The Great Depression and The New Deal (PowerPoint)

Document Sample
The Great Depression and The New Deal (PowerPoint) Powered By Docstoc
					The Great Depression and
The New Deal

     Causes and Effects of the
     Depression & How We Got Out
The student will analyze the causes and
consequences of the Great Depression
   Describe the causes, including overproduction,
    underconsumption, and stock market
    speculation that led to the stock market crash of
    1929 and the Great Depression
   Explain the impact of the drought in the creation
    of the Dust Bowl
   Explain the social and political impact of
    widespread unemployment that resulted in
    developments such as Hoovervilles.
    Causes of the
    Great Depression
   Global Economic Downturn
     (connection to WWI)
   Unequal distribution of wealth
     (rich-poor gap)
   Increased Supply, Decreased Demand
    (Overproduction & Underconsumption)
   Bank Failures
   Easy Credit & Margin Spending
     (buying stocks on margin: “speculation”)
   Stock Market Crash 1929
Stock Market Crash 1929
    Effects of the
    Great Depression

   Unemployment at 25 %
   Homelessness
   Poverty
   Destruction of Families
   Farm Losses
   Business and Bank Failures
Poverty: Soup & Bread Lines
Farm Foreclosure
       Migrant Mother Photograph

   “Migrant Mother”:             photograph that Dorothea Lange
made of Florence Owens Thompson and her children in 1936 in
   Lange gave this account of the experience:
   “I saw and approached the hungry and desperate mother, as if
drawn by a magnet. She asked me no questions. I did not ask her
name or her history. She told me her age, that she was thirty-two.
She said that they had been living on frozen vegetables from the
surrounding fields, and birds that the children killed. She had
just sold the tires from her car to buy food. There she sat in that
lean- to tent with her children huddled around her. “

(From: Popular Photography, Feb. 1960).
   Black Blizzards: name given to the one thousand
foot high dust storms that overtook the Midwest during
the Great Depression.
   Farmers of the area in and around the panhandle of
Texas abused the land with their poor farming
   Failure to take proper care of the soil they were using
resulted in the land losing moisture which made it
vulnerable to wind erosion.
   Besides land being destroyed by farmers, the rest of
the land in the area that was rich in grass was also
destroyed by overgrazing of livestock. The
combination of this and a major drought in
the 1930's led to the tragic events of the Dust
   The " Great Depression " was a worldwide economic
disintegration symbolized in the United States by the stock market
crash on "Black Thursday", October 24, 1929 . The causes of the
Great Depression were varied, but the impact was visible across
the country.
   When FDR was inaugurated president on March 4, 1933, the
banking system had collapsed, nearly 25% of the labor force
was unemployed, and prices and productivity had fallen to 1/3
below their 1929 levels.
   Reduced prices and reduced output resulted in lower
incomes in wages, rents, dividends, and profits throughout
the economy. Factories were shut down, farms and homes were
lost to foreclosure, mills and mines were abandoned, and people
went hungry.
   The resulting lower incomes meant the further inability of the
people to spend or to save their way out of the crisis, thus
perpetuating the economic slowdown in a seemingly never-ending
Hoover’s Policy

   “Rugged
   Smoot-Hawley
   Conferences &
    Speeches to help
    stimulate economy
Hoover’s Policy

   Public Works projects:
    1) big contracts
    2) JOBS
   Over $800 million in public works
   Hoover Dam
   Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Social Unrest

   Hoover blamed for everything!
   Communism and Socialism considered
    by many as viable form of government

   Marches and Protests
   Bonus Army
Bonus Army
The student will describe Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal as
a response to the depression and compare the ways
governmental programs aided those in need.

   Describe the creation of the Tennessee
    Valley Authority as a works program and
    as an effort to control the environment
   Explain the Wagner Act and the rise of
    industrial unionism
   Explain the passage of the Social Security
    Act as a part of the second New Deal

   Identify Eleanor Roosevelt as a symbol
    of social progress and women’s
   Identify the political challenges to
    Roosevelt’s domestic and international
    leadership; include the role of Huey
    Long, the “court packing bill,” and the
    Neutrality Act
Election of 1932
   Franklin Delano Roosevelt:
    Democratic nominee
   Progressive leader
   Gov. of New York
   Emphasis on
    relief programs
    The New Deal

   FDR’s plan for ending the Depression

   Focused on   3 R’s:
      - Relief of citizens problems
      - Recovery of economy
      - Reform society
    The Programs

   Known as alphabet soup

   Goal: address Three R’s

   FDR successful beginning programs in
    1st 100 days
 Emergency Banking Act establishes
“Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation”
Tennessee Valley
                CCC:      Civilian Conservation Corps:
Created jobs in road-building & conservation projects to reduce unemployment
National Recovery Administration set prices and est.
          codes of fair practice for industries
            Public Works Administration:
Provided $ to states to create jobs building schools and
    community buildings & reduce unemployment
Civil Works Administration: created 4
million jobs in effort to reduce unemployment
     Second New Deal
   Surge in New Deal programs
    -- popular, yet, somewhat ineffective

   1934 midterm elections            Democrats

   Many of 1st New Deal programs ruled
    unconstitutional (b/c federal government deemed to
    have overstepped its authority)

   Led to “court packing” bill: attempt by FDR
    to increase # of justices on SC
    2nd New Deal Programs
   Works Progress Administration
    -- Employment in public works; building airports, repairing
     -- spent $ 11 billion & employed 8 million workers

   National Labor Relations Act
    - commonly called “Wagner Act”

    - Recognized Labor right to organize &
Works Progress Administration
Wagner Act
     The National Labor Relations Board of the
      Wagner Act of 1935 was created by
      Congress to protect workers' right to
     Guarantees employees the right to self-
      organize, choose their own representatives,
      and bargain collectively
     Encourages collective bargaining as a
      means of maintaining industrial peace.
      Social Security Act: 1935

   3 parts:
       1) old-age insurance for retirees &
       2) unemployment compensation
       3) aid to families with children & the
   Funded by workers and employers, and
    federal funds made available to states
    The Social Security Question?
   Social Security WILL
    eventually run out!

   Baby-boomers retire!
    Causes more
    retirees than workers

   Should retirement
    become privatized?
Eleanor Roosevelt

   Progressive reformer
   Advocate for
    women’s and
    minority rights
   Child welfare and
    housing reform
       Examples of
       Challenges to FDR

   Political challenges to Roosevelt’s domestic and
    international leadership
   Role of Sen. Huey Long: LA: early FDR supporter turned
    -- wanted presidency; proposed national social
       program called “Share-Our-Wealth”; “Every
       man a king”
    -- assassinated in 1935

   The “court packing bill”

   Neutrality Act: outlawed arms sales or loans to nations at
    war; FDR criticized when US sent arms to China durin
    Japanese aggression; “ISOLATIONISTS” PROTESTED