2. The Strategic Human
組員：高忻貝 蔡志明 李宜穎
The strategic context of
human resource environment
• This chapter is devote to the strategic
human resource environment.
• The first section discusses the strategic
context of human resource
management in the terms of the
organization’s purpose, mission, and
the top management team.
• The next section focus on corporate,
business, and functional strategies and
their relationship to human resource
• Human resource can be an important
source of competitive advantage for any
organization, but it is critical that the
organization understand how to use those
resource to gain competitive advantage.
Organizational SWOT analysis Corporate and
misson； bussiness strategies
top management team
Formulation of other
oversight and Human resource
strategy leadship strategy formulation
Staffing strategy Development strategy Compensation strategy
Organization design Organization culture
Unionization and collective barganing
implementation of other
Human resource strategy functional strategies
Individual processes Organizational interpersonal/
sytems group processes
attainment of strategic goals
The Influence of Organizational
Purpose and Mission
An organization’s purpose is its basic reason for
An organization’s mission is a statement of how it
intends to fulfill its purpose
• Purpose statement：
A purpose statement specifies how the organization
intends to management itself so it can purpose Pursue
the fulfillment of its purpose most effectively.
Top Management Team：
• The top management team of an organization
refers to the group of senior executives
responsible for the overall strategic operation of
• The top management team sets the tone for the
organization and play a major role in shaping its
• Some top management teams have a clear
vision of where they want the firm to go and how
they think it should get there.
Top Management Team：
• While Top Managers sometimes use speeches
and proclamations to articulate the organization’
vision and purpose, their actual behavior more
commonly communicates their true personal
values and beliefs, and thus of the organization.
• Managerial discretion：
Top management teams to influence the
organization is constrained by the nature of the
industry, the nature of the organization, and the
nature of the individuals themselves.
The Lighter Side of HR
• The top management team plays a major in
determining its strategies and its culture.
• When top management clearly respect the firm’s
employees and treat them with dignity,
those employees feel valued and are likely to
became more motivated and committed to the
SWOT analysis and human
• The first step in
formulating strategy is
what some managers Corporate strategy
call a SWOT analysis.
Corporate strategy and human
• Grand strategy
• Diversification strategy
Business strategy and human
• The adaptation model
• Competitive strategies
Cost leadership strategy
Functional strategies and human
• Functional strategies address how the
organization will manage its basic
functional activities, such as marketing,
finance, operations, research and
development, and human resources.
Human resource strategy
Staffing strategy Development strategy
‧HR planning ‧ Performance Compensation strategy
management ‧ Wage/salary structure
‧Recruiting ‧ Training ‧ Employee benefits
‧ Selection ‧ Development ‧ Incentives
‧ Placement ‧ Career planning
The impact of organization design
• Organization design refers to the framework of
jobs, positions, group of positions, and reporting
relationships among positions that are used to
construct an organization.
• Functional design (U-form organization)
• Conglomerate (H-form organization)
• Divisional (M-form organization)
• Flat organization/Horizontal corporation
The impact of corporate culture
• The culture of the organization also affects
how it formulates and implements its
human resource strategy.
• An organization’s culture refers to the set
of values that helps, and what it considers
The impact of unionization and
• Other important aspects of the workforce
that affect the human resource
management function are unionization and
• Labor relations is the process of dealing
with employees who are represented by
an employee association, usually called a
HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING
AND THE WORKFORCE
• Probably the most important factor that affects
the human resource management function is the
labor force or workforce.
• Human resource planning is the process of
forecasting the supply and demand for human
resources within an organization and developing
action plans for aligning the two.
The Human Resource Planning
Forecasting the supply of human resources
Forecasting the demand for human resources
Comparing forecasted supply and forecasted demand
Taking appropriate actions
Forecasting the Supply of
• Human resource information system is an
integrated and increasingly an automated
system for maintaining a database regarding the
employees in an organization.
• Labor force trends and issues
1.The baby-boom generation age
2.Gender difference：glass ceiling
• Executive succession involves systematically
planning for future promotions into top
Forecasting the Demand for
• Manager need to ascertain the numbers and
types of people the organization will actually
need to employ in the future.
• The organization’s own strategic plans regarding
anticipated growth, stability, or decline.
• 1. employees for jobs in high demand will be more the
These general demand trends influence
difficult to hire human resources for to hire.
availability ofand will be more expensive two
2. Students and future employees who track these
demand trends often make decisions about what
majors to pursue in college based on their anticipated
Human Resource Strategy
Human resource strategy
Individual processes systems/processes processes
Psychological contracts Single-use plans
Personality traits Group dynamics
HUMAN RESOURCE STRATEGY
• Implementing a Growth Strategy
Support to apprentice or training programs.
• Implementing a Stability Strategy
Implement programs such as training to upgrade the
skills of current employees.
• Implementing a Reduction Strategy
Enhance employees retirement benefits so that
people might consider retiring at an earlier age than
they would have done otherwise.
Individual and interpersonal Processes
and Strategy Implementation
• Individual processes
A psychological contract
1.Psychological contracts is the overall set of
2.Personality traits expectations held by an individual with
respect to what he or she will contribute
3.Attitudes to the organization and
4.Motivation what the organization, in turn,
will provide to the individual.
• interpersonal processes
Evaluating the human resource
function in organizations
Human Resource Management Practices That
May Lead to Improved Firm Performance
1.Self-directed work teams
2.Total quality management (TQM)
4.Formal performance appraisals
• High performance work systems rely on a set
of “best practices” to use human resources to
gain a meaningful competitive advantage.