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WORLD HISTORY SECTION 1 Time-55 minutes 70 questions 1. Persian political organization included which of the following features? (A) An emperor who was little more than a figure head (B) Lower-level officials drawn from local authorities (C) A civil service that took exams (D) A large contingent of educated Greeks recruited from outside the empire who nonetheless held key positions in the imperial administration 2. Which of the following was a unique feature of Greek political life? (A) Representative democracy (B) The idea of free people running the affairs of state (C) The universal right to vote for all men and women above the age of sixteen (D) Equality of women before the law 3. Solon brought which of the following reforms to Athens after 594 B.C.E.? (A) Representative democracy (B) The creation of debt slavery as a way of helping the poor pay off loans (C) Limited access to public office for slaves (D) The right of all citizens to participate in the Assembly 4. Classical Greece in 500 B.C.E. (A) had a much larger population than the Persian Empire. (B) was an expansive civilization like the Persian Empire. (C) possessed little sense of citizenship compared to the Persian Empire. (D) possessed greater ethnic diversity than the Persian Empire. 5. The political culture of classical Greek civilization was different from that of Persia because (A) only the Persian Empire offered equality for all citizens before the law. (B) Greek civilization allowed for the limited participation of women in public assemblies. (C) unlike Persia, no idea of citizenship developed in Greece. (D) only Greek civilization experimented with the idea of free people running the affairs of state. 6. The Hellenistic era was (A) initiated by Sparta’s defeat of Athens in the Peloponnesian War. (B) marked by a spread of Greek culture into the lands of the Persian Empire. (C) the time of the Roman Empire’s greatest expansion. (D) the decades immediately following Rome’s conquest of Carthage. 7. Despite other difficulties, long-distance trade in the Americas was facilitated by (A) wheeled vehicles. (B) the spread of the Chavín cult from the Andean region to Mesoamerica. (C) the isthmus of Panama. (D) the pochteca, a professional Aztec merchant class who undertook large scale trading expeditions beyond the borders of the empire. 8. In which third-wave civilization did the state largely control trade, not allowing a professional merchant class to emerge? (A) China (B) Inca (C) Aztec (D) Great Zimbabwe 9. Mesoamerica and the Andes (A) ran similar regional economies controlled by the state, which tried to suppress all private merchant activity. (B) were in close contact, creating by far the largest and most important long-distance trade network in the Americas. (C) had little to trade with each other, because both regions grew the same crops and had the same resources. (D) seem to have had little direct contact with each other. 10. Which of the following was the last of the First Civilizations to emerge? (A) Olmec (B) China (C) Norte Chico (D) Indus Valley 11. Scholars have advanced which of the following as a possible explanation for the origins of the First Civilizations? (A) The settlement of peoples in particularly rich agricultural regions where there were no limits on the amount of land that could be cultivated (B) The end of the practice of slavery in a region (C) The emergence of regions where no military elite took shape and peace reigned (D) The need to organize large-scale irrigation projects 12. Which of the following was a feature of Egyptian rather than Mesopotamian civilization? (A) Salinization of the soil leading to a collapse in the production of wheat in most areas along the upper Nile (B) Frequent and devastating invasions of Egypt by outsiders because of a lack of physical barriers (C) Rivalry between autonomous Egyptian city-states (D) A more cheerful and hopeful outlook on the world, as expressed in part through Egyptian religious beliefs 13. Which of the following statements about ancient Egypt is true? (A) The state was ruled by pharaohs who were believed to be gods in human form. (B) Cities were more important in Egypt than in Mesopotamia. (C) Egyptians believed that only the pharaohs enjoyed eternal life. (D) The Nile was an unpredictable river whose erratic floods regularly destroyed crops. 14. The territory of ancient Mesopotamia is presently occupied by which country? (A) Iran (B) Afghanistan (C) Iraq (D) India 15. The rulers of this First Civilization held authority thanks to the Mandate of Heaven. (A) Egypt (B) China (C) Olmec (D) Mesopotamia 16. In which of the following areas did agriculture not develop separately and independently? (A) The Andes (B) Mesoamerica (C) New Guinea (D) India 17. In which of the following regions were animals domesticated before crops? (A) Northeast Africa (B) The Fertile Crescent (C) West Africa (D) Mesoamerica 18. The end of the last Ice Age laid the foundation for the Agricultural Revolution by (A) breaking the land bridge that connected the Americas to Siberia. (B) creating a warmer, wetter, and more stable climate. (C) increasing population density by forcing humans to move toward the equator. (D) contributing to the flourishing of large mammals upon which Paleolithic peoples depended. 19. Which of the following was a greater challenge to the establishment of agriculture in Eurasia as compared to the Americas? (A) The lack of rich cereal grains to domesticate in Eurasia (B) The east/west orientation of Eurasia as opposed to the north/south of the Americas (C) The threat of deadly diseases caught from domesticated animals because Eurasia domesticated more animals than their American counterparts (D) The lack of large mammals suitable for domestication in Eurasia 20. The spread of agriculture through diffusion and migration (A) resulted in the spread of language groups. (B) always benefited the gather-hunter peoples with whom migrants came into contact. (C) resulted in India receiving crops only from Southwest Asia. (D) resulted in the widespread dissemination of crops from New Guinea. 21. New Guinea and sub-Saharan Africa were similar in that both (A) failed to domesticate any large animals. (B) had crops that spread to other regions of Eurasia. (C) adopted their crops from other regions rather than domesticating their own. (D) developed agriculture separately and independently. 22. Crops spread more slowly in the Americas as compared to Eurasia in part because (A) of the north/south orientation of the American continents. (B) the successful domestication of large mammals by the Americans made crop domestication less important. (C) warfare was more endemic in the Americas. (D) farmers in the Americas developed no grain crop that could sustain large populations. 23. Which of the following distinguishes the development of agriculture in the Fertile Crescent from the development of agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa? (A) Only in the Fertile Crescent was a grain crop domesticated. (B) Only in the Fertile Crescent did humans domesticate a large mammal. (C) Only in sub-Saharan Africa did several widely scattered farming practices emerge. (D) Only the crops of sub-Saharan Africa spread far beyond the area of their original domestication. 24. In what way did the Chinese response to the global silver economy differ from the Japanese response? (A) The Chinese economy became diversified; the Japanese economy did not. (B) Chinese merchants began exporting goods to other lands; Japan did not. (C) Inflation destroyed the Chinese economy, but aided the Japanese economy. (D) Economic changes resulted in ecological devastation in China, but not in Japan. 25. Within the Islamic world, (A) most slaves were male. (B) some slaves acquired prominent military or political status. (C) nearly all slaves were drawn from southern Russia. (D) slavery was equated strongly with blackness. 26. Which of the following statements is true of the West African slave trade? (A) European merchants secured most of their slaves by seizing them in raids along the West African coast. (B) In general, European merchants waited on board their ships or in fortified port cities to purchase slaves from African merchants and elites. (C) Europeans possessed immunities to the diseases of the region, giving them an advantage in controlling the trade. (D) Africa’s domestic economy benefited greatly from the slave trade. 27. The number of slaves shipped from Africa to the Americas peaked (A) between 1450 and 1600. (B) in the 1600s. (C) in the 1700s. (D) in the 1800s. 28. What were the most common destinations in the Americas for West African slaves? (A) British North America and the United States (B) The Caribbean and Brazil (C) Mexico (D) Chile and Argentina 29. How did African slavery in the New World differ fundamentally from past instances of slavery in world history? (A) Black Africans had never before been enslaved. (B) Slavery previously was only practiced in the Middle East. (C) Slavery in the Americas was clearly associated with race and with plantation economies. (D) Slaves were usually not transported long distances. 30. How did the discovery of silver mines in Japan impact Japanese fortunes? (A) The ruling shogunate isolated Japan even more, fearing that greedy Europeans would conquer and enslave Japanese for their silver as they did in the Andes. (B) The ruling shogunate used the silver to buy a large military and luxury goods for the elites, but did nothing to help commoners. (C) The ruling shogunate wisely invested wealth from the mines to create a sustainable market- based economy and ecology. (D) The ruling shogunate disintegrated into civil war and anarchy as factions fought over control of the silver mines. 31. The Protestant Reformation offered women (A) more alternatives to marriage than were offered by the medieval Catholic Church. (B) generally more opportunities to play an official role within their churches. (C) more opportunity to use their education outside the home. (D) fewer female objects of veneration. 32. Which of the following is true of the Protestant Reformation? (A) It maintained its unity as it spread. (B) The invention of the printing press facilitated its spread. (C) The movement began in France. (D) It discouraged independent reading of the scriptures. 33. Wang Mang’s reform program following his seizure of the Chinese throne in 8 B.C.E. included (A) the creation and promotion of large private estates. (B) official recognition for the practice of private slavery. (C) oversight of government officials by local landlords. (D) government loans to peasant families. 34. Like First Civilizations, those of the classical era (A) were patriarchal in organization. (B) rarely included slaves. (C) were based upon written constitutions. (D) possessed social orders defined by castes. 35. China was unique in the ancient world in the extent to which (A) its social organization was shaped by the actions of the state. (B) the caste system defined its social structure. (C) women were allowed a role in public life. (D) the prestige that merchants possessed in the social order. 36. India and China during the classical era were similar in that in both societies (A) social prestige was primarily attained through service to the state. (B) it was common for people of low social status to rise into the highest castes or social classes through hard work. (C) priority was given to religious status and ritual purity. (D) sharp distinctions and great inequalities characterized the social order. 37. Once the system of jatis in India was established, (A) individual jatis were locked into an unchanging hierarchy in relation to other jatis. (B) an individual jati could slowly raise its standing in relation to other jatis in the local hierarchy by acquiring land or wealth. (C) no individual could be expelled from his or her jati. (D) marriage within jatis became taboo. 38. In comparison to Han China, all of the city states of classical Greece possessed (A) slave systems that came to associate slavery primarily with race. (B) economies less heavily reliant on slaves. (C) more freedoms for women, including some political rights. (D) economies more heavily reliant on slaves. 39. In classical Athens, (A) the growth of democracy was accompanied by the simultaneous growth of slavery on a massive scale. (B) a slave who was freed by his or her master became a citizen of the city-state. (C) slaves made up no more than 3 percent of the total population. (D) slavery was criticized by the greatest of the Greek philosophers including Aristotle, and was ultimately outlawed in society as a whole. 40. In which of the following ancient societies did women enjoy the fewest restrictions? (A) Han China (B) Athens (C) Imperial Rome (D) Sparta 41. Which of the following philosophies and religions provided a unifying ideology for peasant rebellions? (A) Hinduism (B) Confucianism (C) Daoism (D) Zoroastrianism 42. In classical civilizations, (A) upper-class women had a tendency to live less restricted lives than lower-class women. (B) women in general experienced fewer restrictions compared to those living in pastoral societies. (C) public life in general was a male domain, while women’s roles took place mostly in domestic settings. (D) patriarchy was only present in Rome and China. 43. Which of the following distinguished the experience of women in Sparta from those in Athens? (A) Upper-class women in Sparta were more strictly confined to the home than those in Athens. (B) In Sparta, women married men of about their own age. (C) Athenian women were able to participate in their democratic government, whereas Spartan women were unable to participate in their oligarchic government. (D) In Athens, elite women were strongly encouraged to learn to read and write. 44. Sufis (A) rejected the idea that one can have direct or personal contact with Allah. (B) renounced the material world in the pursuance of spiritual union with Allah. (C) was an exclusively male movement with no place for women. (D) believed that careful compliance with the sharia was the primary means by which the believer was brought into the presence of God. 45. Sufi missionaries helped to convert groups in Anatolia or India to Islam by (A) promoting the enforcement of the sharia by local Islamic rulers. (B) suggesting that Christianity and Islam were merely different versions of the same faith. (C) initiating campaigns that led to the suppression of Christian and Hindu schools. (D) suppressing local gods and religious festivals by force. 46. The cross-regional ties created in the expanding Islamic world (A) brought no new crops to the Middle East but benefited Indian agriculture greatly. (B) facilitated the largest exchange of agricultural products and practices from one region to another in world history prior to Europe’s encounter with the Americas. (C) facilitated little in the way of technological exchange. (D) made Muslim merchants dominant players in all of the major trade routes other than the Indian Ocean basin. 47. Which of the following was a reason for the rapid expansion of the Islamic/Arab Empire in the century following the death of Muhammad? (A) The weakened condition of the Byzantine and Persian empires (B) A smooth succession of caliphs selected by election (C) A strong desire to punish infidels (D) The uniting of all Arabs behind Muhammad’s relative Ali 48. Why did pastoral societies emerge only in the Afro-Eurasian world and not in the Americas? (A) The environments in the Americas were not suitable for pastoral societies. (B) The settled societies in the Americas lacked the necessary military prowess. (C) There was a lack of large animals that could be domesticated. (D) Agriculture only arrived with European settlers after 1492. 49. Which of the following is true of pastoral societies? (A) In general, they lived entirely from the products of their animals. (B) Most pastoral societies actively sought food stuffs, manufactured goods, and luxury items from agricultural civilizations. (C) Pastoral societies possessed weaker armies because of their smaller populations and so could only deal with agricultural societies on terms set by farming peoples. (D) Pastoral societies rejected the universal world religions of agricultural societies, because such religions were too incompatible with their ways of life. 50. In comparison to the Mongol conquests of Persia and China, Russia experienced (A) much less devastation because Russian cities were better able to repel Mongol sieges. (B) a different post-conquest relationship with the Mongols because the Mongols chose not to occupy the region physically. (C) more dramatic political change, with all native Russian princes being replaced by Mongol lords. (D) greater religious change, with the Russian Orthodox church losing influence over a large portion of the population. 51. In the longer term, the population losses associated with the Black Plague in Western Europe resulted in (A) greater employment opportunities for women, at least for a time. (B) an increase in the practice of serfdom as a way of dealing with the scarcity of labor. (C) better relations between rich landowners and poor workers, who all had to work together to survive. (D) a lessening of interest in technological innovation because so many skilled members of society had perished. 52. Constructing large empires among pastoralists was no easy task because in general (A) the conquest of agricultural societies offered little attraction to self-sufficient pastoral peoples. (B) the egalitarian social structure of pastoral nomads left no room for charismatic potential leaders to distinguish themselves. (C) pastoral societies possessed the wealth needed to construct professional armies and bureaucracies but chose not to use wealth in this manner. (D) internal rivalry between clans of pastoralists made enduring political unity difficult to achieve. 53. Like the Turks, the Arabs (A) relied primarily on the raising of crops rather than the tending of animals. (B) never succeeded in banding together into large confederations. (C) played no role in the spread of Islam. (D) originated in the central Asian steppes. 54. Unlike the Masai, the Xiongnu (A) were agriculturalists who only became pastoralists in the eighteenth century. (B) failed to form a large military confederacy. (C) placed their adolescent boys in “age-sets” with boys from agricultural villages on the borders of their territories. (D) relied heavily on the horse. 55. The Mongol conquests in China (A) led to the unification of a divided China, with the north and south of the kingdom once again coming under the rule of one dynasty. (B) led to the fragmentation of China into a Mongol-dominated north and a native Song dynasty-dominated south. (C) resulted in the return of North China to pasture land for Mongol herds in the 1230s through the mass deportation of settled peoples by the Great Khan Ogodei. (D) brought an end to all Chinese administrative practices and their replacement with Persian models. 56. The Turks differed from the Xiongnu in that only the (A) Turks succeeded in organizing powerful military confederations. (B) Xiongnu used the horse in battle. (C) Turks played an important role in the spread of a major world religion. (D) Xiongnu were successful in creating an empire. 57. Which of the following resulted from Mongol rule over Russia? (A) The adoption by Russian princes of completely mounted armies (B) The rise of Kiev to renewed prominence in Russian history (C) The adoption by Russian princes of the Mongols' diplomatic rituals and court practices (D) The dispatch of a Byzantine army that reconquered the region 58. Which of the following was a way in which the Mongols contributed to the globalization of the Eurasian world? (A) The sometimes forced movement of skilled people around the empire facilitated the exchange of ideas and technologies. (B) Their immunity to several deadly diseases allowed them to maintain long-distance trade routes even as agricultural societies along them succumbed to epidemics. (C) Their promotion of Islam as the only true faith in the empire gave the whole empire a shared culture. (D) The Mongol conquest of Vietnam and Japan allowed these two regions to fully integrate into the Eurasian trade networks for the first time. 59. This Muslim empire forcibly imposed a Shia version of Islam as the official religion of the state. (A) The Safavid Empire (B) The Mughal Empire (C) The Ethiopian Empire (D) The Songhay Empire 60. Which of the following is true of the peoples of Australia in the fifteenth century? (A) They lived in chiefdoms. (B) They had mastered the practice of horticulture-based farming. (C) They exchanged goods among themselves over long distances. (D) Gathering and hunting became less prominent in regions where permanent agriculture took shape. 61. Which of the following statements concerning mid-18th-century Western society is most accurate? (A) Agricultural changes, commercialism, and manufacturing had combined to produce a rapidly growing population in the West. (B) As a result of the Enlightenment, established churches no longer were forces to be reckoned with in Western society. (C) The spread of domestic manufacturing destroyed the traditional habits and family patterns of earlier Europe. (D) Most people believed that population growth was self-regulating due to the occurrence of famines. 62. Why did the Russian expansion policy focus particularly on central Asia? (A) The Russians wished to seize control of the trade routes with China. (B) Most of the Russian population remained ethnically Mongol with clear cultural ties to central Asia. (C) There were natural barriers to westward expansion. (D) The Russians were motivated by a desire to push the former Mongol overlords farther back to prevent renewed invasion. 63 Politically, what aspects of Western culture did Peter the Great emulate in Russia? (A) Parliamentary government (B) Aristocratic control of the bureaucracy (C) Royal control over the bureaucracy and reorganized military (D) Republicanism 64. Which of the following statements concerning the political voice of the Russian nobility is most accurate? (A) The politics of the Russian nobility were expressed through service in the tsarist state and the preeminent power they wielded over the peasant serfs. (B) The Russian nobility exercised enormous influence through the powerful assemblies that continued to legislate through the 18th century. (C) The exclusion of the Russian nobility under Catherine the Great from any role in the central government or the military relegated them to strictly local authority. (D) Under Catherine the Great the Russian nobility was virtually exterminated. 65. Which of the following is NOT indicative of Russiaʹs growing economic dependence on the West during the 18th century? (A) Exportation of raw materials-furs, grain, and timber (B) Importation of luxuries and some manufactured goods (C) A coercive labor system (D) Self-sufficiency in metals and weapons 66. How did the Polish government differ from the Russian model after 1600? (A) Poland was more urbanized. (B) The central government was powerless. (C) Poland lacked a landed aristocracy. (D) It was a monarchy. 67. Which of the following was NOT considered a factor in the development of large kingdoms in Africa? (A) A population expansion that followed the diffusion of iron tools and improved agriculture (B) The collapse of the Christian kingdom in Ethiopia in the face of Muslim advance (C) European demand for slaves (D) The use of firearms 68. Which of the following statements concerning the early Portuguese trade forts is most accurate? (A) The Portuguese trade forts permitted the political control of much of the African interior. (B) Where Portuguese trade forts were established, large European colonies rapidly developed. (C) Most of the forts were established with the agreement or license of local rulers. (D) The Portuguese trade forts were the nodal points for colonial administration on the model of the American colonies. 69. In what way did the trans-Saharan slave trade differ from that of the Atlantic slave trade? (A) The Atlantic slave trade was carried out almost exclusively by Muslims. (B) The African preference for retaining young male slaves to extend kinship lines implied that primarily women were available to the Atlantic trade, while men converted to Islam were more likely trade objects for the trans-Saharan trade. (C) The trans-Saharan slave trade concentrated on women, but Atlantic slave trade concentrated on young men. (D) The trans-Saharan slave trade was much more arduous and cruel than the trans-Atlantic trade. 70. Which of the following statements concerning slavery on the continent of Africa before the arrival of the Europeans is most accurate? (A) Most African societies were egalitarian; people enjoyed the same social status, slavery was generally unknown. (B) Slavery in Africa was restricted to those areas where Islamic influence had introduced the concept in the period after the 7th century. (C) While common elsewhere in Africa, slavery was not common in the forest states of west Africa prior to the coming of the Europeans. (D) In many African societies, the control of slaves was one of the few ways in which individuals or lineages could increase their wealth and status.
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