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What is intellectual property ?

Intellectual property allows people to own their creativity and innovation in the same way that
they can own physical property. The owner of Intellectual Property can control and be
rewarded for its use, and this encourages further innovation and creativity to the benefit of us

In some cases Intellectual Property gives rise to protection for ideas but in other areas there
will have to be more elaboration of an idea before protection can arise. It will often not be
possible to protect Intellectual Property and gain Intellectual Property rights unless they have
been applied for and granted, but some Intellectual Property protection such as copyright
arises automatically, without any registration, as soon as there is a record in some form of
what has been created.

The four main types of Intellectual Properties are:

      patents for inventions - new and improved products and processes that are capable of
       industrial application

      trade marks for brand identity - of goods and services allowing distinctions to be made
       between different traders

      designs for product appearance - of the whole or a part of a product resulting from the
       features of, in particular, the lines, contours, colours, shape, texture or materials of the
       product itself or its ornamentation;

      copyright for material - literary and artistic material, music, films, sound recordings
       and broadcasts, including software and multimedia.

However, Intellectual Property is much broader than this extending to trade secrets, plant
varieties, geographical indications, performers rights and so on. To understand exactly what
can be protected by Intellectual Property, you will need to check the four main areas of
copyright, designs, patents and trade marks as well as other Intellectual Property. Often, more
than one type of Intellectual Property may apply to the same creation.

In Civil Law countries, Intellectual property rights are said to be incorporeal movables.
In Common Law countries, they are considered personal properties, and more specifically
pure personalties, as things in action (as opposed to things in possession : corporeal
Whatever the legal classification, they are always treated as (incorporeal) movables, as
opposed to real property (=biens immobiliers).
Areas of Intellectual Property / of Industrial Property.

Industrial property is a branch of intellectual proprety, it includes generally :

      trademarks (=marques),
      patents (=brevets d’invention),
      (industrial) designs and models (=dessins et modèles),
      business / trade names (=dénominations sociales / commerciales),
      designations of origin and geographical indications (=appellations d’origines et
       indications géographiques),
      topographies of semiconductors (=topographies des produits semi-conducteurs),
      certificates of creation of new plant species (=certificats d’obtention végétale).

On the other hand, intellectual property also deals with copyrights and related rights, which
are not considered as industrial property rights :
     literary works,
     softwares,
     paintings,
     works of art,
     fine arts,
     music,
     movies,
     architecture,
     graphic arts,
     and all rights related such as production rights, television and radio broadcasting
        rights, performing rights…

What is a trade mark?

A trade mark is any sign which can distinguish the goods and services of one trader from
those of another.

A sign includes words, logos, colours, slogans, three-dimensional shapes and sometimes
sounds and gestures.

A trade mark is therefore a "badge" of trade origin. It is used as a marketing tool so that
customers can recognise the product of a particular trader.

Generally, to be registrable, it must also be capable of being represented graphically, that is,
in words and/or pictures. What’s more, to be registrable a mark must be:
     distinctive for the goods/services covered
     not deceptive, or against the law or morality
     not similar or identical to any earlier marks for the same or similar goods/services
       (each registration organism offers you the possibility to check for the marks already
       registrered through a procedure known as “search for prior right or state of affairs” =
       recherche d’antériorité).
Registration of a mark establishes that it is a trade mark, and who owns it.

Registration gives the owner the exclusive right to use the trade mark, and the right to prevent
unauthorised use through a legal action for infringement.

You may use the ™ symbol to show that the word/logo referred to functions as your trade
mark, but is not necessarily registered.
You may use the ® symbol to show that the word/logo referred to is a registered trade mark.
This may mean that the mark is registered somewhere in the world, not necessarily in the UK.
It is a criminal offence in the UK to represent a trade mark as registered, when it is not.

What are the benefits of trade mark registration? Many people question the need for spending
money on registering their trade mark. Here are some of the benefits:

      It gives the owner the exclusive right to use it for the goods and/or services for which
       it is registered - governments are not normally happy to give people a monopoly for
       anything. Registered Trade Marks, like other intellectual property rights, are an
      It enables the owner to take infringement action against anyone else who uses it - the
       fact that you have registered your mark means that any infringer has to take you
      A Registered Trade Mark is an item of property - this means you can sell it, rent it out
       by licensing, etc.
      Unregistered marks have to rely on legal actions that are extremely expensive to
       sanction an infriger (they require large amounts of evidence that you have used the
       mark sufficiently to claim ownership, and then further evidence that customers were
       under the impression that they were buying your goods rather than the infringer's)
      Unregistered marks may have rights limited to a confined geographical area - it is very
       difficult, particularly for smaller companies, to prove that they have a trading
       reputation in every corner of a country or of Europe, and even of the world.
       Registration gives you protection throughout a given territory, even if you do not have
       a trading presence everywhere.

Infringement is the unlawful use of a registered trade mark. It occurs when:

      a third party uses a sign identical with, or similar to, a registered mark in respect of
       identical or similar goods or services;
      the public is likely to be confused by the similar mark.

Depending on where you want to protect your mark, you must apply to the appropriate
national or international organisation:

      In France, you should apply to INPI (Institut National de la Propriété Industrielle)
      For a Community Trade Mark, which gives protection throughout the entire European
       Union see OHIM (The Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market) OHMI en
      If you wish to apply in a number of countries of the Madrid Union, see the information
       provided by WIPO (The World Intellectual Property Organization) OMPI en français
Fees are shown in each organisation web site. If you wish to protect your mark in particular
individual countries, you should apply to the Intellectual Property Office for that country.

What is a domain name?

A domain name works like a company name and is a name by which a company or
organization is known on the Internet. It is a convenient "short-hand" way of identifying a
company's web site address.

There are many accredited registrars prepared to register domain names. You can find a list of
them on The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) web site.
Maybe some of you are already used to refer to or to

If someone registers a domain name which you think belongs to you or your company, you
should take appropriately qualified legal advice. There are dispute resolution procedures
operated, for example, by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). And if you
have a registered trade mark you may have legal remedies against someone who has
registered the domain name simply for the purpose of profiting by its sale to the rightful trade
mark owner.

What is a patent ? (= brevet d’invention)

A patent gives an inventor the right for a limited period to stop others from making, using or
selling an invention without the permission of the inventor.

Patents are about functional and technical aspects of products and processes, and specific
conditions must be fulfilled to get a patent.

Most patents are for incremental improvements in known technology - evolution rather than
revolution. The technology does not have to be complex.

To be patentable, an invention must be new, mustn’t consist in an obvious application of a
known technology, and must be susceptible of industrial application.

Patent rights are territorial; a french patent does not give rights outside of France.

For instance, patent rights last for up to :
    20 years in France, provided the annual fees are duely paid,
    20 years in the UK (Some patents, such as those for medicinal products, may be
        eligible for a further 5 years protection with a Supplementary Protection Certificate).

Each organism with which one can register a patent defines :

      the requirements to meet for a petition to be valid (including the form and content of
       such petition),
      the territory (it can be several countries) for which protection is granted,
      the duration of the protection granted,
      the price to pay for such protection.
Depending on where you wish your patent to be in effect, you must apply to the appropriate
body. In France, you should apply to INPI (Institut National de la Propriété Industrielle). The
various National Offices Worldwide are listed at the end of this course.
It is also possible to apply for a patent through the European Patent Office (EPO), (OEB en
Français) or through the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) (OMPI en

Although there are potential pitfalls (=pièges) with patents, a patent can be of value to an
inventor, and can also benefit other people. You can arrange, through a licence or sale to use
another inventors patent. Additionally, large amounts of information can be learnt from other
people’s patents.

What rights does a patent give ?

A patent gives you the right to stop others from using your invention. Alternatively, you can
choose to let others use it under agreed terms. A patent also brings the right to take legal
action against others who might be infringing the invention and to claim damages. The mere
existence of a patent may be enough to deter a potential infringer.

A patent empowers the owner (the "proprietor") of an invention to take legal action against
others to prevent the unlicensed manufacture, use, importation or sale of the patented
invention. This right can be used to give the proprietor breathing space to develop a business
based on the invention, or another person or company may be allowed to exploit the invention
and pay royalties under a licensing agreement.

How do patents benefit anyone other than the inventor?

The public gains advance knowledge of technological developments which they will
eventually be able to use freely once the patent ceases. Society in general benefits from
constantly improving and better made products.

You can look upon a patent as a bargain between the State and the inventor. The State offers a
short-term monopoly (up to 20 years) in return for a full description of the invention, which
is published by a Patent Office. This exchange of a monopoly for a full description underpins
the patent system and leads to published patent documents being the most comprehensive
source of technical information in the world, for practically every area of technology.

It may also be possible to use an existing patent, because the rights in a patent can be sold or

Many companies have Intellectual Property which they are not fully exploiting. The Internet
has web sites offering rights to this property. The following web sites are typical examples
(note that fees may be charged for introductions):
     (mainly biomedical technology)
Infrigment of patents.

If someone makes, uses or sells the invention defined in the claims of your granted patent
without your permission, what they are doing is known as "infringing" your patent.

If you become aware of infringement of your patent, you should consult a professional.
As a first step, your professional adviser will probably prepare a carefully worded letter
asking the infringer if they are aware of your patent.
This is because it is an offence to make groundless threats about infringement, which could
undermine your case against the potential infringer.

Often the mere existence of a patent is enough to deter a potential infringer. If not, legal
action may be taken and damages claimed.

Who owns a patent?

The principles surrounding entitlement - that is, the right to apply for and own a patent - are
not straightforward. The following discussion is a brief overview.

The starting presumption in many national laws is that the right to apply for and own a patent
for an invention belongs to the inventor or inventors. However, this right can be over-ridden
in certain circumstances. Usually, this happens either by an agreement made with the inventor
in which he gives or sells his rights to someone else, or by virtue of law in the country in
which the invention is made.

For example, who is entitled to a patent where the invention was made by an employee ? It is
generally accepted (the entitlement laws of the country where the invention is made apply)
that where the invention is made in the course of an employees duties, the invention belongs
to the employer either:
     if it was reasonable to expect an invention to result from the employees duties (for
        example, if they are employed to carry out research and development), or
     if the employee had a special obligation to further the employer's interests (for
        example, as a company director).

Disputes can arise over who is really the inventor, or whether the inventor was an employee
when the invention was made.

Patentability of business methods ?

The European Patent Office (EPO) accepts the patenting of pure business methods. Their web
site has a press release about patenting software and business methods.
Some other countries, such as the USA, which may be a large potential market, are generally
more liberal in their approach. They often grant patents for business methods which would be
excluded by EPO.
Patentability of computer software?

The European Patent Office (EPO) accepts the patenting of computer softwares. Their website
has a press release about their approach to software and business method patents.

It is possible to patent programs for computers which, when run on a computer produce a
"technical effect". However, if a program does not produce a technical effect when run on a
computer it is unlikely to be patentable. A technical effect is generally an improvement in
technology, and needs to be in an area of technology which is patentable.

For instance, an improved program for translating between Japanese and English is not
patentable because linguistics is a mental process, not a technical field. On the other hand a
program which speeds up image enhancement may be patentable because it produces a
technical improvement in a technical area. Other restrictions also apply.

Some other countries, such as the USA, which may be a large potential market for software,
have a more liberal approach to software patenting, and often grant patents for software which
would be excluded in EPO.

For more information visit : Institute of Inventors.

What is patentable in the biotechnology area?

The rapid growth in biotech research since the early 1980's raised the question of what is
patentable in an area where not only may the research be controversial but the end result may
be something which is living.

Initially the answer to this question was built up on a case-by-case basis and by reference to
precedents passed down by national courts and the boards of appeal in the European Patent
Office (EPO).

Eventually, in July 1998, European Directive 98/44/EC on the legal protection of
biotechnological inventions was adopted by the European Parliament with the aim of
harmonising practice throughout Europe.

It is now clear that just because a product consists of or contains biological material it is not to
be considered as unpatentable. Neither is a process by which the biological material is
produced, processed or used. Fundamentally what has to be assessed, in the same way as for
other inventions, is whether an invention relating to or using biological material is novel,
involves an inventive step and is industrially applicable.

In line with previous legislation worldwide, plant and animal varieties are not patentable
neither are essentially biological processes for the production of plants and animals. Plant
varieties, in particular, may be protected under Council Regulation (EC) No 2100/94 of 27
July 1994 on Community plant variety rights. However, inventions which concern plants or
animals are patentable if the technical feasibility of the invention is not confined to a
particular plant or animal variety.
Gene sequences, either full or partial, may be patentable as long as they satisfy the
fundamental assessment referred to above. This means, amongst other things, that the
industrial application of the sequence must be disclosed in the patent application. Concern has
been expressed about inventions relating to the human body so it is made clear that the human
body, at the various stages of its formation and development, and the simple discovery of one
of its elements, including the sequence or partial sequence of a gene, cannot constitute
patentable inventions. However, if such an element is isolated from the human body or
otherwise produced by a technical process, it may constitute a patentable invention, even if
the structure of that element is identical to that of a natural element.

Recognition has been given to the fact that the public in general may find the commercial
exploitation of certain inventions in the biotech area so abhorrent that those inventions should
not be patentable. For the time being such inventions in four specific areas are mentioned in
the Directive.

These are a) processes for cloning human beings; b) processes for modifying the germ line
genetic identity of human beings; c) uses of human embryos for industrial or commercial
purposes and d) processes for modifying the genetic identity of animals which are likely to
cause them suffering without any substantial medical benefit to man or animal, and also
animals resulting from such processes.

The EPO has implemented Directive 98/44/EC into the European Patent Convention.

The USA takes a similar approach on a number of issues but is slightly more liberal on the
patenting of gene sequences and is not constrained in its law by any reference to inventions
which may be considered to be immoral. There are also options in US law for the protection
of plants which are not to be found in the law across Europe.

The European Commission website has the text of Directive 98/44/EC, and a helpful page of
frequently asked questions about legal protection of biotechnical inventions.

What is a design?

A design refers to the appearance of the whole or a part of a product resulting from the
features of, in particular, the lines, contours, colours, shape, texture or materials of the product
or its ornamentation.

Design registration gives the owner a monopoly on their product design, i.e. the right for a
limited period to stop others from making, using or selling a product to which the design has
been applied, or in which it has been incorporated, without their permission and is additional
to any design right or copyright protection that may exist automatically in the design.

The design of a product can be synonymous with the branding and image of a company and
can become an asset to them with a monetary value that could increase.
A registered design:

      brings the right to take legal action against others who might be infringing the design
       and to claim damages
      may deter a potential infringement
      also brings the exclusive right to make, offer, put on the market import, export, use or
       stock any product to which the design has been applied or is incorporated or to let
       others use the design under the terms agreed with the registered owner, on the territory
       defined by the registration organism.

Most national offices offer online searchable databases of existing registered designs that will
enable you to see whether your design has previously been registered.

Depending on where you wish your design registration to be in effect, you must apply to the
appropriate body, usually the national patent office.

At present there is no international system for the registration of designs. If you want
protection for your design in the countries of the European Union you may apply to the Office
for Harmonisation in the Internal Market (OHIM) in Alicante, Spain. If you want protection
outside the EU you generally have to make separate applications for registration in each
country in which you want protection. Each national office will have their own fees.

You should remember though that there may be some automatic protection for your design in
other countries under their copyright laws and this would be worth checking if you have failed
to seek registered design protection. Note, though, that you will get stronger protection by
registering your design rather than just relying on copyright.

In case of infrigment, you should contact the national office dealing with your application for

What about other Industrial Property rights ?

Although copyright, designs, patents and trade marks provide a range of Industrial Property
protection, there are a number of other forms of Industrial Property and subjects related to
Industrial Property:

   1. protection for trade secrets under confidentiality agreements

           Many businesses will have "trade secrets" but they may not always recognise that
           they have them, and that they can be a valuable type of Industrial Property.
           Protection for trade secrets arises from the law of confidentiality. A trade secret is
           information that is only known to a few people and where its disclosure to others
           would constitute a breach of confidence. The information:
                can be connected with another Industrial Property right, for example
                   relevant know-how for working a patent, or
                can be material existing before the other Industrial Property right has come
                   into being, for example details of the invention for which a patent has not
                   yet been sought, or
              it can be material that is already protected by Industrial Property, for
               example where copyright exists in material that is to be shown under a
               confidentiality agreement to a potential partner for its exploitation.
       So, in general, using the law of confidentiality can be very useful to ensure that
       any information a business wants to keep secret remains secret. In order for trade
       secrets to remain protected, it is, though, very important to ensure that all who
       might get to know about the information that is being protected, such as other
       employees and collaborators in other businesses, understand and are bound by the
       conditions of confidentiality.

2. database right for some types of database (other types may be protected by copyright)

       A database, that is a collection of data or other material that is arranged in such a
       way so that the items are individually accessible, may be protected by copyright
       and/or database right. For copyright protection to apply, the database must have
       originality in the selection or arrangement of the contents and for database right to
       apply, the database must be the result of substantial investment. It is, of course,
       entirely possible that a database will satisfy both these requirements so that both
       copyright and database right apply.
       Database right is in many ways very similar to copyright so that, for example,
       there is no registration for database right - it is an automatic right like copyright
       and commences as soon as the material that can be protected exists in a recorded
       form. Database right can apply to both paper and electronic databases. However,
       there are three main differences between database right and copyright:
                  The term of protection for database right is much shorter. Database
       right lasts for 15 years from making but, if published during this time, then the
       term is 15 years from publication.
                  The activities that a right holder can control, and which are, therefore,
       infringed if undertaken without the right holder's permission, are a bit different.
       Database right concerns control over the extraction and re-utilisation of the
       contents of the database.
                  The exceptions to the right, that is activities that a user can undertake
       without the permission of the right holder that do not infringe the right are not
       quite the same. In particular, fair dealing for the purposes of research or private
       study does not extend to research for a commercial purpose.
       It is important to remember, that many databases are a collection of copyright
       works, such as an on-line database of poetry from the last fifty years where each
       poem will be protected by copyright. So people compiling databases need to make
       sure that they have permission from the copyright owners for use of their material
       and people using databases need to be aware of the rights of copyright owners as
       well as database right owners. Where a database has been delivered on-line,
       though, there will often be a contractual agreement between the database owner
       and the user setting out what use is permitted, and this will generally take
       precedence over any exceptions in the law.
       Protection equivalent to database right should exist in other countries in the
       European Economic Area but not necessarily in the rest of the world, although all
       members of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) do have an obligation to
       provide copyright protection for some databases.
3. protection for semi-conductor topographies

       All countries that are members of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) have an
       obligation to provide protection for semi-conductor topographies by some means.
       The WTO agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights,
       which sets out minimum standards of protection in all IP areas, specifically
       includes protection for semi-conductor topographies.

4. plant breeders' rights in plant varieties

       In France ; certificates of creation of new plants species can be obtained from the
       Comity for the Protection of New Plants Species (=Comité de la protection des
       obtentions végétales (CPOV)), that belongs to the Ministry of Agriculture, and
       offers 25 years protection.
       The International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) is
       responsible for an international convention on plant breeders' rights.
       For those who wish to get an idea of the juridical debate around new plant species:

5. protection for geographical indications of origin

       The World Trade Organisation (WTO) in the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual
       Property (TRIPS) Agreement defines Geographical Indications (GIs) as,
       indications which identify a good as originating in a territory, or a region or
       locality in that territory, where a given quality, reputation or other characteristic of
       the good is essentially attributable to its geographical origin.
       It requires that Members shall provide the legal means for interested parties to
       prevent misleading presentations of goods suggesting they originate in an
       areaother than their true place of origin; acts of unfair competition as per the
       World Intellectual Prperty Organisation (WIPO), Paris Convention (1967); to
       refuse or invalidate trade marks which mislead as to the true place of origin of
       The TRIPS Agreement also requires additional protection for wines and spirits
       geographical indication's, thus each Member shall provide the legal means for
       interested parties to prevent use of a geographical indication identifying wines for
       wines not originating in the place indicated by the geographical indication in
       question or identifying spirits for spirits not originating in the place indicated by
       the geographical indication in question, even where the true origin of the goods is
       indicated or the geographical indication is used in translation or accompanied by
       expressions such as "kind", "type", "style", "imitation" or the like.
       The European Community provides more than the basic protection required under
       TRIPS for traditional and regional food and drink. A list of protected foods is also

6. protection against unfair competition
What about conflicts of laws or jurisdiction as far as protection of industrial property is
concerned ?

Lex rei sitae (they are movables) !

There is almost no question of conflicts of laws or juridisdiction in that matter : as you will
see, and considering the fact this course only concerns industrial property rights and not
intellectual property rights, the protection granted to an industrial property right comes from
its registration.

Indeed, there exists no industrial property protection unless the company or individual who
wants to claim such protection complies with certain formalities :
     of deposit with an official organism (such as INPI in France :,
     of registration with the same organism, that is of payment of registration fees.

Therefore the law applicable to the protection of an industrial property right is generally the
law applicable to the registration organism (whether a national law or a treaty).

Generally, the jusridiction to seize is either :
    the jurisdiction of the domicile of the physical person, or of the registered office of the
      company responsible for the act of infrigment,
    the jurisdiction of the place where the infrigment occurred.

Such a conflict of jusridiction rule come from both the general method of conflict of laws and
jurisdiction and from the rules made by the Council Regulation (EC) No 44/2001, of 22
December 2000 on jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and
commercial matters (former 1968 Brussels Convention).

Generally speaking, the following laws are applicable to industrial property :

      In France : the Intellectual Property Code was promulgated in july 1992 to protect and
       give legal and commercial value to both technical and ornamental creations (patents,
       designs and models) and distinctive signs (trademarks, trade and business names,
       “enseignes”, controlled designations of origin and geographical indications). Of
       course, laws protecting against unfair competition are also applicable.
      The TRIPS (Trade Related Industrial Property Rights) Agreement : it establishes a set
       of universal intellectual property norms that all World Trade Organization (WTO)
       member states must respect in their domestic laws within prescribed periods of time.
       Two sets of ancillary norms further buttress the resulting legal infrastructure. The first
       of these norms purports to recognize comparable minimum standards for the
       enforcement of intellectual property rights within single national systems. The second
       norm establishes international dispute-settlement machinery that permits member
       states in good standing to extract compensatory damages from other recalcitrant states
       whose laws or practices are found to nullify or impair the trade advantages that should
       otherwise flow from the TRIPS Agreement. It is nowadays managed by WTO
       (=OMC). En français : Accord ADPIC du 17 avril 1994.
      The Paris Union Convention : it created in march 1883 an international Union for the
       protection of industrial property, and was often amended since.
      As      regards   European       Union      regulation   on     the     subject    :

The basic principles laid by the various conventions applicable are the following :
    Beneficiaries of the conventions shall be entitled to the same rights as the nationals of
       all members States,
    Minimum protection rule : the convention only gives minimum protection, up to the
       member States to offer a higher degree of protection,
    Reciprocal rule : national laws are considered as equivalent, therefore a State cannot
       refuse to protect a foreigner’s right for the only reason that such right doesn’t exist in
       the foreigner’s country.
    Territoriality and independence of laws rule : a protection is granted in each country
       only by the law of such country, without reference to the law of the country where the
       right was recognized for the first time.

The most famous registration organisms are :

      INPI (for France, = Institut National de la Propriété Industrielle) :
      WIPO (= Organisation Mondiale de la Propriété Industrielle, sigle OMPI) :
      OAMI (Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market = Office de l’Harmonisation
       dans le Marché Intérieur, aussi appelé Office Communautaire des Marques) :
      EPO (European Patent Office = Office Européen des Brevets ) : http://www.european-
      UPOV (International Union of the Protection of New Varieties of Plants)
      CPVO (Community Plant Variety Office = Office Communautaire des Variétés
       Végétales (OCVV)) :

National registration organisms, classified by country (such a list is not exhaustive, up to you
to complete it):

    Country                                        Description
Algeria            L'Institut National Algérien de la Propriété Industrielle
Andorra            Oficina De Marques Del Pricipat D'Andorra
Argentina          Instituto Nacional de la Propiedad Industrial
Armenia            The Eurasian Patent Organization
Australia          Intellectual Property Australia
Austria            Österreichischen Patentamt
Azerbaijan         The Eurasian Patent Organization
Belarus            The Eurasian Patent Organization
Belgium          Ministry of Economic Affairs
Benelux          Benelux Patents Office
Brazil           Brazilian Industrial Property Office
Bulgaria         Bulgarian Patent Office
Canada           Canadian Intellectual Property Office
China            State Intellectual Property Office of China
Croatia          Republic of Croatia - State Intellectual Property Office
Cuba             Oficina Cubana de la Propiedad Industrial
Czech Republic   Czech Industrial Property Office
Denmark          Danish Patent and Trade Mark Office
EPO              European Patent Office
Estonia          The Estonian Patent Office
Eurasia          The Eurasian Patent Organization
European Union   Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market
Finland          Patentti- ja rekisterihallitus
France           Institut National de la Propriete Industrielle
Germany          German Patent and Trade Mark Office
Greece           Industrial Property Organisation
Hong Kong        Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government Intellectual
                 Property Department
Hungary          Hungarian Patent Office
Iceland          Einkaleyfastofan
Ireland          Irish Patents Office
Italy            Italian Patent and Trademark Office
Japan            Japanese Patent Office
Jordan           Ministry of Industry & Trade Jordan
Korea            Korean Industrial Property Office
Kyrgyzstan       The Eurasian Patent Organization
Liechtenstein    PATLIB centres in Liechtenstein
Lithuania        Lithuanian Patent Office
Luxembourg       Ministry of the Economy
Macedonia        Industrial Property Protection Office of the Republic of Macedonia
Malaysia         Ministry Of Domestic Trade And Consumer Affairs - IP.infonet Malaysia
Mexico           Promotion to the Industrial Property
Moldova          State Agency of Industrial Property Protection
Monaco           Direction de l'Expansion Économique - Division de la Propriété
Morocco          Système d'information de la propriété industrielle et commerciale
Netherlands      Netherlands Industrial Property Office (NIPO)
New Zealand      The Intellectual Property Office of New Zealand
Norway           Patentstyret
OHIM             Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market
Peru             Instituto Nacional de Defensa de la Competencia y de la Protección de la
                 Propiedad Intelectual
Philippines      Intellectual Property Office - Philippines
Poland           Patent Office of the Republic of Poland
Portugal         Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial
Romania          State Office for Inventions and Trademarks
Russia           Russian Agency for Patents and Trademarks (ROSPATENT)
Singapore        Intellectual Property Office of Singapore
Slovak Republic Industrial Property Office of the Slovak Republic
Slovenia         Slovenian Intellectual Property Office
Spain            Oficina Espanola de Patentes y Marcas
Sweden           PRV - the Swedish Patent and Registration Office
Switzerland      Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property
Taiwan           Chinese Taipei Intellectual Property Office
Tajikistan       The Eurasian Patent Organization
Thailand         Department of Intellectual Property
Turkey           Turkish Patent Institute
Turkmenistan     The Eurasian Patent Organization
United Kingdom The UK Patent Office
United States of United States Patent and Trademark Office
Uzbekistan       State Patent Office of the Republic of Uzbekistan

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