drought revision sheet by B9Mesr3

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									                                               Drought
    This topic may be used in the following key ideas:

        1.   Different types of natural hazard have specific global distributions.
        2.   Natural processes are responsible for causing severe natural hazard events.
        3.   Natural hazards have a significant impact on people and their quality of life.
        4.   The level of economic development of places affected by natural hazard events influences the
             severity of the impact.
        5.   People continue to live and work in places that are prone to natural hazards.
        6.   Human activities can affect the impact of natural hazards.
        7.   A range of methods are used to attempt to reduce the impact of natural hazards.
        8.   Some methods are more sustainable than others.

    Glossary: drought     arid desert Sahel      desertification deforestation over-grazing

               Ethiopia, part of the Sahel
   12-17 degrees north
   South of the Sahara                                                           Australia
   Moist air prevented from travelling north from Kenya                 El Nino (see Miller p149 Q1a)
   Population: 77m                                                      Crop failure
   7 people in 8 are rural dwellers                                     Livestock dies (starvation, thirst)
   Average daily temperature is 28-30 degrees                           Farmers give up and move to
   77% of trees cut down(deforestation)                                  cities
   Many new soil-depleting eucalyptus plantations                       Soil erosion
   1998-2000 civil war                                                  Farmers borrow money and get
   Money spent on armed forces                                           into debt
   Population increase                                                  Dust storms
   Poor farming techniques – growing crops in low                       Bush fires
    rainfall areas                                                       Water shortage
   Over-grazing of animals                                              Increase in levels of toxicity in
   Soil erosion – by rain and wind                                       water supplies
   Large scale migration of people
   High demand for fuel wood
   North-east Africa
   Poor harvests
   High death rate
   Poor health and increase in disease
   Relief camps
   Starvation – over 5m needing emergency food aid
   “Do they know its Christmas?”




    For Ethiopia, write an account, including details about: where, why and impacts. The why should be
    reasons.
Visit the Global Drought Monitor website
(http://drought.mssl.ucl.ac.uk/drought.html?map=%2Fwww%2Fdrought%2Fweb_pages%2Fdrought.
map&program=%2Fcgi-
bin%2Fmapserv&root=%2Fwww%2Fdrought2%2F&map_web_imagepath=%2Ftmp%2F&map_web_i
mageurl=%2Ftmp%2F&map_web_template=%2Fdrought.html) for up to date drought areas.




    Coping with drought                                              Hitosa Water Supply Project
   Build dams and reservoirs                                         Ethiopia
   Water transfer schemes                                            Very expensive weekly
   Tree planting (re-                                                   water tanker
    afforestation)                                                    Water pipeline failed due to
   Micro dams                                                           disrepair
   Piles of stones to collect                                        Water collected from
    condensation                                                         mountain springs
   Drought resistant crops                                           140Km of pipeline
   Drip irrigation                                                   122 distribution points
   Cloud seeding                                                     Government designed, local
   desalinisation                                                       labour – a self-help scheme
                                                                      Maintained by local people
                                                                      70000 have water
                                                                      Improved quality of life
                                                                   www.wateraid.org




     1. Which coping strategies would be (a) suitable for Ethiopia; (b) suitable for Australia?

     2. Describe the Hitosa Water Project, and explain how peoples’ quality of life would have
        improved.

								
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