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HEC – Res Sim Model for Simulating utilization from reservoir in the form of multiple – dam

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Mehdi Osroosh, Hashem Makenanizadeh, Sadegh Torfi

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									                                              (Manuscript No: I12528-08)
                                       April 18, 2012 / Accepted: April 24, 2012




         HEC – Res Sim Model for Simulating
        utilization from reservoir in the form of
                      multiple – dam
                                             Mehdi Osroosh
                                     Department of Civil Engineering
                                Islamic Azad University Susangerd Branch
                                            Susangerd, Iran.

                                        Hashem Makenanizadeh
                                     Department of Civil Engineering
                                  Islamic Azad University Susangerd Branch
                                              Susangerd, Iran.

                                                Sadegh Torfi*
                                    Department of Mechanical Engineering,
                          Islamic Azad University Susangerd Branch, Susangerd, Iran
                              Phone: (+98) 916 941 7762; fax: (+98) 612 4222324;
                                             (Email: st@siau.ac.ir)

Abstract - Limitation of water renewable resources in one hand, and increasing growth in consuming water in
different parts such as agriculture, industry, urban and environment in other hand, face management of these
valuable resources to many challenges. Present study attempts to clarify recent condition of the problem and
introduce effective management tools in water supply sector. In order to achieve this purpose, simulating model
HEC-Res Sim was used for utilizing dam reservoirs for two – reservoir system of Dez reservoir and regulating
dams that located on Dez River in tandem form. The simulation was implemented during water years of 2003 t0
2005. obtained results showed regulating of desired storage volume and balancing water level in dam reservoir
for those water years, so that it responded timely to water consumption requirement in downstream for
mentioned water years and it emphasized on profitability of the model as effective tool in planning and
management of dam reservoir utilization in different season and variable condition of request specially in dry
and semi – dry regions.

Keywords: Simulation, Utilization, HEC – Res Sim, Reservoir Dam, Dez Reservoir, Regulating Dam.

                                                  Introduction

Although regarding consecutive drought the world faced, it does not move toward crisis but warns stakeholders
or so called beneficiary groups that is involved people of natural resource ( water and soil) (Hedyat , 2005).

Water renewable resource management is a complex issue that requires comprehensive investigation in social,
economic and environmental fields. Considering that water resource of the world face to increasing challenges
then it require to use appropriate management tool more than past years for stabilizing them. One of an
important factor that can be effective in stable development and appropriate management of these resources is
storing and regulating of water in dam. Therefore, in order to regulate water volume, some reservoirs are
established on the rivers to store it in the rainy season. These reservoirs are able to prepare downstream water
requirements in lack of water condition and flow required by hydroelectric power plant (Osroush 2009).
Stimulation is a modeling method that used for predicting a system behavior on computer with displaying all
detail characteristics by mathematical description (Ackoff, 1961). Simulation models have fast and appropriate
capabilities for evaluating and predicting water reservoir system performance and consequently for selecting
appropriate options and scenarios for desired area. The first simulation model for reservoir systems was
established in 1953 by American army engineers to investigate utilization of 6 reservoirs located on Misouri


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International Journal Of Structronics & Mechatronics


River (Ackoff, 1961). Tomas and firing (1962) and Hufschmidt and Fiering (1962) used simulation in
development program of Lee-hayg river for multipurpose and multi – reservoir systems. One of general
simulation model of reservoir is model HEC-5 (flood simulation, flood control and its security system). The
study of flood control on Saskohana reservoirs system was investigated by HEC-5 model (Eichet and Davis,
1976). The software HEC-Res sim is graphic version and alternative Software HEC – 5 that was designed by
American Army of this software introduced to the market in 2007 that has new facilities such as ability to define
hydroelectric power plant and pomp station in reservoirs Teasley et al (2004) prepared a simulation model for
forgotten river in Texas using this software. In this study software HEC – Res Sim was used as a model for
utilization purposes with the aim that its results were used as an analytical framework for selecting utilization
scenario from Dez reservoir and regulating Dam.



                                        MATERIALS AND METHOD

Dez reservoir dam is a multipurpose structure that is constructed with the aim of controlling flood flows of Dez
River in order to prepare water needed for agricultural purposes, generating safe hydroelectric energy as 520
mw/h and controlling floods and preventing seasonal flooding of Dez River. The dam was constructed in 25 km
distance of east north of Dezful on main branch of Dez River, 100 Km upstream of crossing of both Karoun and
Dez rivers. The length of Dez dam is 65 km. Dez regulating dam is located in 30 km distance from it at
downstream. In order to control and re – regulate outlet water from Dez reservoir dam and prepare inlet water to
irrigation System and its covered drainage system. It was designed based on 200m3/s and possibility of passing
600m3/s flood flow. The length of the dam is 12 km and Dez diversion dam was constructed in 6 km distance
from downstream of the regulating dam. The purpose of the dam is deviate Dez river water in gravity form to
the main east and west channels (with capacity of 157 m3/s for west channel and 92 m3/s for east channel)
(Figure 1).




                                        Figure 1 : situation of observation region

    A.   SIMULATING THE DAM RESERVOIR AND INTRODUCING                      HECRES SIMMODEL

Studying and investigating behavior of dam reservoirs and determining their volume regarding physical
characteristics of structure system, statistics, input and output data about the flow can be performed using
simulation model. According to allowed risk in achieving the purposes of the plan and determining reliability
with specific volume of the reservoir that can be responsive for sub network requirements. In order to use this
model, it is necessary to utilize computer software packages able to simulate numerous series of reservoir
system (regarding to method of utilization) (Osroush, 2009). In this study, HEC – Res sim model was used. The
model consists of graphical user interface (GUI), a computational program for simulating process of the
reservoir, storage capabilities, data management and graphical and reporting facilities. Its data storage system,
HEC-Dss, is used to maintain and recover input and output time series of data. The software consists of three
separated modules. Watershed setup depicts general scheme of the watershed Reservoir Network module
control input data of the reservoir and simulation module responsible for simulating and calculations related to
it.




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Mehdi Osroosh, Hashem Makenanizadeh, Sadegh Torfi


Input data of the model include depicting waterway path of rivers and data related to the reservoir. Input data
include curves of height, area, volume, evaporation and leakage rate and the capacity of controlled and
uncontrolled overflow. Data related to utilization include flood control areas are defined by users. ResSim is
able to define operational rule of the system for two or more reservoir in both parallel and tandem form. This
model prepares some facilities for consecutive operation to manage storage distribution between upstream and
downstream reservoir on the flow.

After conducting the simulating stages, effective parameters in selecting desired volume of the reservoir is
produced by the software and after investigating and analyzing them and also applying expert judgments,
appropriate option of reservoir volume will be selected. Regarding to above mentioned points, simulation
process was conducted for two – reservoir system, Dez reservoir dam and regulating dam and its results will be
presented and analyzed.

    B. EVALUATING CRITERIA ’S FOR EFFICIENCY OF WATER RESOURCES SYSTEMS

Resources system performances are evaluated by some simple criteria’s such as mean, interests variance and
utilization variables that are useful but often insufficient. Using indicators such as reliability, resiliency and
vulnerability (RRV) for classifying and evaluating water resources system performance, was suggested by
Hashimoto et al, (1982) for first time. These indicators are used to test water resources system for different
scenarios and evaluate output of water resources system with regard to desired needs. As one criterion (C) is
defined for every water supplying resource that is equivalent to in satisfaction value for the resource which
unable to prepare pre-determined performance time series of daily values of the river flow simulation or
reservoir balance xt is estimated for time period of T .Every water supplying resource has satisfactory range(S)
and unsatisfaction (U) which is defined for criterion (C) z t is prepare or not preparing criteria and if xt>c , then
xt=1 and xt<s otherwise zt=0and t z u (Iacoby and locks , 1972)

Then

{

If unsatisfaction range are defined as j1, j2 and … jn , then reliability , resiliency and vulnerability indicators of
the system are defined as follows :

    1.   Reliability CR Tt1 zt
    2.   Resiliency CRs T1 wt
    3.   Vulnerability Cv maxtji cx I 1… N

Reliability (CR) is the criteria of frequency of failure resource. Resiliency (CRs) shows return speed or resource
recovering from failure state. Cv (Shows failure development).

                                          RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The most important consumers of water exited from Dez reservoir and regulating are sabili channels
(downstream Dez dam) and east and west channel (downstream Dez regulating dam). In this study agricultural
and drinking water requirements were used based on downstream needs Res Sim simulating model was
implemented for two reservoir system, Dez reservoir and regulating dams, regarding to inlet intake to Dez
reservoir dam during time period of 2003-2006 (figure 2). Based on this, daily changes of discharge exited from
Dez reservoir dam (figure 3) and Dez regarding dam (figure 4) were observed.




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International Journal Of Structronics & Mechatronics




              Figure 2- diagram of monthly variation input flow of Dez reservoir dam in 82-83, 83-84, 84-85 water years.




     Figure 3- diagram of daily variations of simulated output flow of Dez reservoir dam in 82-83 and 83-84 and 84-85 water years




      Figure 4- diagram of daily variations of simulated output flow of Dez regulative dam in 82-83, 83-84, and 84-85 water years

According obtained results, it can be concluded that their balance between outlet discharge from dams and
reservoir water level, that its reason probably is reservoir definition in tandem form in the model. In other word,
during time period when water level in reservoir dam is high, level of water in regulating dam is increased
proportionally and vice versa. We conclude from obtained result that due to appropriate input water to Dez
reservoir dam during time period of 2003 to 2006, supplied water level for various downstream stakeholders,
meet their needs in the same time period (figure 5).




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Mehdi Osroosh, Hashem Makenanizadeh, Sadegh Torfi




Figure 5- comparison diagram of daily variations of simulated output flow rate from Dez regulative dam reservoir to requirements in 82-83,
                                                            83-84, and 84-85

In other hand, due to excessive output flow, more than downstream applicants in May and March 2005, April
2005, February and March 2006, appropriate scenario of output can be implemented. In this scenario for
example, with 40 percent decrease in reservoir output(1ts storage) in May 2004 and utilizing it in Summer and
October 2004, 40 percent decrease in reservoir output in March 2004 and April 2005 in other to utilizing it in
dry season, June 2005 and Summer 2005, and also 20 percent decrease in reservoir output in February and
March 2006 and April 2006 with the purpose of starting utilization in June and summer 2006 a suitable and
desirable utilization system for water reservoirs stored at behind of Dez reservoir and regulating dams may be
established. Applying this method can help decision makers and responsible people for establishing a stable
request and supply system for water renewable resources.

This may be effective for desired management of these resources and prevent drought condition effects. So
solving problems can reduce harmful effects of water shortage. Figure 6 shows the result of implementing the
scenario by model for Dez regulating dam and comparing it with downstream requirements.




Figure 6- comparison diagram of daily variations of simulated output flow rate from Dez reservoir dam reservoir to requirements in 82-83,
                                                            83-84, and 84-85

                                                             Conclusion

    i.    The model was applicable to simulation of two reservoir systems, Dez reservoir and regulating dams
          and by using it, different scenarios can be investigated.

    ii.   The model results showed that storage in reservoir dams was reached to an appropriate level according
          to water input to reservoirs and water requirement was resolved.

    iii. Among the characteristics of the model, we can point to its ability to adopt any optional structures from
         reservoirs, powerhouse place, water intake place, place of water entrance to system, regarding to
         influence of parallel and tandem each other.

    iv. The model was able to apply different policies in utilizing based on different needs of the user.



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International Journal Of Structronics & Mechatronics


     v.   Simulating models are appropriate models for evaluating the reservoir performance with different
          capacities and utilization policies, but these models are not appropriate in selecting the best structure of
          system and purpose and policies. Because of these, it is suggested that simulating and optimizing
          models are utilized together for these purpose until more acceptable results achieved for decision
          makers.

                                                     References


1.   Ackoff, R. L., (1961). Progress In Operationals Research. New York: John Wiley,Inc.,U.S.A, Vol. 1,PP.
     136.

2.   Eichert, B. S. and Davis, J. (1976). Sizing Flood Control Reservoir System by system analysis. Hydrol.
     Eng. Cent., U.S. Army Corps Eng., Tech. Pap.44.

3.   Hedayat, N (2005). Improving the performance of water delivery in The Dez and Moghan Irrigation
     Schemes in Iran.

4.   Hufschmidt, M. M. and Fiering, M. B. (1962). Simulation Thechniques for Design of Water Resources
     System. Harvard University press, Cambridge.

5.   Hydrologic Engineering Center, "The HEC-ResSim User's Manual", U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, V3.0,
     2007.

6.   Teasly, R.L,Mckinney, D.C. and Patino – Gomez, C.(2004), "Modeling the forgotten River segment of the
     Rio Grande/Barvo Basin". The university of Texasat Austin center for Research in water Resources.

7.   Thomas, H. A. and Fiering, M. B. (1962). Mathematical synthesis of Stream flow Sequence for the analysis
     of River basing by Simulation, in Design of Water Resources System. Edited by A Mass etal., Harvard
     University Press, Cambridge,Mass..




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