Sociology in Our Times The Essentials (PowerPoint)

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Sociology in Our Times The Essentials (PowerPoint) Powered By Docstoc
					        Jonathan R. White

          Chapter 10:
Terrorism in Israel and Palestine

                     Rosemary Arway
                     Hodges University
Palestine Liberation Organization
 PLO – Palestinian Liberation Organization:
  o Secular organization
  o Yasser Arafet – its leader and founder (1964)
  o Attempted to establish a government for
    displaced Palestinians
  o Purpose was to create a political organization to
    help form a multinational alliance against Israel
  o Looked to Arab governments to jointly launch a
    war against Israel
Palestine Liberation Organization
  o Yasser Arafat formed Fatah in 1959
  o Purpose was to create a guerrilla organization
  o Advocated use of small unit tactics and
    terrorist actions
  o Proposed terrorizing unfortified Israeli civilian
    targets after Six Day War defeat
 Merged Fatah into PLO in 1964
 Media coverage of Fatah attacks raised
  PLO status throughout the Arab world
Palestine Liberation Organization
 Fatah after Karamah:
  o After Fatah’s attack on Israel, Israel
    respond with force.
  o In 1968 Israeli Defense Force (IDF) tanks,
    infantry, helicopters and artillery raided the
    Palestinians in the village of Karamah
    (refuge center housing Fatah members -
  o Fadayyen fought back and Israeli army had
    to retreat.
Palestine Liberation Organization
 PLO Expelled:
  o As it grew, the PLO identified more closely
    with militant Arab states and organized its
    base in Jordan.
  o Concerned about the growing influence of
    foreign nationals, Jordanian King Hussein
    ordered PLO to stop attacking Israel.
  o Arafat defied Hussein’s order.
 In 1970 Hussain ordered Marital Law.
 Arafat and Hussain signed a ceasefire.
  Arafat and the PLO fled to southern
Palestine Liberation Organization
 Black September and Munich:
  o Black September was a splinter group of the PLO
  o Formed after King Hussein’s September attack
 Black September began planning a strike
  against Israel
  o With the help of German terrorists, Black September
    attacked Olympic Village in September 1972.
  o Took most of the Israeli Olympic team hostage
  o Killed those who attempted escape
  o Botched rescue attempt by Germans ended when
    terrorists machine-gunned down their hostages
  o In October, Arab terrorists hijacked a Lufthansa jet
    and demanded release of the Munich terrorist –
    Germans capitulated.
 Palestine Liberation Organization
 1982 Invasion of Lebanon:
  o PLO becoming potent force in southern Lebanon
  o Iran joined fighting after Islamic revolution of 1979
  o Established new terrorist organization called Islamic
  o Endemic civil war raged in Lebanon
 Operation Peace for Galilee
  o IDF forces invaded Lebanon
  o PLO retreat from Lebanon
  o Fighting in Lebanon continued with a new group:
    Hezbollah – an umbrella-style organization
  o Israel's fight with PLO shifted from Lebanon to
    Palestinians areas in Israel
Factionalism in Palestinian Terrorism
  Yom Kippur/ Ramadan War caused shift
   in Middle East terrorism
  1967 – 1973 PLO characterized by
   internal splintering
  Several groups split from Arafat
    o Democratic Front for Liberation of Palestine
    o Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
    o Popular Front for the Liberation of
      Palestine, General Command
    o Sabri al Banna - Abu Nidal Organization
        Abu Nidal Organization
 Abu Nidal:
  o Created rebel organization called Black June
  o Jointed Fatah for the purpose of regaining a
    Palestinian homeland
  o Became disillusioned with Fatah and Arafat
  o With Iraqi assistance built an infrastructure to
    support his terrorist organization
  o Moved his operations to Damascus in 1983
  o In 1987 Moumar Gadhafi brought Abu Nidal
    to Libya
    ▪   From there Abu Nidal organization operated as private
                   Abu Nidal
 Abu Nidal:
  o Operated on the international level
    ▪ Particularly ruthless – terrorists became noted for
      the brutality of their attacks
  o Changed the face of Middle Eastern
    ▪   Increased activities in Europe
    ▪   Created a large terrorist group
    ▪   Immersed himself in the Lebanese Civil War
    ▪   Terrorism become the meaning for existence
  o Began working as a mercenary for foreign
       Palestinian Islamic Jihad
 Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ)
  o   Secular group arising after Yom Kippur War
  o   Small group that emerged in Egypt
  o   Influenced by militant Salafism
  o   Disillusioned with the Muslim Brotherhood
 PIJ founders:
  o Fathi Shekaki
  o Abdul Aziz
  o Bashir Musa
         Palestinian Islamic Jihad
 Fathi Shekaki
  o Longed to take direct – military – action against
  o Supported Iranian revolution
  o Left Egypt in 1981 with Aziz and Musa to settle in
    the Gaza Strip
  o Advocate of umbrella-style organization and the
    suicide bomber (Hezbollah innovations)
  o Discovered that small groups are virtually invisible
    for enemies, and for that reason let his group split.
     ▪   The U.S.A. Department of State sees the structure of PIJ
         as a pillar of strength.
        Palestinian Islamic Jihad
 PIJ terrorists gained power through group’s
  hidden structure
  o No infrastructure or visible means of support
    ▪ Invisibility partially due to growing number of groups
      claiming the name Islamic Jihad
  o Impossible to fight a non-organization
  o Not concerned with claiming credit for operations
▪ 1987 First Intifada – PIJ joining street fights
▪ 1993 Oslo Accord promises peace in Middle
  East - Fathi Shekaki joins a new Rejectionist
       Palestinian Islamic Jihad
 Shekaki was assassinated in Malta in 1995.
 Shekaki’s succesor, Ramadan Abdullah Sallah,
  maintained Shekaki philosophy.
 In 2001 PIJ launched a suicide bombing
  o Sought deeper ties to Hezbollah and Hamas
 Department of Justice (DOJ) believes PIJ has an
  organized network of financial supporters
  including some within the U.S.
  o U.S. government claims to have uncovered a PIJ
    financial and administrative network at a Florida
            Hamas and the Rise
         of Religious Organizations
 Palestinian Muslim Brothers would become the
  nucleus of Hamas
  o Hamas formed in 1987
  o Tied to Sheik Ahmed Yassin
  o Wanted to steer the resistance movement along a
    religious course
  o Hamas Charter published in 1988 – declares
    Palestine as a God-given land from the Jordan river
    to Mediterranean Sea
  o Hamas reflects non-violence ideas against fellow
  o Hamas opposes PLO
  o Hamas maintains political wing to oversee internal
    and foreign affairs
          Hamas and the Rise
       of Religious Organizations
 Struggles for Leadership:
  o Yassin was jailed from 1989 to 1997
  o Musa Abu Marzuq took over Hamas
    ▪ Strategy more violent than Yassin’s
    ▪ Launched savage suicide bombings in Israel
    ▪ Created ‘outside’ leadership basing Hamas
      outside of Palestine territory
  o In 1997 Yassin was released from prison
    and while under house arrest he gradually
    reasserted control over Hamas.
             Hamas and the Rise
          of Religious Organizations
 In 2003 Palestinian Prime Minister Mahmud
  Abbas brokered a limited ceasefire, asking
  Hamas, the PIJ and related groups to end their
 Arafat and PIJ dominate Palestinian politics
 In 2006 Fatah lost its position and Hamas won
  the election.
  o The U.S.A and UE did not recognize Hamas’s
  o 2007 - Hamas had driven Fatah from Gaza and
    Abbas dissolved the government and formed a new
    one without Hamas.
  o 2008 - Operation Cast Lead: Israel assaults Gaza.
                   The Future
 In March 2004 Israeli helicopters fired three
  missiles at Yassin.
  o Hamas announced his replacement with Abdel
    Aziz Rantisi.
     ▪   Israeli assassinated Rantsi in the same manner as
 A new leader was appointed but his identity is
  kept in secret.
  o There is a suspicion the new leader (Khalid
    Mashal) acts outside of Palestine from
  o It is suspected that he may develop an
    international orientation and present a threat to
    the U.S.
                       The Future
Reuvan Paz                        Matthew Levitt

Hamas is:                         Hamas is:

 Shifting targets and focus       Engaged in anti-America
 Strong Sunni organization       rhetoric
 Palestinian extension of the     Refused to join al-Qaeda and
Muslim Brotherhood
 Influenced by militant Salafi   the international Jihad
Puritanism                        because its focus is on Israel
 Supported by Saudi               International
sympathizers                       Disincentives for attacking
 Closer to the revolutionary
Shi’ites in general               the West
 Falling into Hezbollah orbit     Militant theology behind
                                  Hamas may encourage
                                  individual terrorists to take
                                  action against the West
         al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades

 Al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades (Brigades) formed to
  put Fatah at the center of the new Intifada.
  o Began as secular group
  o Increasing use of Jihadist rhetoric
  o First secular Palestinian group to use suicide tactics
     ▪   Suicide bombing became the most important tactic of all the
         Palestinian terrorist groups
 Brigades recognize Israel’s right to exist.
  o Intend to stop Israeli incursions and attacks in
    Palestinian areas
  o Punish Israel for each attack
        al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades
 al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades’ effective tactics:
  o   Drive-by shootings
  o   Snipers
  o   Ambushes
  o   Kidnap-murders
  o   suicide bombings
 Brigade suicide bombers were frightening for
  two reasons:
  o They were secular
  o Sought out crowded civilian targets
       Purpose is to kill and maim as many victims as possible in
        the most public way possible
         al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades
 Leadership in the Martyrs Brigades
  o Al Aqsa has little centralized structure
     ▪   Its strength comes from the fact that small cells are able to
         operate without a strong leader
     ▪   Administration is pushed to the lowest operational level
     ▪   Cells function almost autonomously
     ▪   Effective because they operate in a network
     ▪   Effective without centralized leadership
  o Al Aqsa is suspected of being associated with Fatah
  o Marwan Barghouti is the commander
  o Arafat pays the expenses and set the agenda (Israelis
     ▪   There is no evidence that he has control over the organization
 Violent Jewish Fundamentalism
 Jewish Fundamentalism:
  o Involved in terrorist violence
  o Militant Judaism is based on the biblical
    notion that God has promised to restore the
    state the Israel
 Rabbi Meir Kahane
  o In 1968 created the Jewish Defense
  o Involved in several terrorist incidents in the
  o Formed the militant group – Kach
  o Assassinated in 1990 in the United States
 Violent Jewish Fundamentalism
 Kahane Chai:
  o   Combined politics and biblical literalism to demand all
      Arabs be expelled from Israel’ occupied territories
  o   Involved in threatening Palestinians
  o   Threatened to attack Arabs and Israeli officials seeking
  o   Committed to stop any peace proposal recognizing
      territorial rights of Palestinians
 Gush Emunim
  o   fundamentalist Israeli settlement in Palestinian territory,
      gets political support from Israel
  o   Same set of beliefs as violent fundamentalists
  o   Rhetoric appears normative compared with violent
      rhetoric of other groups
 Violent Jewish Fundamentalism
 Problems with Jewish militant extremism:
  o Extremists claim the exclusive right to determine
    the truth.
  o They advocate an ideal order
     ▪   Gush Emunim and Kach claim the Messiah can
         come only when the existing order is purified.
  o National identify of Israel and its political legitimacy
    can only be determined through religion.
  o All current events are defined within a narrow set of
    beliefs that define a limited worldview and identify
    only a few people as being chosen by God.
Controversial Counterterrorist Policies
  Many Israeli police and military units
   have established excellent reputations in
   counterterrorist operations.
  Tactical operations are second to none.
   o Mossad – Israeli intelligence service
   o Shin Beth – Domestic Israeli security
   o IDF – Israeli Defense Force
   o Israeli police – able to handle bombs,
     kidnappings, snipers
Controversial Counterterrorist Policies
 International controversy
  o Bulldozing
    ▪ Purpose is to destroy the family homes of suicide
    ▪ Suspected leaders in militant groups and others
      were targeted
    ▪ Farms and other areas were bulldozed

  o The Wall
    ▪ Condemned by the international community, a
      concrete and barbed-wire barrier cut through
      Palestinian areas.
    ▪ Construction reduced suicide attacks
    ▪ Construction separated Palestinians from their
      jobs, families and services
Controversial Counterterrorist Policies
 o Invading Lebanon
   ▪ First invasion, 1982, to rid south of the PLO, ended
     with 18 year occupation and the creation of
   ▪ 1993 offensive in Lebanon to disrupt Hezbollah
   ▪ Operation Grapes of Wrath: destruction of bridges,
     power plants, and other infrastructure
   ▪ Attempt to create a wedge between Lebanon and
   ▪ July 2006 another invasion
   ▪ Israeli Air Naval and IDF attacked Lebanon with an
     attempt to destroy Hezbollah; they defended its
     action saying the Lebanon government was unable
     to disarm and confront Hezbollah on its own.
Controversial Counterterrorist Policies
  Selective Assassination
   o Paz
      ▪ might internationalize the conflict
   o Bayman
      ▪ is publicly transparent
   o Krauthammer
      ▪ Israelis feel that harsh policies must be
        implemented to deter terrorism.
      ▪ U.S. repeatedly has taken the stance that Israel
        cannot be condemned for harsh measures until
        the international community also condemns
        Palestinian terrorism.