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New Trends in Teacher Evaluation Charlotte Danielson Purposes of Teacher Evaluation has been… 1.Quality Assurance- only purpose recognized by legislators and policy makers. - The quality of individual teachers does matter. 2.Professional Development Previous evaluation systems have largely failed to achieve either goal. Danielson States… An effective system of teacher evaluation accomplishes two things: it ensures quality teaching it promotes professional learning. The quality of teaching is the single most important determinant of student learning. A Well Designed Evaluation System Differentiated System Multiyear Cycles Active Teacher Roles Differentiated Systems Different activities, procedures and timelines are used for different groups of teachers. New teachers typically receive more support, more supervision, and more intense evaluation. Typical pattern in a differentiated system: - An annual formal plan for new teachers. - Formal evaluation of permanent teachers every 2-4 years. - During non-formal evaluation years permanent teachers engage in self-directed professional growth activities (alone or with a colleague) which are usually quite different then new teachers. Criteria for evaluation are usually quite different with new vs. permanent contract teachers. Multi year Cycles Permanent contract teachers have a formal evaluation every 2-4 years. When not being formally evaluated, teachers engage in professional development activities of their own choosing. Active Teacher Roles Permanent contract teachers are considered professionally competent. They can use the evaluation activities to enhance their practice by: - working with colleagues - action research - furthering knowledge of curriculum areas use of portfolios, visiting classrooms, working with mentors, and professional conversations/reflections Goal is improved learning opportunities for all students. Questions for thought… Are they (Differentiated Systems, Multi-year Cycles, and Active Teacher Roles) present in the AVRSB? Are they understood and being employed? What has the most impact? What isn't working? In AVRSB… We recognize that students must be served – proper diligence. Teachers are evaluated yearly (required as stated in the Education Act). Nova Scotia uses the term “Performance Appraisal” rather than Teacher Evaluation. Performance Appraisals are cited in the Education Act under “Function and Duties” of Principals and Superintendents. Performance Appraisals- Summative Can be Summative or Formative Summative - Lets the teacher know how “they did” - employment decision - retain or release - completed prior to the end of probationary period Performance Appraisals - Formative Formative - informs instruction, “sheds light” and ensures the goals are being achieved - Permanent teacher - developmental and collaborative in nature - annual basis Enhancing Professional Practice: A Framework for Teaching In the book pictured here, used by the AVRSB, Charlotte Danielson outlines measures relating to quality teaching organized into four domains, each with several components. The Framework for Professional Practice The framework for teaching divides the complex work of teaching into four major domains: Planning and Preparation, Classroom Environment, Instruction, and Professional Responsibilities; each is further divided into five or six smaller components. The framework for teaching includes four levels of performance: Unsatisfactory, Basic, Proficient, and Distinguished. Unsatisfactory Basic Proficient Distinguished Domain 1 Teacher’s plans reflect Teacher’s plans reflect Teacher’s plans reflect Teacher’s plans, based on Planning and little understanding of the moderate understanding solid understanding of the extensive content Preparation content, the students, and of the content, the content, the students, and knowledge and available resources. students, and available available resources. understanding of students, Instructional outcomes are resources. Some Instructional outcomes are designed to engage either lacking or instructional outcomes are represent important students in significant inappropriate; assessment suitable to the students as learning suitable to most learning. All aspects of methodologies are a group, and the students. Most elements the teacher’s plans – inadequate. approaches to of the instructional design, instructional outcomes, assessment are partially including the learning activities, aligned to the goals. assessments, are aligned materials, resources, and to the goals. assessments – are in complete alignment and are adapted as needed for individual students. Domain 2 Classroom environment is Classroom environment Classroom environment Students themselves The Classroom characterized by chaos functions somewhat functions smoothly, with make a substantive Environment and conflict, with low effectively, with modest little or no loss of contribution to the smooth expectations for learning, expectations for student instructional time. functioning of the no clear standards of learning and conduct, and Expectations for student classroom, with highly student conduct, poor use classroom routines and learning are high, and positive personal of physical space, and use of space that partially interactions among interactions high negative interactions support student learning. individuals are respectful. expectations and student between individuals. Students and the teacher Standards for student pride in work, seamless rarely treat one another conduct are clear, and the routines, clear standards with disrespect. physical environment of conduct, and a physical supports learning. environment conducive to high-level learning. Domain 3 Instruction is Only some students are All students are engaged All students are highly Instruction characterized by poor engaged in learning in learning as a result of engaged in learning and communication, low-level because of only partially clear communication and make material questions, little student clear communication, successful use of contributions to the engagement or uneven use of discussion questioning and success of the class participation in discussion, strategies, and only some discussion techniques. through their participation little or no use of suitable instructional Activities and assignments in discussions, active assessment in learning, activities and materials. are of high quality, and involvement in learning and rigid adherence to an The teacher displays teacher and students activities, and use of instructional plan despite some use of assessment make productive use of assessment information in evidence that it should be in instruction and is assessment. The teacher their learning. The revised or modified. moderately flexible in demonstrates flexibility in teacher persists in the adjusting the instructional contributing to the search for approaches to plan and in response to success of the lesson and meet the needs of every students’ interests and of each student. student. their success in learning. Domain 4 The teacher demonstrates The teacher demonstrates The teacher demonstrates The teacher’s ethical Professional low ethical standards and moderate ethical high ethical standards and standards and sense of Responsibilities levels of professionalism, standards and levels of a genuine sense of professionalism are highly with poor record-keeping professionalism, with professionalism by developed, showing systems and skills in rudimentary record- engaging in accurate perceptive use of reflection, little or no keeping systems and reflection on instruction, reflection, effective communication with skills in reflection, modest maintaining accurate systems for record families or colleagues, communication with records, communicating keeping and and avoidance of school families or colleagues, frequently with families, communication with and district responsibilities and compliance with actively participating in families, leadership roles and participation in expectations regarding school and district events, in both school and district activities for professional participation in school and and engaging in activities projects, and extensive growth. district projects and for professional professional development activities for professional development. activities. Where growth. appropriate, students contribute to the systems for record keeping and family communication. Domain 4: Professional Responsibilities Component 4a: Reflecting on Teaching Element Unsatisfactory Basic Proficient Distinguished Accuracy Teacher does not know Teacher has a generally Teacher makes an Teacher makes a thoughtful and whether a lesson was accurate impression of a accurate assessment of a accurate assessment of a effective or achieved its lesson’s effectiveness and lesson’s effectiveness and lesson’s effectiveness and the instructional outcomes, or the extent to which the extent to which it extent to which it achieved its teacher profoundly instructional outcomes achieved its instructional instructional outcomes, citing misjudges the success of were met. outcomes and can cite many specific examples from a lesson. general references to the lesson and weighing the support the judgment. relative strengths of each. Use in future teaching Teacher has no Teacher makes general Teacher makes a few Drawing no an extensive suggestions for how a suggestions about how a specific suggestions of repertoire of skills, teacher lesson could be improved lesson could be improved what could be tried offers specific alternative another time the lesson is another time the lesson is another time the lesson is actions, complete with the taught. taught. taught. probable success of different courses of action. Domain 4: Professional Responsibilities Component 4b: Maintaining Accurate Records Element Unsatisfactory Basic Proficient Distinguished Student completion of Teacher’s system for Teacher’s system for Teacher’s system for Teacher’s system for assignments maintaining information on maintaining information on maintaining information on maintaining information on student completion of student completion of student completion of student completion of assignments is in assignments is assignments is fully assignments is fully effective. disarray. rudimentary and only effective. Students participate in partially effective. maintaining the records. Student progress in Teacher has no system Teacher’s system for Teacher’s system for Teacher’s system for learning for maintaining information maintaining information on maintaining information on maintaining information on on student progress in student progress in student progress in student progress in learning is learning, or the system is learning is rudimentary learning is fully effective. fully effective. Students in disarray. and only partially effective, contribute information and participate in interpreting the records. Noninstructional Teacher’s records for Teacher’s records for Teacher’s system for Teacher’s system for records noninstructional activities noninstructional activities maintaining information on maintaining information on are in disarray, resulting in are adequate, but they noninstructional activities noninstructional activities is errors and confusion. require frequent is fully effective. highly effective, and students monitoring to avoid errors. contribute to its maintenance. Domain 4: Professional Responsibilities Component 4c: Communicating with Families Element Unsatisfactory Basic Proficient Distinguished Information about the Teacher provides little or Teacher participates in the Teacher provides frequent Teacher provides frequent instructional program no information about the school’s activities for information to families, as information to families, as instructional program to family communication but appropriate, about the appropriate, about the families. offers little additional instructional program. instructional program. Students information. participate in preparing materials for their families. Information about Teacher provides minimal Teacher adheres to the Teacher communicates Teacher provides information to individual students information to families school’s required with families about families frequently on student about individual students, procedures for students’ progress on a progress, with students or the communication is communicating with regular basis, respecting contributing to the design of the inappropriate to the families. Responses to cultural norms, and is system. Response to family cultures of the families. family concerns are available as needed to concerns is handled with great Teacher does not minimal or may reflect respond to family professional and cultural respond, or responds occasional insensitivity to concerns. sensitivity. insensitively, to family cultural norms. concerns about students. Engagement of families Teacher makes no Teacher makes modest Teacher’s efforts to Teacher’s efforts to engage in the instructional attempt to engage families and partially successful engage families in the families in the instructional program in the instructional attempts to engage instructional program are program are frequent and program, or such efforts families in the instructional frequent and successful. successful. Students contribute are inappropriate. program. ideas for projects that could be enhanced by family participation. Domain 4: Professional Responsibilities Component 4d: Participating in a Professional Community Element Unsatisfactory Basic Proficient Distinguished Relationships with Teacher’s relationships Teacher maintains cordial Relationships with Relationships with colleagues colleagues with colleagues are relationships with colleagues are are characterized by mutual negative or self-serving. colleagues to fulfill duties characterized by mutual support and cooperation. that the school or district support and cooperation. Teacher takes initiative in requires. assuming leadership among the faculty. Involvement in a culture Teacher avoids Teacher becomes Teacher actively Teacher takes a leadership role of professional inquiry participation in a culture of involved in the school’s participates in a culture of in promoting a culture of inquiry, resisting culture of inquiry when professional inquiry. professional inquiry. opportunities to become invited to do so. involved. Service to the school Teacher avoids becoming Teacher participates in Teacher volunteers to Teacher volunteers to involved in school events. school events when participate in school participate in school events, specifically asked. events, making a making a substantial substantial contribution. contribution, and assumes a leadership role in at least one aspect of school life. Participation in school Teacher avoids becoming Teacher participates in Teacher volunteers to Teacher volunteers to and district projects involved in school and school and district projects participate in school and participate in school and district district projects. when specifically asked. district projects, making a projects, making a substantial substantial contribution. contribution, and assumes a leadership role in a major school or district project. Domain 4: Professional Responsibilities Component 4e: Growing and Developing Professionally Element Unsatisfactory Basic Proficient Distinguished Enhancement of content Teacher engages in no Teacher participates in Teacher seeks out Teacher seeks out opportunities knowledge and professional development professional activities to a opportunities for for professional development pedagogical skill activities to enhance limited extend when they professional development and makes a systematic effort to knowledge or skill. are convenient. to enhance content conduct action research. knowledge and pedagogical skill. Receptivity to feedback Teacher resists feedback Teacher accepts, with Teacher welcomes Teacher seeks out feedback on from colleagues on teaching performance some reluctance, feedback from colleagues teaching from both supervisors from either supervisors or feedback on teaching when made by and colleagues. more experienced performance from both supervisors or when colleagues. supervisors and opportunities arise professional colleagues. through professional collaboration. Service to the Teacher makes no effort Teacher finds limited Teacher participates Teacher initiates important profession to share knowledge with ways to contribute to the actively in assisting other activities to contribute to the others or to assume profession. educators. profession. professional responsibilities. Domain 4: Professional Responsibilities Component 4f: Showing Professionalism Element Unsatisfactory Basic Proficient Distinguished Integrity and ethical Teacher displays Teacher is honest in Teacher displays high Teacher can be counted on to conduct dishonesty in interactions interactions with standards of honest, hold the highest standards of with colleagues, students, colleagues, students, and integrity, and honesty, integrity, and and the public. the public. confidentiality in confidentiality and takes a interactions with leadership role with colleagues. colleagues, students, and the public. Service to students Teacher is not alert to Teacher’s attempts to Teacher is active in Teacher is highly proactive in students’ needs. serve students are serving students. serving students, seeking out inconsistent. resources when needed. Advocacy Teacher contributes to Teacher does not Teacher works to ensure Teacher makes a concerted school practices that knowingly contribute to that all students receive a effort to challenge negative result in some students some students being ill fair opportunity to attitudes or practices to ensure being ill served by the served by the school. succeed. that all students, particularly school. those traditionally underserved, are honored in the school. Decision making Teacher makes decisions Teacher’s decisions and Teacher maintains an Teacher takes a leadership role and recommendations recommendations are open mind and in team or departmental decision based on self-serving based on limited though participates in team or making and helps ensure that interests. genuinely professional departmental decision such decisions are based on the considerations. making. highest professional standards. Teachers are expected to… Have discussions about what excellent teaching looks like. Not close their doors and work in isolation Have conversations which ground their teaching Seek support from others (mentors, colleagues, administrators) to achieve their professional development goals. Questions for Discussion: 1. Has the teacher evaluation/performance appraisal lost its purpose and significance? If so, Why? 2. Do you see the process as benefiting your teaching practice- improving student learning? 3. What has the AVRSB done right in terms of performance appraisals? 4. What does the AVRSB need to do differently in terms of performance appraisals? Danielson’s Latest book…2009
"Slide 1 - Horton High School"