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									2. The Strategic Human
Resource Environment
組員:高忻貝 蔡志明 李宜穎
    The strategic context of
  human resource environment
• This chapter is devote to the strategic
  human resource environment.

• The first section discusses the strategic
  context of human resource
  management in the terms of the
  organization’s purpose, mission, and
  the top management team.
• The next section focus on corporate,
  business, and functional strategies and
  their relationship to human resource

• Human resource can be an important
  source of competitive advantage for any
  organization, but it is critical that the
  organization understand how to use those
  resource to gain competitive advantage.
    Organizational                  SWOT analysis                       Corporate and
       misson;                                                        bussiness strategies
top management team
     Top management
                                                                      Formulation of other
       oversight and                Human resource
                                                                      functional strategies
     strategy leadship            strategy formulation

     Staffing strategy           Development strategy              Compensation strategy

     Organization design                                         Organization culture

                           Unionization and collective barganing
                                                                        implementation of other
                                Human resource strategy                   functional strategies

    Individual processes             Organizational                       interpersonal/
                                        sytems                          group processes
                                     and processes

                                Organizationanl effectiveness;
                                 attainment of strategic goals
  The Influence of Organizational
       Purpose and Mission
• Purpose:
 An organization’s purpose is its basic reason for

• Mission:
 An organization’s mission is a statement of how it
 intends to fulfill its purpose

• Purpose statement:
 A purpose statement specifies how the organization
 intends to management itself so it can purpose Pursue
 the fulfillment of its purpose most effectively.
Top Management Team:

• The top management team of an organization
  refers to the group of senior executives
  responsible for the overall strategic operation of
  the firm.
• The top management team sets the tone for the
  organization and play a major role in shaping its
• Some top management teams have a clear
  vision of where they want the firm to go and how
  they think it should get there.
    Top Management Team:
• While Top Managers sometimes use speeches
  and proclamations to articulate the organization’
  vision and purpose, their actual behavior more
  commonly communicates their true personal
  values and beliefs, and thus of the organization.
• Managerial discretion:
 Top management teams to influence the
 organization is constrained by the nature of the
 industry, the nature of the organization, and the
 nature of the individuals themselves.
       The Lighter Side of HR

• The top management team plays a major in
  determining its strategies and its culture.

• When top management clearly respect the firm’s
  employees and treat them with dignity,
   those employees feel valued and are likely to
  became more motivated and committed to the
      SWOT analysis and human
       resource management
• The first step in
  formulating strategy is
  what some managers         Corporate strategy

  call a SWOT analysis.
                             Business strategy

                            Functional strategies
   Corporate strategy and human
      resource management
• Grand strategy
  Growth strategy
  Stability strategy
• Diversification strategy
   Business strategy and human
      resource management
• The adaptation model
  Defender strategy
  Prospector strategy
  Analyzer strategy
• Competitive strategies
  Differentiation strategy
  Cost leadership strategy
  Focus strategy
 Functional strategies and human
     resource management
• Functional strategies address how the
  organization will manage its basic
  functional activities, such as marketing,
  finance, operations, research and
  development, and human resources.
          Human resource strategy

                     Human resource
                    strategy formulation

Staffing strategy   Development strategy
‧HR planning        ‧ Performance          Compensation strategy
                       management          ‧ Wage/salary structure
‧Recruiting         ‧ Training             ‧ Employee benefits
‧ Selection         ‧ Development          ‧ Incentives
‧ Placement         ‧ Career planning
    The impact of organization design
• Organization design refers to the framework of
  jobs, positions, group of positions, and reporting
  relationships among positions that are used to
  construct an organization.
•   Functional design (U-form organization)
•   Conglomerate (H-form organization)
•   Divisional (M-form organization)
•   Flat organization/Horizontal corporation
The impact of corporate culture
• The culture of the organization also affects
  how it formulates and implements its
  human resource strategy.
• An organization’s culture refers to the set
  of values that helps, and what it considers
   The impact of unionization and
        collective bargaining
• Other important aspects of the workforce
  that affect the human resource
  management function are unionization and
  collective bargaining.
• Labor relations is the process of dealing
  with employees who are represented by
  an employee association, usually called a
• Probably the most important factor that affects
  the human resource management function is the
  labor force or workforce.

• Human resource planning is the process of
  forecasting the supply and demand for human
  resources within an organization and developing
  action plans for aligning the two.
The Human Resource Planning
    Forecasting the supply of human resources

   Forecasting the demand for human resources

Comparing forecasted supply and forecasted demand

            Taking appropriate actions
     Forecasting the Supply of
        Human Resources
• Human resource information system is an
  integrated and increasingly an automated
  system for maintaining a database regarding the
  employees in an organization.
• Labor force trends and issues
  1.The baby-boom generation age
  2.Gender difference:glass ceiling
  3.Changing ethnicity
• Executive succession involves systematically
  planning for future promotions into top
  management positions.
    Forecasting the Demand for
        Human Resources
• Manager need to ascertain the numbers and
  types of people the organization will actually
  need to employ in the future.
• The organization’s own strategic plans regarding
  anticipated growth, stability, or decline.
• 1. employees for jobs in high demand will be more the
  These general demand trends influence
     difficult to hire human resources for to hire.
  availability ofand will be more expensive two
  2. Students and future employees who track these
    demand trends often make decisions about what
    majors to pursue in college based on their anticipated
       Human Resource Strategy
                 Human resource strategy

                           Organizational        interpersonal
Individual processes      systems/processes        processes
Psychological contracts   Single-use plans
Personality traits                              Group dynamics
Attitudes                                       Leadership
Motivation                                      Communication
                          Standing plans
Stress                    -policies
                          -standard operating
• Implementing a Growth Strategy
 Support to apprentice or training programs.
• Implementing a Stability Strategy
 Implement programs such as training to upgrade the
 skills of current employees.
• Implementing a Reduction Strategy
 Enhance employees retirement benefits so that
 people might consider retiring at an earlier age than
 they would have done otherwise.
 Individual and interpersonal Processes
      and Strategy Implementation
• Individual processes
                              A psychological contract
 1.Psychological contracts              is the overall set of
 2.Personality traits        expectations held by an individual with
                             respect to what he or she will contribute
 3.Attitudes                          to the organization and
 4.Motivation                    what the organization, in turn,
                                  will provide to the individual.
• interpersonal processes
 Evaluating the human resource
    function in organizations
 Human Resource Management Practices That
   May Lead to Improved Firm Performance

            1.Self-directed work teams
            2.Total quality management (TQM)
            3.Contingent pay
            4.Formal performance appraisals
            5.Continuous training

• High performance work systems rely on a set
  of “best practices” to use human resources to
  gain a meaningful competitive advantage.

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