Slavery and The War Between the States

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					Slavery and The War
 Between the States
                You Need to Know
   Antebellum                        Fugitive Slave Act
   Northwest Ordinance               Uncle Tom's Cabin
   3/5th Compromise                  Kansas-Nebraska Act
   20 year moratorium on slave       Demise of the Whig Party
    trade                             Emergence of the Republican Party
   Missouri Compromise (1820)        Dred Scott decision and Lecompton
   Abolitionism                      Lincoln-Douglas debates, 1858
   William Lloyd Garrison/The        John Brown's raid
    Liberator                         The election of 1860
   Fredrick Douglas/ North Star      Abraham Lincoln
   Underground Railroad              The secession crisis
   Wilmot Proviso                    During and After the Civil War
   The 1850's: Decade of Crisis      Emancipation Proclamation
   Compromise of 1850                Black Soldiers- 54th Massachusetts
              Civil War DBQ:
   To what extent was the secession of the
    Southern states
   the result of the breakdown in the legacy of
   beginning with the constitutional
                 DBQ Outline
Introduction- History of Slavery in the United States has
  been a history of compromise
The conflict between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery
  groups in America resulted in the decision of the
  Southern states to secede.
 I- Constitution and Compromises Before 1950
Missouri Compromise 1820
                Missouri Compromise:
   1818 settlers in Missouri territory requested admission to the Union
   The question rose, should it be a slave state or a free state?
   Henry Clay- leader in Congress from Kentucky –
   Conflict emerged between Southern and Northern groups.
   He created a compromise- to allow equal number of slave and free states
   Maine enters as a free state and Missouri enters as a slave state.
   Provided for the entrance of new states in the Louisiana Purchase, Slavery is
    not allowed above 36º 30’
   Extremist movement in the North to end Slavery
    (Christian based)
   Saw slavery as a moral issue clearly wrong/evil
   Religious foundations
   Massachusetts- key- location
   Agitated for end of slavery
   Wanted to stop the spread of slavery in the Expansion
    of the country
           Abolitionist Movement:
   The movement to end slavery and free African Americans
   100 plus societies in the North
   Some suggested that Former slaves be resettled in Africa
   Some said former slaves remain in US as free citizens

   William Lloyd Garrison was one Abolitionist, published a
    newspaper The Liberator
   His paper advocated and called for immediate emancipation

   Fredrick Douglas was a former slave, well educated and
    advocated the end of Slavery at any means possible.
   Douglas             Garrison
          Underground Railroad:
   Secret group of abolitionists who helped
    runaway slaves travel to Canada
   Harriet Tubman- former slave helped people
    escape North
                 Wilmot Proviso
   Amendment- to the settlement of Mexican American
   Said no slavery allowed in land obtained from Mexico-
   California, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico…
   (It did not pass the Senate)
   Crittenden Compromise (is similar)
        Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852
   Abolitionist propaganda
   Harriet Beecher Stowe
   Novel designed to create anger among
   Novel inflamed tensions and anger over Slavery
    by both North and South

   California
   Popular Sovereignty- in Former Mexican land
   Fugitive Slave Law
   Wilmot Proviso fails
             Compromise of 1850:

   Clay and Webster
   States entering the Union, California
   Compromise between Northern and Southern powers in
   California enters the Union as a free state
   South gets a new Fugitive Slave Law said escaped slaves
    could be recaptured in the North and that people helping
    slaves could be prosecuted- $1000 fine and 6 months in jail.
   Slavery and Popular Sovereignty Territories that are ready
    for statehood could decide if they wanted slavery
             Fugitive Slave Law:
   Slaves that escape, were to be arrested and
    returned to their owners
   Anyone convicted of helping a fugitive slave was
    liable for a fine of $1000. and imprisonment for
    up to six months
             Kansas-Nebraska Act
   Kansas Nebraska Act 1854: Very important
   Sponsored by Senator Steven Douglas of Illinois
   Wanted to pass a railroad bill- had to appease Southern interests
   Repealed the Missouri Compromise- now slavery would be
    allowed in Louisiana Purchase- if requirements were met
   Said that territories of Kansas and Nebraska could decide
    through a vote of the people if they wanted slavery or not
    (Popular Sovereignty)
           Kansas-Nebraska Act

   Consequences:
   Destroys and divides the Whig party
   Divides Northern Democrats- those that don’t want the
    expansion of slavery leave party create an new and different
    Republican Party
   Causes fighting in Kansas- Pro-slavery factions (from
    Missouri) vs Anti-Slavery Factions from North East (John
    Brown begins there)
   Two territorial governments are formed- one slave one free,
    this is a mini civil war known as “Bleeding Kansas”
Emergence of Republican Party 1854

   As people began to be more intolerant and
    sensitive to slavery a new political party
   Opposed Kansas-Nebraska Act and spread of
    slavery in the territories
   The party becomes an “umbrella group”
    United a number of anti-slavery groups-
    abolitionists, Free Soiliers, Whigs, Democrats,
    Know Nothings
   How did the South
    receive the Dredd Scott
                                 Why does John Brown
                                  scare the hell out of the
Why did the Dredd Scott Case cause
  so much anger in the North?
              Dred Scott Case 1857
   Dred Scott was a slave who lived in Missouri
   His owner took him to Illinois and Wisconsin and back to
   Scott brought a law suit for his freedom, it went to the
    Supreme Court
   He argued that he had lived in a free state and therefore he
    should be free.
   The (Taney) court ruled against Scott “Scott lacked legal
    standing to sue in Federal Court because he was not, nor
    ever could be a citizen.”
   “Being in free territory did not make a slave free.”
   The court cited the 5th amendment that protects property,
    including slaves.
                                   Dredd Scott

   Constitutional Justifications:
        US Constitution Article 4 section 2-
         “No person held to service or labor in
         one state… escaping into another,
         shall, in consequence of any law or
         regulation therein, be discharged from
         such service or labor…”
        US Constitution, Article 4, section           Key point: The Dred Scott Case
         3- “the Congress shall have power to
         dispose of and make all needful rules          strengthened and expanded Slave
         and regulations respecting the Territory       owners’ rights-
         or other property belonging to the            Caused the rejection of all the
         United States…” (Dissenting                    slavery related compromises-
         argument)                                      now slavery could take place in
                                                        free states.
Why does John Brown scare the hell
     out of the Southerners?
            John Brown’s Raid 1859
   John Brown was a radical                Caused reaction both in the North
    abolitionist                             and South, some Northerners
                                             celebrated Brown’s actions
   He wanted slaves to rise up and
    take their freedom                      The South became outraged and
                                             convinced that they could not live
                                             safely with the North- they became
   He and 21 other, both white and          convinced that the North wanted
    black attacked the Federal Arsenal       slave rebellion.
    at Harpers Ferry and was defeated,
    tried and executed
   Lincoln’s Election (page 163-64)
   Lincoln, a Congressman from Illinois, first ran for
    Senate against Douglas- lost-
   Lincoln believed Slavery was Immoral
   Slavery in the territories should be disallowed
   Believed slavery should be abolished with a
    constitutional amendment
     Lincoln Douglas Debates 1856
   He gained notoriety from the Senatorial election in Illinois (Lincoln Douglas debates)
   In those debates he put forth the idea that The concept of Equality voiced in the
    Declaration of Independence was meant for all human beings and that the
    government of the US should support this interpretation…

   Philosophy
    the established order but working for change in a clear, law abiding

   Mostly an anti-expansion of slavery moderate Republican
                 Lincoln View
   All humans deserve freedom. “All me are born
    equally free. The natural right to human liberty
    applied to all people. Where no law established
    slavery, freedom prevailed.”
   (Territories)
   1860 Republicans nominated Lincoln for

   He tried to reassure the South by stating, A
    Republican administration would not “Interfere
    with their slaves, or with them about their
                     Election of 1860
   Democrats split into Two              Republican Umbrella Group:
       North- Stephen Douglas- pro-      Northern Anti-Slavery
        compromise                         Democrats
       South- Breckenridge- the
        Southern candidate                Anti-Immigration “Know
                                          Former Whigs
                                          Abolitionists extremists
What factors persuaded the North to
        elect Republicans?
   Victories by Slave Holding
   Dread Scott Decision
   Fighting in Kansas over
   Kansas-Nebraska Act
   Compromise of 1850
   Enforcement of Fugitive
    Slave Act
Why does the Election results
 of 1860 cause the Southern
      states to secede?
                Election of 1860
   The 37th Congress was        The 38th Congress in
    elected in 1860               1862
   Republicans                  Republicans
   House = 105; Senate =         House = 102; Senate =
    31                            36
   Democrats                    Democrats
    House = 43; Senate = 10      House = 75; Senate = 9
                      Secession Crisis
   Southern states fearing the end of slavery and the limitations of
    their rights as states, decide to leave the Union and created their
    own government
   First to go:
        South Carolina Dec. 1860
        Mississippi
        Florida
        Alabama
        Georgia
        Louisiana
        Texas…
           Buchanan,                    15th      President
   Buchanan was weak, an apologist for the South
   “The south was in no real danger because Lincoln would be restrained by
    Congress. The president would have to follow the dictates of the federal
    courts, which sustained slavery in the territories and the fugitive slave law.”

   If the South did secede, the president lacked the constitutional power to stop

   Perhaps a constitutional convention to pass an amendment protecting slavery
    in any state that now had or should later want it would calm things… would
              Northern Democrats
   said:
   “If a state secedes, it is revolution and the seceders are traitors.
    Those who are charged with the executive branch of government
    are recreant to their oaths if they fail to use all lawful means to
    put down such rebellion”
   Some senators looked back to Andrew Jackson, regarding the
    South Carolina nullification issue, “By the eternal, I will hang
   “Oh for one hour of Jackson!”
Lincoln Before Inauguration wrote privately after the
           election explaining he would:

    Not interfere with slavery where it existed
    Would favor the end of opposition to the fugitive slave law
    Had no intention of using the power over interstate commerce to touch
    He desperately wanted to avert a conflict;

    He said, “Each and all of the states will be left in as complete control of
     their own affairs respectively and at as perfect liberty to choose, employ,
     their own means of preserving and protecting property, and preserving
     peace and order…”
    He and others both North and South Democrats wanted one more

    Moderate Republicans helped negotiate with moderate Southern and
     Northern Democrats
           Crittenden Compromise:
   Slavery within the states to be protected from national
    government interference
   The revival of the Missouri Compromise line 3630’- extended
    to the Pacific
   No interference with interstate slave trade
   Slaveholders who lost runaways to Northern states to be
   Attempt was made to reassure the south and protect slavery
   Republicans don’t allow it. Compromise was dead.
        Last Word From Lincoln

   However, Lincoln would not compromise on the issues of
    Expansion of Slavery and he clearly made a concerted
    commitment to the concept of equality and associate this
    with African Americans!:
   “ Let there be no compromise on the question of extending
   “There is no possible compromise upon it… hold firm as
    with a chain of steel.”
   “ I will be inflexible on the territorial question, I am for
    fighting again- that is all.”
   Southerners were correct that he intended to reverse slavery
    in the territories.
           End of Compromise
   “All hope of relief in the union, through the
    agency of committees, Congressional legislation
    or constitutional amendments is extinguished.”

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