Introduction to Migration by TQgNXU


									Introduction to Migration
           presented by

    Modified by Pamela Hammond
   Brantley Co HS    Nahunta, GA
             APWH 2010
Migration is Global
   In 2005, 191 million people were
    counted as living outside the country of
    their birth
   The number of migrants worldwide has
    doubled since World War II
   If they lived in the same place,
    international migrants would form the
    5th most populous country in the world

                Understanding Migration
Why do people migrate?
1.   Economics
     (push/pull factors)
2.   Politics
     (push factors)
3.   Social Forces
     (pull factors)
4.   Environmental Forces
     (push/pull factors)
                  Understanding Migration
Economic Causes of Migration
   Migration in search of better economic conditions,
    employment, etc.
   Migration due to famine, drought
       Irish immigration to America, and elsewhere, due to
        the potato famine
   Migration to escape overpopulation and its effects
   Migration may be internal or international
       Rural to urban
       Region to region
       Country to country

                             Understanding Migration
Political Causes of Migration
   To escape war, invasion, military takeover, etc.
       refugees
   To escape persecution on ethnic, political,
    religious, or other grounds
       Diasporas/Exodus: Jews at various times in history
            Russian Jews escaping pogroms
   To escape prosecution for crimes committed
   As punishment for crimes committed
       Australia served as a penal colony for Britain
       Sentenced to “transportation”
   Forced migration
       As a result of enslavement/human trafficking

                             Understanding Migration
Social Causes of Migration
   To spread a religion
       Buddhism, Christianity, Islam
       Missionaries (Jesuits during Age of Exploration)
   To reunite with family, friends, etc. who have
    previously migrated
   To spread a political philosophy, such as
    Marxism, democracy, etc.
   To find personal freedom, to live a certain
    lifestyle, or to hold certain beliefs, not necessarily
    as the result of persecution
       Pilgrims on the Mayflower

                          Understanding Migration
    Environmental Issues
   Migrants are often attracted to new lands that seemed environmentally
    similar to their homelands
        They could pursue adaptive strategies known to them
        Germanic Indo-Europeans chose familiar temperate zones in America, New
         Zealand, and Australia
        Semitic peoples rarely spread outside arid and semiarid climates
        Ancestors of modern Hungarians left grasslands of inner Eurasia for new
         homes in the grassy Alföld, one of the few prairie areas of Europe
   Migration to escape poor climate conditions such as drought, el Niño,
        Possible reasons for the Bantu and Indo-European migrations
   Migrations due to spread of disease
        Urban to rural as a result of the Black Death
              or turn it around: the Black Death spread as a result of the migratory patterns of
   Migration to escape natural disasters
        Think about the movements after Katrina
        Haitian’s moving out of Port au Prince following the earthquake
        Have/will these people return?
Causes and factors that impact

  •Disease and great pandemics
  •Economic opportunity
  •Technologies that advance travel and communication
  •Introduction of new philosophies
  •Great leaders
  •New laws
How each society reacts to the culture and
systems of the other
   Acculturation –
        Some culture exchanged but the groups remain distinct
             White stays white and Red stays Red
   Assimilation (Romanization, Americanization, Russification)
        The lesser or weaker or smaller numbered society is absorbed into the
         stronger and is required to become like the stronger culture either by
         society or by force.
   Syncretism (Roman-Greco society following conquest of Romans over
    Greeks, Creole)
        A whole new society is developed from the two
        Red and White become Pink.
   Accommodation
        One culture is allowed to exist within another as it is expected than they
         will eventually be absorbed or assimilated. This is usually the case with a
         minority society and culture entering and even conquering another that
         has higher numbers. It is a practice in tolerance and patience. In the
         case of the Mongolians in South Asia, they came and conquered but left
         little in the way of culture that was adopted by the peoples they
         conquered in this region. Some of their technology was adapted but in
         most cases was not absorbed.
   Conquest
What are the effects of migration?

   1.   Effects on the immigrants
   2.   Effects on the host country
   3.   Effects on the home country

                 Understanding Migration
Effects on the Immigrants
     Issues of identity
     Issues of adaptation and assimilation
     Differing cultural values between generations

                   Understanding Migration
Effects on the Host Country
     Economic impacts
         positive and negative
         real and perceived
     Welfare issues
     Social attitudes

                      Understanding Migration
Effects on the Home Country
     Remittances
         Money sent home by workers
     Loss of revenue
         Money made outside of the country is not subject to taxes
     Families left behind
         Families left without both parents
         Traditional societies threatened
     “Brain drain”
         Young people educated elsewhere but do not return home,
          stay in host country where the money is better
         As many of them study abroad on state-sponsored
          scholarships, this is an investment in human development
          not returned.
     Population decrease

                         Understanding Migration
Multi-National Issues
   “Open border” policies
       European Union has a free-border policy
   Immigration policies
       USA restricts number of immigrants allowed in each
       Every so often, a U.S. administration official suggests
        amnesty for illegal immigrants in the U.S…
   Security issues
       Especially important since 9/11

                          Understanding Migration
Now let’s think about migration

   As you view the following maps think about
       Why did the migration take place? (What were
        the push/pull factors involved?)
       What effect did the migration have on the
        home region? On the host region?
       Can you connect the migration to major events
        in history?
   Why might you need to know this?
       Possible essay topic for the APWH exam!!!!!!!!!!
Out of Africa: Earliest Human
Migrations to the Americas
Polynesian Migrations
Spread of Agriculture
Indo-European Migrations (4000
BCE -1000 BCE)
Bantu Migrations (c.500 BCE-1000 CE)

    What knowledge
    spread with the
Language “Migration”
Jewish Diaspora
Hun Empire threatens Europe and
Asia (4th-6th centuries)

   •Huns help weaken the Roman Empire under Attila
   •White Huns invade India during the Gupta Empire
     •Huns (Xiongnu) invade Han Dynasty (Mulan)
The Spread of Islam (630-1700)
Turkic Migrations (7                    th-15th   centuries)

   • Think about: Seljuks, Ottomons, Uyghers
   • Could they be offshoots of the Huns?
Viking Migrations (9   th   -11th centuries)
The Mongol Invasions   (13th-15th centuries)
Forced Migration
Forced Migration

          The Trail of Tears, 1838
World Migration Routes Since 1700

African (slaves)

Majority of population descended from immigrants
Migration due to religious persecution
Current Migrations
Internal Migration
   Developing countries seeing shift between
    rural and urban
       Infrastructure cannot support
       Housing unavailable
       Jobs difficult to find without education
Global Migration
   Millions leave developing world and emigrate
    to developed nations
       Creates racial and ethnic problems
       Developed nations worried about their cultural
            France—great influx of non-Christians
            US—melting pot replace with a salad bowl
       Immigrants hold on to traditional values of early
        marriage and large families
            Places burden on some societies
   Immigrant groups growing larger than native
    groups in some countries
       US: fastest growing ethnic group --Hispanics
French cultural identity challenged
Global Migration
Migrations? Tourism? Both?
   Check out this video of daily air travel…
   Could this be migrations happening??

   Understanding Migration Produced by Natalie Arsenault , Allegra
    Azulay , Rachel Meyer , Jordan Phillips , Christopher Rose
   Numerous contributions from members of the APWH listserv
   Maps and images from Google images

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