meanings in
     different cultures
    The highly physical style of play by many
     U.S. fathers is not typical in all cultures
    A father’s involvement is directly related to a
     child’s well-being and cognitive and social
     development
    Various conditions and factors
     influence the extent of the               father-
     child interaction
Psychosocial Development

    Parents shape gender characteristics of
     their children
    Fathers promote gender-typing more than
     mothers, spending more time with sons
    Grandparents’ roles can be very influential
Psychosocial Development

  Developing    Attachments
    Harlow’s “attachment”
    Attachment is a reciprocal and enduring
     emotional tie
    Infants and parents are biologically
     predisposed to become attached to each
     other
    Attachment promotes baby’s survival
Psychosocial Development

 Secure attachment – patterns in which an
  infant cries or protests when the primary
  caregiver leaves and actively seeks out
  the caregiver on his or her return
 Avoidant attachment – pattern in which an
  infant rarely cries when separated from
  the primary caregiver and avoids contact
  on his or her return
Psychosocial Development

    Ambivalent (resistant) attachment: baby
     becomes anxious before mother leaves,
     gets upset when she leaves, and
     ambivalently seeks and resists contact on
     her return
    Disorganized-disoriented attachment:
     pattern of subtle and difficult to observe
     behaviors that are contradictory, repetitive,
     and misdirected
Psychosocial Development

    Stranger anxiety and separation anxiety
     were seen as emotional and cognitive
     milestones
    Long-term effects of attachment: secure
     attachment may affect emotional, social,
     and cognitive competence
    Adult perceptions of their own early
     attachments may affect their own child-
     parent relationships

								
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