Reading Strategy: Annotating the Text
Use this strategy: This strategy will help my students:
Before Reading Make Connections
During Reading Question
After Reading Determine Importance
Fix-Up Reading Comprehension
How to use this strategy:
Active reader engagement with text is promoted with a pen (highlighter, pencil, sticky
note…) in hand. This strategy utilizes a coding system to record thinking while reading.
1. A teacher, whole group, or student coding system is first identified and may vary
based on the reading or learning objectives.
a. ?=Question, !=Important, √ =Agree/know, ----- =strike out (not needed)
b. C=Connection, V=Visualization, Q=Question, MI=Main Idea, S=Synthesis,
P= Prediction, I=Inference
c. Yellow highlighter=supporting evidence, green highlighter= contrasting
d. Blue sticky note=New information, Yellow sticky note=Known information
e. Use an over-laid transparency sheet/ colored tape / bookmark/ notes
f. C=Clear, D=Difficult, I=Important, S=Surprising
g. Use/develop acronyms as reminders of what to annotate
(S.O.A.P.S.Tone, TAPS, VIPs)
3. Model the text coding system whole group and discuss thinking, gradually
releasing responsibility to students. Not every line or paragraph needs to be
annotated; remember to set purpose for coding.
4. Mark text while reading.
5. Use annotations to guide further study, reflection, and writing.
To increase Rigor and Relevance:
Students can work in small cooperative groups to compare responses and
discuss the reading/thinking.
Students may custom create coding or annotating systems.
Annotations are a good springboard to constructed responses, such as A.C.E.
Annotated texts help teachers to “see” thinking and to determine what students need
modeled to improve reading comprehension and analysis.
College Entrance Examination Board. (2002). The AP Vertical Teams Guide for
English. Washington, DC: College Entrance Examination Board.
Las Cruces Public Schools
Secondary Literacy Framework