CTEVH Conference 2007 by cY4YUTd

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									CTEVH Conference 2007
 Check Your Resources



 Teaching Transcribers



    Workshop 403
 Friday March 2, 2007
     4:00-5:30 PM



      Lisa McClure
  lisa@readmydots.com
             &
    Danielle Hawthorne
pokadot_ties@yahoo.com




                         1
                        Training Transcribers

Class Materials
    There are three books required for the course. They are now available
      on line.

   1. The Manual

Link: http://www.loc.gov/nls/bds/manual/index.html

   2. Drill Book

Link: http://www.loc.gov/nls/bds/manual/drills.pdf

   3. English Braille American Edition (EBAE), this is a copy of the
      Literary Code

Link: http://www.loc.gov/nls/bds/bana/index.html


Class Equipment: Perkins or Perky?

We were fortunate to have access to Perkins Braillers. Some of the pros and
cons of this are:

Pros
accuracy … you’re more likely to be careful when you cannot erase
the action on the brailler requires more commitment
the dots are more immediate and real to you

Cons
Keeping track of braillers lent to students ($100 deposit works nicely)
Keeping braillers maintained and stored
Providing paper
Students can become frustrated
Ultimately it isn’t the tool they will be using




                                                                              2
Perky Duck

Free download at www.duxburysystems.com/freeware.asp

It is important to remember that the requirements of the course demand a
six-key entry computer program … this eliminates the option of any
translation software

6-key compatible keyboard
To discover if your keyboard is “6-key” compatible in a word processing
program (Word, WordPad, etc) simply press your 6 keys simultaneously sdf
jkl and if they ALL register your keyboard is six-key compatible. It does not
matter what order they are in, just as long as they all register.
In computer stores you may try this on display models by opening Word Pad
or another word processing program. Don’t expect store staff to understand
what you are doing, they will not.

Our Sage Advice Repeatedly Given to Students
DO NOT worry about memorizing everything.
DO become familiar with this Instruction Manual and build the faith that
your answers are in their SOMEWHERE
DO review past lessons, they are cumulative. I don’t know why but an
inordinate amount of questions are simply answered by reviewing Lesson 2.
DO remember to use the index and the dictionary in the back of your
instruction manual.
DO create your own cheat sheets. They keep you accurate, they are habit
builders and you learn from designing your own.
DO review your mistakes and find the corrections in the book.
DO start your DAILY work by reading the chapter or past chapters.
DO NOT have the expectation that you can just madly braille away without
looking up rules. This is NOT a typing class.
DO braille the examples in the lesson as you read, read outloud.
DO keep your book out and your computer or Perkins ready to go … remove
obstacles from practicing.
DO practice everyday. Daily exposure will feed your long term memory. A
little every day is better than 5 hours one day.
DO let your lesson rest a day before proofing it.
DO check your errata.
DO NOT go by memory … LOOK IT UP!!!



                                                                            3
Dynamics of Learning and Adult Students
Learning as an adult gives you the opportunity to witness how you learn.
Be aware of “bad school memories” that your students may have and be
sensitive to trauma involving reading out loud or being called on when you
do not know the answer.
Share your stories, remember what is most personal is most universal.
One very fun thing to do is have a discussion about which contractions you
would request if you could recreate the code. It gets people talking.
Share your past lessons and your mistakes.
Discuss different learning styles.
“This is what I need in order to learn! AND IT’S OK!!”

Share.
Share stories from conference, braille-n-teach, read excerpts from Louis
Braille’s biography. Give your students information to feed their
imagination, stories to share with their friends and family.

Quotable Quotes
It is infinitely more important to be resilient than perfect.

Manuscript Pointers

Organization of your class
Two-deep leadership is a must!
Creating a community around the class makes it more rewarding and keeps
people involved.
Encourage students to bring in items they find in the news.
Take a field trip, we once took our class to see “Wait Until Dark”.
Celebrate successes. We have a special dinner for each certification attained.
Email notes from class to students, this keeps track of what you have
covered and provides the information for those who may have been absent.

The Proofreading Talk
Completing the lessons will teach you braille, developing your proofreading
skills will get you certified.
Proofreading is a different activity than reading. Here is an illustration to
help show you why:




                                                                             4
Discuss Proofreading. Here is a questionnaire to give you ideas.




                                                                   5
                        Proof Reading Questionnaire

1. Do you proofread?

2. How soon after something is brailled do you proofread it?

3. What time of day do you proofread?

Is this when you are at your best?

4. Do you proofread from a hard copy or from the computer?

5. Are you comparing the braille to the print

word by word?      sentence by sentence?        just in general?

6. Have you recognized trends in the mistakes you are making?

Have you articulated those trends?

Have you addressed those trends?

7. How many errors are carelessness?

How many errors are related to something in the manual you don’t quite
understand yet?

8. Do you review your corrected lessons?

Do you look up your mistakes in the manual?

9. How much time does proofreading take compared to the time it takes to
braille a particular piece?

10. Do you have any proofreading techniques that you feel serve you well?

Example: Do you verbalize/mumble as you proofread?




                                                                            6
                          LESSON 1 The Alphabet

Be sure to use the correct fingers while brailling, this develops speed and
accuracy.
e’s and i’s
the e involves a dot 1 and comes first in the alphabet
i looks like it is dotted
be sure to talk about the w and why it is different

Reading Practice: We tell students not to write above the line of braille, take
the time to read it. It will be a struggle at first. It will improve your
proofreading. It is important.

                        LESSON 2 PUNCTUATION

Cap dot 6 … say it outloud
A capital sign and the letter are 1 unit … nothing can come between them
Paragraphs begin IN cell 3 … not after 3 blank cells
Once upon a time … “eye candy”, it adds no meaning
Punctuation:
Period … dropped d for done
Question mark and exclamation point skit
Semi colon and colon warning, colon is a dropped c
Quotes are picture frames
Apostro-three

Hyphen, dash and double dash:

When beginning talk about the hyphen and dash we like to share an
interesting bit of information.

En dash versus em dash
The en dash is half the width of the em dash. The width of the en dash was
originally the width of the typeset letter "N", while the width of the em dash
was the width of "M"; hence the names.

You can no longer depend on the length of the hyphen or dash, we must
decide which symbol to use by the meaning.


                                                                              7
Here is a little quiz you can use with your students.


TEST YOURSELF

Can you spot any errors in the use of the hyphen and dash in the following
sentences?

1. The instructions were written on pages 33-47.

2. The conference will be held June 30 - July 2 on Hilton Head Island.

3. Juan had tried begging, bribing, and even demanding cooperation from his
staff-all of whom were swamped with other work-before he gave up and
wrote the report himself.

4. No one - not even the president of the company - realized the company
would have to dissolve so quickly.

ANSWERS

1. The instructions were written on pages 33–47. (Use a hyphen, to indicate
inclusive page numbers.)

2. The conference will be held June 30–July 2 on Hilton Head Island. (Use a
hyphen, to indicate inclusive dates.)

3. Juan tried begging, bribing, and even demanding cooperation from his
staff—all of whom were swamped with other work—before he gave up and
wrote the report himself. (Use a dash to indicate a break in thought.)

4. No one—not even the president of the company—realized the company
would have to dissolve so quickly. (Use a dash to show a break in thought.)


** Another way of saying “inclusive” is to ask yourself if you can replace
the symbol with the words “to or through”. This will foreshadow our next
lesson which covers numbers.




                                                                              8
Drill 7 is a lovely drill to “braille live” with an LCD projector. This way you
can demonstrate the spacing of the dash. We draw attention to the fact that
the reader is reading tactually and that a space around the dash would really
not serve the reader. Spacing for the double dash is also a good
demonstration, clarifying the instructions “spaced like a word” is an
excellent point to make.

Centering Headings
This is found in the preliminary portion of your manual page xiv. "Centering
a Heading"

40 cell line – amounts of cells your heading occupies = remaining blank
spaces

When you divide by 2 you have the amount of blank cells on either side of
your heading.

If you have an odd number the extra blank cell is found on the right side of
heading. Remember: "less on left".


                        LESSON 3 Cardinal Numbers

Commas, colons, or hyphens … do not terminate the effect of a number
sign. This is a fact we drill through the whole course. It’s a good question to
ask over and over. It’s a great quiz or game question.

Lesson 3 is also a good time to introduce the term “composition sign”,
understanding what a “composition sign” will aid in the comprehension of
rules to come.

Follow print or not follow print.
Our purpose as transcribers is to accurately reproduce the text as closely as
possible. “Follow print” is a maxim we follow a good percent of the time,
but as I heard a transcriber put it, “I am ok with the rules, it’s the exceptions
that get me.”

Starting a “Don’t follow print” list. You may add paragraphing to this list,
and in this chapter you may add 1980s to this list. This is another rule we
review throughout the course as it is easy to forget.

                                                                                    9
                                 LESSON 4
                    One-Cell Whole-Word Contractions
                   Contractions for and, for, of, the, with

Lesson 4 begins a whole new era. There are key pieces of information which
become major building block to understanding contractions and rules for
contractions. Take your time on this lesson. If students miss this class make
a note of this, it may explain misunderstandings later on.

Alphabet Contractions
    Can’t use the can in canopy or you will get copy … you MUST
     illustrate this. Alphabet contractions MAY NOT be used within a
     word!!!
    You may use the alphabet contractions for proper names. W for Will,
     but not Ws for Wills. Drill this over and over.
    Do and So on the musical scale provide good quiz material to pull out
     throughout the course.
    Another basic building block to drill “whole-word contractions may
     be used in hyphenated compound words … they retain their WHOLE
     WORD integrity”

These key points are akin to multiplication tables to the algebra student.
They are key building blocks.

The terms “whole word contraction” and “part word contraction” are key
terms to clarify and illustrate repeatedly.

Here is a handout we share with our students. We like to write words on the
marker board and ask students to circle the contractions and explain their
choices using the rules we post.

We encourage students to post these rules in their work station for easy
reference. We have in the past posted them in class and that was very
successful and handy for reference.




                                                                             10
4 Simple Rules for ALL PART-WORD contractions

Rule 1. A part word contraction is ALWAYS used when all the
letters of the contraction fall into the same syllable.

Rule 2. Do NOT use a contraction when the letters of the
contraction would overlap a major syllable division.

3 Kinds of Major Syllable Divisions

a. between a prefix and a base or root word
b. between a suffix and a base or root word
c. between components of a solid compound word

Rule 3. Contraction Preference: the contraction which takes the
least amount of space is preferred.

Rule 4. Word Division: when dividing words at the end of a line,
caution must be taken to ensure that the word is properly divided
between syllables, in other words EVEN IF THIS MEANS
SACRIFICING A CONTRACTION.


Remember: Use your dictionary for proper syllable division!


WHOLE WORD Contractions
  used to represent whole words
  regardless of the part of speech
  also used to represent proper names
  maintain integrity in hyphenated compound words (not in
   syllabicated words)
  exception do and so in the musical scale
  must use double caps in order to capitalize the entire word

                                                                    11
Another piece of information we drill constantly is the rule about of, with,
for, the, and (and a) joining together:

The words that ALMOST ALWAYS go together are:
The, of, with, for, and (and “a”)
These can be either whole-word or part-word contractions. They are the
preferred contractions in words with multiple choices for contractions.

EXCEPTIONS:
  1. Capital sign/composition sign between them (Never separate a capital
     sign from its letter.)
  2. Punctuation between them
  3. If one lands in cell 40, the next one will go down to the next line.

These 3 exceptions are found in quizzes, games and are discussed until
students are familiar with them.


                             LESSON 5
      Whole-Word Contractions for child, shall, this, which, out, still
            Part-Word Contractions for ch, sh, th, wh, ou, st
                           Ordinal Numbers

A couple mnemonic devices our class has shared are:

: looks like a witches nose
child and still: the child * slides down the slide but still / has to climb
back up

only time the whole-word contractions: child, shall, this, which, out, still
can use apostrophe are:
                                  child's
                                   still's


In Lesson 5 you reap the rewards of making the distinction between “whole-
words” and “part-words”




                                                                               12
Writing words on a marker board and circling the contractions and
discussing why is what we found to be the effective method for teaching this
chapter. Pulling mistakes you find in the homework is helpful as well. When
explaining why be sure to incorporate the terminology “whole-word, part-
word, alphabet contraction, composition sign, etc.)

Sh Shh is the beginning of a list we refer to as “stupid human sounds” …
more on this later. Having silly names for groups of rules and contractions
makes them memorable and makes class fun.

Ordinal Numbers
Contractions are used in st and th.
Endings for 2d and 3d are another item to add to the “do not follow print”
list

                                 LESSON 6

Like Lesson 5, Lesson 6 is a great lesson to use a marker or chalk board.
Dots do not necessarily need to be drawn out. Writing the word in print and
having students circle the contractions is very effective and gives a great
opportunity to look up rules and explain the reasons for your choices.
Remember to refer back to the rules. Have them find the reason … we want
transcribers who look stuff up!!

We can add to our “stupid human sounds” with er and ow … remembering
we can use the contractions for these sounds.

You will find that students who were always finding the “the” contraction
will now erroneously use the “th” … point out that our “reading” mind sees
the “th” as a unit, but in time their “transcribing mind” will find “the”.

A technique we used when correcting papers was to “color key” the
mistakes. Using different colored highlighters we highlighted careless
mistakes in yellow, missed contractions in blue, hyphenation mistakes in
pink, of course the grouping changes with the student, but this is important
feedback.

Retaining the usual Braille form of the base word is an important concept
introduced in this chapter.



                                                                               13
                               LESSON 7
                   Whole-Word Lower-Sign Contractions
                    Part-Word Lower-Sign Contractions
                       Short Form words introduced


The terms “whole-word” and “part-word” are again key to correct usage of
these contractions.

We have come to know the “whole-word lower-sign” contractions as “the
untouchables”. This reminds us that they cannot touch anything with the
exception of a composition sign.

Lower-Sign Rule
“any number of unspaced PART-WORD lower signs can follow one another
as long as the series is in contact with a character containing an upper dot.”

We like to illustrated this rule by referring to the lower sign configurations
as children that must be accompanied by an adult (the upper dots), we also
add that composition signs (such as italics, to be studied later) do not qualify
as adults.

An explanation of why this rule is important to the reader is helpful and
students find it very interesting. Readers have no way to orient themselves to
what dots are there if the don’t have dots 1 and 4 nearby for comparison.

When working through examples in class it is very important to not confuse
the “untouchables” and the lower-sign rule. Clarify these two rules by
comparing and contrasting examples. The untouchables refer to single cell
whole word signs and the lower cell rule refers to a string of symbols
adjacent to each other.

Mnemonic Device for con and com
Com is completely dropped to the bottom on the cell

Here is an interesting and extremely brief quiz:

1. Braille the word BEEN and cite the rules involved.




                                                                              14
                                LESSON 8
         Joiners, sandwich contractions, and more short form words

We refer to to, into, and by as joiners. This particular group of contracts
needs lots of examples, it looks funny to students at first.

Sandwich contractions’ key points:
USED ONLY WITHIN A WORD
Least favored single cell contractions

Keep drilling them with words like: ear hear bear wearing. It is so tempting
for students to contract the (ea) next to an e(ar) that you must correct this
aggressively and encourage them to look for the r after an ea.

Go through a lot of words on the board.
Another practice we do is print out a copy of the drills or lessons with lots of
errors and pass it out for proofreading quiz to correct in class together.
Students begin to teach each other, students start to talk about the correct
contractions and why they are used, we review the corrections together. This
is another way to “pull the lesson off the page.”

                                   LESSON 9
           Initial Letter Contractions and More Short Form Words


This is our handout for the Initial Letter Contractions. It makes those
exceptions a little easier to digest and provides a nice guide for the student.




                                                                              15
                     Initial Letter Contractions

                          The Dot 5 Series

     RULES

1. Original pronunciation must be maintained

As long as the original sound of the word in maintained, initial-
letter contractions are used in proper names, as parts of hyphenated
compound expressions, and in dialectal words containing
apostrophes.

     EXCEPTIONS

know
knowledgeable — know can be used
acknowledge — know can be used

ought
can be used despite pronunciation BUT
not in Houghton when pronounced like a long o

one
can be used when o and n land in the same syllable
gone, phone, honest, money, monetary
NOT used when n begins a new syllable
NOT in pho/net/tic, pi/o/neer, colo/nel,
can't cross a major syllable division

some
must retain sound AND form a complete syllable in the base word

part
can be used even if it does not retain original sound

                                                                  16
                                LESSON 10
           Final-Letter Contractions and More Short-Form Words

Stress to students to read their list of short-form words out loud every day.
This is a list you do need to know backwards and forwards.

Review basic contractions rules and remind them that after Lesson 11 you
will know all your contractions and short form words.

                                LESSON 11
                              Short-Form Words

Another “quick answer” they should know about short form words is that
they cannot be divided between lines, a division only can be made between a
short form and a syllable addition.

One of the first things we do in class is hand back the homework and review
the mistakes. It is important to NOT give up the answers too quickly. Make
the students look it up, they need the skill in finding the answers in the book.
We want transcribers who look things up!

We have another “stupid human sound” to add to our list and to add to our
“don’t follow print list”.

Hm is brailled h’m

Know that we know the entire list we have sporadic reviews and quizzes.
Stupid Human Sounds: sh, er, ow, hm

Now that we know all the contractions and short-form words we like to
bring in articles, we have an article on Louis Braille, and have students circle
the contractions, point out the joiners, mark where the and, of, the, with, a,
are smashed together. This is a method of practicing your braille away from
home, grab a newspaper and mark it up.


YOU KNOW IT ALL … LET’S HAVE A MID-TERM 
We also hand out our MASTER CHEAT SHEET which lists all the
contractions and short form words large print and in alphabetical order.



                                                                                17
                                        Mid-Term
                                       March 15, 2006

Name: ______________________________________

Current Lesson: _______


1. What signs do NOT terminate the effect of the number sign?

list the signs:

give a print example of each:




cite rule:

2. In deciding whether to use a hyphen or a dash you …
a. compare the length, a long mark is a dash, the shorter mark is a hyphen
b. go with the hyphen just to be safe
c. substitute the words "to or through" and if it makes sense use a hyphen
d. substitute the words "to or through" and if it makes sense use a dash

3. In what cell is a paragraph started in braille?

cite page and section in manual:




                                                                             18
4. The words "and, for, of, the, with, a" are generally brailled with no space in between
them. What are the 3 times you do not join these words together?

a.

b.

c.

Cite the rule and/or page number of manual.

4. Define a Major syllable division (you may quote from the manual)




5. If you have to hyphenate a word and you will lose a contraction you …


6. What is the lower-sign rule?



7. List the sandwich contractions.


What is special about this group of contractions?




                                                                                            19
              Circle the contractions you would use in the phrases below.

St Paul Street is just around the corner from St. Augustine Church.

Toni Goodey's landlord refuses to water the yard or fix the sink.

My childhood was plagued with earaches, sniffles and fever.

At 5:30-hmmm, maybe they said 5:00 o'clock, it will be time to eat.

Sometimes hunters put out dunkin' doughnuts to trap bear.

Misha was my favorite character in the play, mainly because the part was played by my
friend.

After Hermione drives my car I have to readjust all my mirrors and seat settings.

Stephanie quickly paid the bill before her guests returned to the table.

We need to go visit our grandparents. When the weather turns cold they become virtual
shut-ins.

I have started keeping track of my mileage. Little bits all all up.

Brailling takes a lot of time and knowledge, but since the children have left the nest I
have extra time to spare.

Mother is obsessed with genealogy. Her great-great-great grandmother's maiden name
was By.

Now braille these phrases on your PERKINS
      … just kidding, you can use Perky Duck.




                                                                                           20
Write out the limitations of the follow contractions, cite the section number in the
manual.

+


-


2


6


#


7


9. Can you use a short form word in a proper name? Explain.


10. Compare and contrast the words grandchild and grand-child


11. What are the rules for using "com" as a contraction?


12. What symbol is used to represent a blank?




                                                                                       21
TRUE OR FALSE

a. Short form words can only be divided after the first syllable

b. the contracted word "were" can't touch ANYTHING

c. Joiners (to, into, by) can not be used with numbers

d. progress can be hyphenated two different ways

e. editor, edition and edit all use the (ed) contraction

f. Proper names don't need to be hyphenated

g. you add an "n" when you braille 2d

h. You can't contract the word "enough" when it touches punctuation because of the
lower sign rule

i. an –ed ending always adds an extra syllable

j. and, for, of, the, & with are the #1 preferred contraction to use


EXTRA CREDIT

List three times when you do not follow print.

a.

b.

c.




                                                                                     22
Foreign Words in English Text (Literary)

                       English Text


        Anglicized                      Foreign
   specialized terminology
dialect & corrupted foreign words



                                                    distinctive typeface and/or
                    Regular typeface                     enclosed in quotes



First Question: Is it truly foreign or is it anglicized?

if the word appears in a dictionary less than 10 years old and is not
specified as a foreign word it can be considered anglicized,
anglicized material uses contractions and letter signs.

Second Question: Is the foreign material in a distinctive typeface
and/or enclosed in quotations?
                                      Foreign words in
Foreign words in                      Distinctive Typeface
Regular Typeface                      and/or enclosed in quotes

USE contractions                         DO NOT use contractions

USE letter signs                         DO NOT use letter signs

Accent marks (of any kind) are shown with a dot 4 preceding the
accented letter. Accented letters may not form part of a
contraction.


                                                                         23
Foreign Words in Regular Typeface (Literary)

CONTRACTIONS
Even though we are to use contractions and letter signs we still
have guidelines to adhere to, namely:

DO NOT use a contraction where it could cause difficulty in the
recognition of a word.

Let's break this down into specific questions:

1. Does the foreign word have the same spelling as an English
word?

Was ist das?
Får jab be om natam!

2. If the foreign word were contracted would it look like an
English word?

Alphabet contractions and "en" if contracted could be mistaken for
English words. Spell them out to avoid confusion.

tae kwon do
Erin go bragh
en la tarde            (contracted (en) could be read as "enough")

3. If the foreign word is fully contracted do any of the contractions
span syllable divisions, does this make pronunciation difficult?

al fine
"al fi-ne"




                                                                   24
Foreign Words in Regular Typeface (Literary)

LETTER SIGNS

Use letter signs before any single letter or letter combination that
corresponds to a short form word.

;al dente

;e pluribus unum


Foreign Word in Distinctive Typeface (Literary)
NO CONTRACTIONS NO LETTER SIGNS

In our literary manual it points out that if you had this sentence,
where the two ships are italicized for being proper nouns, you
would still uncontract Derffinger as it is a foreign name in a
distinctive type face.

During the Battle of Jutland, the German Derffinger sank the
Queen Mary.




adhere would be uncontracted as well


   English names in foreign phrases, leave uncontracted

Mother reminisced about le bon President Kennedy.


                                                                       25
LESSON 17

Warn your students ahead of time that the Drill 33 has mistakes in it. It will
save a lot of frustration.

LESSON 18

Seek out service projects for your students. This will remind them that you
take the course to create braille … braille that somebody reads and needs!

Point our basic format configurations like list format. Start to use transcriber
terminology such as “block it in 5”, 1/3 or 3/1.

Remember in braille we have a tendency to NOT leave a blank line when a
margin indention will illustrate the change.

LESSON 19

We break this chapter down into
   Headings and Attributions
   Preliminary Pages
   Text Pages




                                                                              26
Here is an example of our headings class:

8/25/05 Vets

Basic Formatting Rules

Headings (Page 19-1)

Running Head
Centered Heading
Cell-5 Heading
Paragraph Heading

Running Head (19.1d)
    appears on every page of a book except the Title Page and the 1st page of text.
    The full title already appears on these two pages.
    A Running Head is a double-capped centered title (1 braille line in length, on
      line1).
    3 blank cells are needed on either side of the Running Head.
    If you have a really long title, you’ll need to shorten it in accordance with 19.1d
      bulleted items.
    You don’t need to leave a blank space after the running head when you have
      continuation of text, unless a break in context occurs at this point.
    If you’re brailling the name of a book in a series, only braille the title of the book,
      not the title of the series.

Centered Heading (19.1c(1))
    Centered (runovers are centered, as well)
    Major section headings
    Blank line before & a blank line after (exceptions to be discussed)
    When a centered heading starts a braille page, you would have a blank line after
       the Running Head
    A centered heading can follow a centered heading
    Ignore special typeface when using centered headings
    Leave a minimum of 3 blank cells at the beginning and at the end of each line of a
       centered heading.

Cell-5 Heading (19.1c(2))
    Starts in 5th cell (4 blank spaces, and then begin)
    Runovers start in cell-5
    Used for smaller divisions
    Always a blank line before cell-5 headings, never a blank line afterwards
       (exceptions to be discussed)
    You can never follow a cell-5 heading with another cell-5 heading


                                                                                          27
Paragraph Heading (19.1c(3))
    Italicize the paragraph heading. Follow print capitalization. Ex.:
   SOUIX INDIANS. The Souix Indians are from the Great Lakes Region.

Blank lines and breaks in text (19.1e)
    Only 1 blank line in braille, even if it takes up more blanks in print
    When the blank line happens on line 25, skip the 1st available line on the next
       page (line 3) to show the blank line
    If print page has dots, stars, or other symbols to indicate a break in text, put 3
       asterisks, separated from each other by 1 blank space, centered on the line. Do
       not leave a blank line either before or after the line containing the series of
       asterisks. If the asterisks occur on line 25, you don’t need to leave a blank line at
       the top of the next page.

Attributions
     The rule is to place the credit line 4 cells to the right of the beginning of the
       preceding braille line.
     The entire attribution should be blocked (all lines start in the same cell).
     Do not leave a blank before or after an attribution, unless required by other braille
       formats. (Page 17-5, 17.5a)
     Ignore special typefaces unless needed for emphasis or distinction.
     Ex: Page 17-13, #10 – “John Winston” belongs in cell-5


LESSON 20 Your Manuscript




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