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2. The Strategic Human Resource Environment 組員：高忻貝 蔡志明 李宜穎 The strategic context of human resource environment • This chapter is devote to the strategic human resource environment. • The first section discusses the strategic context of human resource management in the terms of the organization’s purpose, mission, and the top management team. • The next section focus on corporate, business, and functional strategies and their relationship to human resource management. • Human resource can be an important source of competitive advantage for any organization, but it is critical that the organization understand how to use those resource to gain competitive advantage. Organizational SWOT analysis Corporate and misson； bussiness strategies top management team Top management Formulation of other oversight and Human resource functional strategies strategy leadship strategy formulation Staffing strategy Development strategy Compensation strategy Organization design Organization culture Unionization and collective barganing implementation of other Human resource strategy functional strategies implementation Individual processes Organizational interpersonal/ sytems group processes and processes Organizationanl effectiveness； attainment of strategic goals The Influence of Organizational Purpose and Mission • Purpose： An organization’s purpose is its basic reason for existence • Mission： An organization’s mission is a statement of how it intends to fulfill its purpose • Purpose statement： A purpose statement specifies how the organization intends to management itself so it can purpose Pursue the fulfillment of its purpose most effectively. Top Management Team： • The top management team of an organization refers to the group of senior executives responsible for the overall strategic operation of the firm. • The top management team sets the tone for the organization and play a major role in shaping its culture. • Some top management teams have a clear vision of where they want the firm to go and how they think it should get there. Top Management Team： • While Top Managers sometimes use speeches and proclamations to articulate the organization’ vision and purpose, their actual behavior more commonly communicates their true personal values and beliefs, and thus of the organization. • Managerial discretion： Top management teams to influence the organization is constrained by the nature of the industry, the nature of the organization, and the nature of the individuals themselves. The Lighter Side of HR • The top management team plays a major in determining its strategies and its culture. • When top management clearly respect the firm’s employees and treat them with dignity, those employees feel valued and are likely to became more motivated and committed to the firm. SWOT analysis and human resource management • The first step in formulating strategy is what some managers Corporate strategy call a SWOT analysis. Business strategy Functional strategies Corporate strategy and human resource management • Grand strategy Growth strategy Retrenchment Stability strategy • Diversification strategy Business strategy and human resource management • The adaptation model Defender strategy Prospector strategy Analyzer strategy • Competitive strategies Differentiation strategy Cost leadership strategy Focus strategy Functional strategies and human resource management • Functional strategies address how the organization will manage its basic functional activities, such as marketing, finance, operations, research and development, and human resources. Human resource strategy formulation Human resource strategy formulation Staffing strategy Development strategy ‧HR planning ‧ Performance Compensation strategy management ‧ Wage/salary structure ‧Recruiting ‧ Training ‧ Employee benefits ‧ Selection ‧ Development ‧ Incentives ‧ Placement ‧ Career planning The impact of organization design • Organization design refers to the framework of jobs, positions, group of positions, and reporting relationships among positions that are used to construct an organization. • Functional design (U-form organization) • Conglomerate (H-form organization) • Divisional (M-form organization) • Flat organization/Horizontal corporation The impact of corporate culture • The culture of the organization also affects how it formulates and implements its human resource strategy. • An organization’s culture refers to the set of values that helps, and what it considers important. The impact of unionization and collective bargaining • Other important aspects of the workforce that affect the human resource management function are unionization and collective bargaining. • Labor relations is the process of dealing with employees who are represented by an employee association, usually called a union. HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING AND THE WORKFORCE • Probably the most important factor that affects the human resource management function is the labor force or workforce. • Human resource planning is the process of forecasting the supply and demand for human resources within an organization and developing action plans for aligning the two. The Human Resource Planning Process Forecasting the supply of human resources Forecasting the demand for human resources Comparing forecasted supply and forecasted demand Taking appropriate actions Forecasting the Supply of Human Resources • Human resource information system is an integrated and increasingly an automated system for maintaining a database regarding the employees in an organization. • Labor force trends and issues 1.The baby-boom generation age 2.Gender difference：glass ceiling 3.Changing ethnicity • Executive succession involves systematically planning for future promotions into top management positions. Forecasting the Demand for Human Resources • Manager need to ascertain the numbers and types of people the organization will actually need to employ in the future. • The organization’s own strategic plans regarding anticipated growth, stability, or decline. • 1. employees for jobs in high demand will be more the These general demand trends influence difficult to hire human resources for to hire. availability ofand will be more expensive two reasons. 2. Students and future employees who track these demand trends often make decisions about what majors to pursue in college based on their anticipated employability. Human Resource Strategy Implementation Human resource strategy implementation Organizational interpersonal Individual processes systems/processes processes Psychological contracts Single-use plans Personality traits Group dynamics -programs Attitudes Leadership -projects Motivation Communication Standing plans Stress -policies -standard operating procedures -rules HUMAN RESOURCE STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION • Implementing a Growth Strategy Support to apprentice or training programs. • Implementing a Stability Strategy Implement programs such as training to upgrade the skills of current employees. • Implementing a Reduction Strategy Enhance employees retirement benefits so that people might consider retiring at an earlier age than they would have done otherwise. Individual and interpersonal Processes and Strategy Implementation • Individual processes A psychological contract 1.Psychological contracts is the overall set of 2.Personality traits expectations held by an individual with respect to what he or she will contribute 3.Attitudes to the organization and 4.Motivation what the organization, in turn, will provide to the individual. 5.Stress • interpersonal processes 1.Leadership 2.Communication Evaluating the human resource function in organizations Human Resource Management Practices That May Lead to Improved Firm Performance 1.Self-directed work teams 2.Total quality management (TQM) 3.Contingent pay 4.Formal performance appraisals 5.Continuous training • High performance work systems rely on a set of “best practices” to use human resources to gain a meaningful competitive advantage.
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