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					New Trends in Teacher
     Evaluation
    Charlotte Danielson
Purposes of Teacher Evaluation
has been…
1.Quality Assurance- only purpose
  recognized by legislators and policy
  makers.
- The quality of individual teachers does matter.

2.Professional Development


   Previous evaluation systems have largely
    failed to achieve either goal.
Danielson States…
An effective system of teacher evaluation
 accomplishes two things:

   it ensures quality teaching

   it promotes professional learning.

The quality of teaching is the single most
 important determinant of student learning.
A Well Designed Evaluation System
   Differentiated System

   Multiyear Cycles

   Active Teacher Roles
Differentiated Systems
   Different activities, procedures and
    timelines are used for different groups of
    teachers.

   New teachers typically receive more
    support, more supervision, and more
    intense evaluation.
Typical pattern in a differentiated
system:
   - An annual formal plan for new teachers.
    - Formal evaluation of permanent teachers
      every 2-4 years.
    - During non-formal evaluation years permanent
      teachers engage in self-directed professional
      growth activities (alone or with a colleague) which are
      usually quite different then new teachers.

   Criteria for evaluation are usually quite different
    with new vs. permanent contract teachers.
Multi year Cycles
   Permanent contract teachers have a
    formal evaluation every 2-4 years.

   When not being formally evaluated,
    teachers engage in professional
    development activities of their own
    choosing.
Active Teacher Roles
   Permanent contract teachers are considered
    professionally competent. They can use the
    evaluation activities to enhance their practice by:

    - working with colleagues
    - action research
    - furthering knowledge of curriculum areas

use of portfolios, visiting classrooms, working with
mentors, and professional conversations/reflections

   Goal is improved learning opportunities for all
    students.
Questions for thought…
   Are they (Differentiated Systems, Multi-year
    Cycles, and Active Teacher Roles) present in
    the AVRSB?

   Are they understood and being employed?

   What has the most impact?

   What isn't working?
In AVRSB…
   We recognize that students must be served –
    proper diligence.

   Teachers are evaluated yearly (required as stated
    in the Education Act).

   Nova Scotia uses the term “Performance
    Appraisal” rather than Teacher Evaluation.

   Performance Appraisals are cited in the Education
    Act under “Function and Duties” of Principals and
    Superintendents.
Performance Appraisals- Summative
   Can be Summative or Formative

   Summative - Lets the teacher know how
    “they did”
    - employment decision
    - retain or release
    - completed prior to the end of
      probationary period
Performance Appraisals - Formative
   Formative - informs instruction, “sheds
    light” and ensures the goals are being
    achieved

    - Permanent teacher
    - developmental and collaborative in
      nature
    - annual basis
Enhancing Professional Practice:
A Framework for Teaching
In the book pictured here, used by the
  AVRSB, Charlotte Danielson outlines
  measures relating to quality teaching
  organized into four domains, each with
  several components.
The Framework for Professional Practice
The framework for teaching divides the complex work of teaching into four major domains:
Planning and Preparation, Classroom Environment, Instruction, and Professional Responsibilities;
each is further divided into five or six smaller components.
The framework for teaching includes four levels of performance: Unsatisfactory, Basic, Proficient, and Distinguished.



                        Unsatisfactory                Basic                         Proficient                     Distinguished


Domain 1                Teacher’s plans reflect       Teacher’s plans reflect       Teacher’s plans reflect        Teacher’s plans, based on
Planning and            little understanding of the   moderate understanding        solid understanding of the     extensive content
Preparation             content, the students, and    of the content, the           content, the students, and     knowledge and
                        available resources.          students, and available       available resources.           understanding of students,
                        Instructional outcomes are    resources. Some               Instructional outcomes         are designed to engage
                        either lacking or             instructional outcomes are    represent important            students in significant
                        inappropriate; assessment     suitable to the students as   learning suitable to most      learning. All aspects of
                        methodologies are             a group, and the              students. Most elements        the teacher’s plans –
                        inadequate.                   approaches to                 of the instructional design,   instructional outcomes,
                                                      assessment are partially      including the                  learning activities,
                                                      aligned to the goals.         assessments, are aligned       materials, resources, and
                                                                                    to the goals.                  assessments – are in
                                                                                                                   complete alignment and
                                                                                                                   are adapted as needed for
                                                                                                                   individual students.
Domain 2                Classroom environment is      Classroom environment         Classroom environment          Students themselves
The Classroom           characterized by chaos        functions somewhat            functions smoothly, with       make a substantive
Environment             and conflict, with low        effectively, with modest      little or no loss of           contribution to the smooth
                        expectations for learning,    expectations for student      instructional time.            functioning of the
                        no clear standards of         learning and conduct, and     Expectations for student       classroom, with highly
                        student conduct, poor use     classroom routines and        learning are high, and         positive personal
                        of physical space, and        use of space that partially   interactions among             interactions high
                        negative interactions         support student learning.     individuals are respectful.    expectations and student
                        between individuals.          Students and the teacher      Standards for student          pride in work, seamless
                                                      rarely treat one another      conduct are clear, and the     routines, clear standards
                                                      with disrespect.              physical environment           of conduct, and a physical
                                                                                    supports learning.             environment conducive to
                                                                                                                   high-level learning.
Domain 3           Instruction is                  Only some students are         All students are engaged      All students are highly
Instruction        characterized by poor           engaged in learning            in learning as a result of    engaged in learning and
                   communication, low-level        because of only partially      clear communication and       make material
                   questions, little student       clear communication,           successful use of             contributions to the
                   engagement or                   uneven use of discussion       questioning and               success of the class
                   participation in discussion,    strategies, and only some      discussion techniques.        through their participation
                   little or no use of             suitable instructional         Activities and assignments    in discussions, active
                   assessment in learning,         activities and materials.      are of high quality, and      involvement in learning
                   and rigid adherence to an       The teacher displays           teacher and students          activities, and use of
                   instructional plan despite      some use of assessment         make productive use of        assessment information in
                   evidence that it should be      in instruction and is          assessment. The teacher       their learning. The
                   revised or modified.            moderately flexible in         demonstrates flexibility in   teacher persists in the
                                                   adjusting the instructional    contributing to the           search for approaches to
                                                   plan and in response to        success of the lesson and     meet the needs of every
                                                   students’ interests and        of each student.              student.
                                                   their success in learning.
Domain 4           The teacher demonstrates        The teacher demonstrates       The teacher demonstrates      The teacher’s ethical
Professional       low ethical standards and       moderate ethical               high ethical standards and    standards and sense of
Responsibilities   levels of professionalism,      standards and levels of        a genuine sense of            professionalism are highly
                   with poor record-keeping        professionalism, with          professionalism by            developed, showing
                   systems and skills in           rudimentary record-            engaging in accurate          perceptive use of
                   reflection, little or no        keeping systems and            reflection on instruction,    reflection, effective
                   communication with              skills in reflection, modest   maintaining accurate          systems for record
                   families or colleagues,         communication with             records, communicating        keeping and
                   and avoidance of school         families or colleagues,        frequently with families,     communication with
                   and district responsibilities   and compliance with            actively participating in     families, leadership roles
                   and participation in            expectations regarding         school and district events,   in both school and district
                   activities for professional     participation in school and    and engaging in activities    projects, and extensive
                   growth.                         district projects and          for professional              professional development
                                                   activities for professional    development.                  activities. Where
                                                   growth.                                                      appropriate, students
                                                                                                                contribute to the systems
                                                                                                                for record keeping and
                                                                                                                family communication.
                                    Domain 4: Professional Responsibilities


      Component 4a: Reflecting on Teaching




Element                  Unsatisfactory               Basic                        Proficient                   Distinguished
Accuracy                 Teacher does not know        Teacher has a generally      Teacher makes an             Teacher makes a thoughtful and
                         whether a lesson was         accurate impression of a     accurate assessment of a     accurate assessment of a
                         effective or achieved its    lesson’s effectiveness and   lesson’s effectiveness and   lesson’s effectiveness and the
                         instructional outcomes, or   the extent to which          the extent to which it       extent to which it achieved its
                         teacher profoundly           instructional outcomes       achieved its instructional   instructional outcomes, citing
                         misjudges the success of     were met.                    outcomes and can cite        many specific examples from
                         a lesson.                                                 general references to        the lesson and weighing the
                                                                                   support the judgment.        relative strengths of each.
Use in future teaching   Teacher has no               Teacher makes general        Teacher makes a few          Drawing no an extensive
                         suggestions for how a        suggestions about how a      specific suggestions of      repertoire of skills, teacher
                         lesson could be improved     lesson could be improved     what could be tried          offers specific alternative
                         another time the lesson is   another time the lesson is   another time the lesson is   actions, complete with the
                         taught.                      taught.                      taught.                      probable success of different
                                                                                                                courses of action.
                                             Domain 4: Professional Responsibilities



          Component 4b: Maintaining Accurate Records




Element                 Unsatisfactory                  Basic                           Proficient                     Distinguished
Student completion of   Teacher’s system for            Teacher’s system for            Teacher’s system for           Teacher’s system for
assignments             maintaining information on      maintaining information on      maintaining information on     maintaining information on
                        student completion of           student completion of           student completion of          student completion of
                        assignments is in               assignments is                  assignments is fully           assignments is fully effective.
                        disarray.                       rudimentary and only            effective.                     Students participate in
                                                        partially effective.                                           maintaining the records.
Student progress in     Teacher has no system           Teacher’s system for            Teacher’s system for           Teacher’s system for
learning                for maintaining information     maintaining information on      maintaining information on     maintaining information on
                        on student progress in          student progress in             student progress in            student progress in learning is
                        learning, or the system is      learning is rudimentary         learning is fully effective.   fully effective. Students
                        in disarray.                    and only partially effective,                                  contribute information and
                                                                                                                       participate in interpreting the
                                                                                                                       records.
Noninstructional        Teacher’s records for           Teacher’s records for           Teacher’s system for           Teacher’s system for
records                 noninstructional activities     noninstructional activities     maintaining information on     maintaining information on
                        are in disarray, resulting in   are adequate, but they          noninstructional activities    noninstructional activities is
                        errors and confusion.           require frequent                is fully effective.            highly effective, and students
                                                        monitoring to avoid errors.                                    contribute to its maintenance.
                                  Domain 4: Professional Responsibilities



            Component 4c: Communicating with Families


Element                  Unsatisfactory               Basic                           Proficient                    Distinguished
Information about the    Teacher provides little or   Teacher participates in the     Teacher provides frequent     Teacher provides frequent
instructional program    no information about the     school’s activities for         information to families, as   information to families, as
                         instructional program to     family communication but        appropriate, about the        appropriate, about the
                         families.                    offers little additional        instructional program.        instructional program. Students
                                                      information.                                                  participate in preparing
                                                                                                                    materials for their families.
Information about        Teacher provides minimal     Teacher adheres to the          Teacher communicates          Teacher provides information to
individual students      information to families      school’s required               with families about           families frequently on student
                         about individual students,   procedures for                  students’ progress on a       progress, with students
                         or the communication is      communicating with              regular basis, respecting     contributing to the design of the
                         inappropriate to the         families. Responses to          cultural norms, and is        system. Response to family
                         cultures of the families.    family concerns are             available as needed to        concerns is handled with great
                         Teacher does not             minimal or may reflect          respond to family             professional and cultural
                         respond, or responds         occasional insensitivity to     concerns.                     sensitivity.
                         insensitively, to family     cultural norms.
                         concerns about students.
Engagement of families   Teacher makes no             Teacher makes modest            Teacher’s efforts to          Teacher’s efforts to engage
in the instructional     attempt to engage families   and partially successful        engage families in the        families in the instructional
program                  in the instructional         attempts to engage              instructional program are     program are frequent and
                         program, or such efforts     families in the instructional   frequent and successful.      successful. Students contribute
                         are inappropriate.           program.                                                      ideas for projects that could be
                                                                                                                    enhanced by family
                                                                                                                    participation.
                                  Domain 4: Professional Responsibilities

      Component 4d: Participating in a Professional Community


Element                    Unsatisfactory                  Basic                          Proficient                     Distinguished
Relationships with         Teacher’s relationships         Teacher maintains cordial      Relationships with             Relationships with colleagues
colleagues                 with colleagues are             relationships with             colleagues are                 are characterized by mutual
                           negative or self-serving.       colleagues to fulfill duties   characterized by mutual        support and cooperation.
                                                           that the school or district    support and cooperation.       Teacher takes initiative in
                                                           requires.                                                     assuming leadership among the
                                                                                                                         faculty.
Involvement in a culture   Teacher avoids                  Teacher becomes                Teacher actively               Teacher takes a leadership role
of professional inquiry    participation in a culture of   involved in the school’s       participates in a culture of   in promoting a culture of
                           inquiry, resisting              culture of inquiry when        professional inquiry.          professional inquiry.
                           opportunities to become         invited to do so.
                           involved.
Service to the school      Teacher avoids becoming         Teacher participates in        Teacher volunteers to          Teacher volunteers to
                           involved in school events.      school events when             participate in school          participate in school events,
                                                           specifically asked.            events, making a               making a substantial
                                                                                          substantial contribution.      contribution, and assumes a
                                                                                                                         leadership role in at least one
                                                                                                                         aspect of school life.
Participation in school    Teacher avoids becoming         Teacher participates in        Teacher volunteers to          Teacher volunteers to
and district projects      involved in school and          school and district projects   participate in school and      participate in school and district
                           district projects.              when specifically asked.       district projects, making a    projects, making a substantial
                                                                                          substantial contribution.      contribution, and assumes a
                                                                                                                         leadership role in a major school
                                                                                                                         or district project.
                                   Domain 4: Professional Responsibilities


  Component 4e: Growing and Developing Professionally




Element                   Unsatisfactory               Basic                          Proficient                    Distinguished
Enhancement of content    Teacher engages in no        Teacher participates in        Teacher seeks out             Teacher seeks out opportunities
knowledge and             professional development     professional activities to a   opportunities for             for professional development
pedagogical skill         activities to enhance        limited extend when they       professional development      and makes a systematic effort to
                          knowledge or skill.          are convenient.                to enhance content            conduct action research.
                                                                                      knowledge and
                                                                                      pedagogical skill.
Receptivity to feedback   Teacher resists feedback     Teacher accepts, with          Teacher welcomes              Teacher seeks out feedback on
from colleagues           on teaching performance      some reluctance,               feedback from colleagues      teaching from both supervisors
                          from either supervisors or   feedback on teaching           when made by                  and colleagues.
                          more experienced             performance from both          supervisors or when
                          colleagues.                  supervisors and                opportunities arise
                                                       professional colleagues.       through professional
                                                                                      collaboration.
Service to the            Teacher makes no effort      Teacher finds limited          Teacher participates          Teacher initiates important
profession                to share knowledge with      ways to contribute to the      actively in assisting other   activities to contribute to the
                          others or to assume          profession.                    educators.                    profession.
                          professional
                          responsibilities.
                                 Domain 4: Professional Responsibilities



        Component 4f: Showing Professionalism


Element                 Unsatisfactory               Basic                       Proficient                    Distinguished
Integrity and ethical   Teacher displays             Teacher is honest in        Teacher displays high         Teacher can be counted on to
conduct                 dishonesty in interactions   interactions with           standards of honest,          hold the highest standards of
                        with colleagues, students,   colleagues, students, and   integrity, and                honesty, integrity, and
                        and the public.              the public.                 confidentiality in            confidentiality and takes a
                                                                                 interactions with             leadership role with colleagues.
                                                                                 colleagues, students, and
                                                                                 the public.
Service to students     Teacher is not alert to      Teacher’s attempts to       Teacher is active in          Teacher is highly proactive in
                        students’ needs.             serve students are          serving students.             serving students, seeking out
                                                     inconsistent.                                             resources when needed.
Advocacy                Teacher contributes to       Teacher does not            Teacher works to ensure       Teacher makes a concerted
                        school practices that        knowingly contribute to     that all students receive a   effort to challenge negative
                        result in some students      some students being ill     fair opportunity to           attitudes or practices to ensure
                        being ill served by the      served by the school.       succeed.                      that all students, particularly
                        school.                                                                                those traditionally underserved,
                                                                                                               are honored in the school.
Decision making         Teacher makes decisions      Teacher’s decisions and     Teacher maintains an          Teacher takes a leadership role
                        and recommendations          recommendations are         open mind and                 in team or departmental decision
                        based on self-serving        based on limited though     participates in team or       making and helps ensure that
                        interests.                   genuinely professional      departmental decision         such decisions are based on the
                                                     considerations.             making.                       highest professional standards.
Teachers are expected to…
 Have discussions about what excellent
  teaching looks like.
 Not close their doors and work in isolation
 Have conversations which ground their
  teaching
 Seek support from others (mentors,
  colleagues, administrators) to achieve
  their professional development goals.
Questions for Discussion:
1. Has the teacher evaluation/performance
    appraisal lost its purpose and significance? If so,
    Why?

2. Do you see the process as benefiting your
    teaching practice- improving student learning?

3. What has the AVRSB done right in terms of
   performance appraisals?

4. What does the AVRSB need to do differently in
   terms of performance appraisals?
Danielson’s Latest book…2009

				
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