N&A Report

					N&A Engineering (PVT) Ltd.                                    Basic Industrial Training


                          CHAPTER 01
             INTRODUCTION OF THE TRAINING ESTABLISHMENT

1.1 INTRODUCTION
                  N & A Engineering Services (Pvt) Ltd Provide good opportunities
for trainees to get site experience. Currently they had lot of project and they are
doing those projects very fast. Therefore as a trainee, I could cover the whole
structural parts and the finishing parts. Organization also had Qualified and
experienced staff to guide us during the training period. As a M1 Construction
company, they exposed to modern technology and the equipment .Therefore we had
opportunities to familiarized with new technology currently use in the world. They
had used new computer software likes Auto Cad2007 and Microsoft project
planning. That software we had thoroughly gone through in academic period.
                  Staff members always help to overcome problems which we have in
the training .we can ask any question relevant to the construction and the design
from the staff. Within the organization from minor staff to site engineers kindly
talked with us and also shared their experience with us.
                  During my training period I was under the site manager .working
conditions were same as the staff. They expected trainees must work Sunday &
Holiday also. In our site there were six trainees .Some of them had opportunities to
cover overall works done in the site. But top management pointed me brick work
and structural and all-round office work. There was freedom to walk around site and
get ideas about other activities.
                 Especially site manager had confidence to give responsibility and he
appreciated our hard working. He was tried to increase trainee’s motivation and he
never treat as trainees. Always communicated with me and give responsibility to get
decisions and carried out work.
                  I was appreciated to IET and NAITA to give this opportunity to me
they have given a chance to deal with famous construction company such as N & A
Engineering Services (Pvt) Ltd. The Head of the Dept. of training of IET well listened
to us and helped to overcome problems.
                    I appreciated NAITA, because they had given the organization to
us. I appreciated they had visited the site and checked our diaries explain the how to
write successful diaries. I believe they had ability to talk with organization and put

                        National Diploma in Engineering Sciences.
                            Institute of Engineering Technology.
                                      Katunayake                                          1
N&A Engineering (PVT) Ltd.                                    Basic Industrial Training


student different activities in the site. I Think NAITA should include the claim about
training hours and maximum working days should per week.
                    I was satisfied about my industrial training. I got opportunity to
involved project from middle after the started to finish. Now I have confidence to
work in any high rise building project. Also I familiarized with equipment and
construction methods which I have learned in my academic period. Drawing studies
more important for me. I had chance to compare the architectural drawing and
structural drawings short out the problems. When working in the site, future
planning is more important. I was able to work with lot of people and handle them. I
was unable to practice in the financial side during the training. But overall I had good
training period in my carrier and it will be help me in future also.


                  According to my experience in site workers were not motivated
well. Management always tries to force them. Therefore their intention for work was
not positive. First Management should set the goals for staff and should give the
responsibility. It was help to change attitudes of the staff. Then staff should prepare
the minds of workers. This can do easily by given targets to them.

                  In Proposed House for DAWAT-E-HADIYAH project client had
one engineering staff and managing Directors. Therefore three parties directly
involved to the projects. Consultant staffs were not enough for the site. Because they
have to inspect buildings. Client also helps to them. But they haven’t any power to
get decision about the structural part.

                     I think client, consultant and contractor should join together
and carried out the work. Then they can easily short out the problems. In building
construction communication is much important. It will be affects to the staff and
workers. The construction engineer must develop the patient. As a trainee, I think
contractor must patient but should argue based on correct information with
consultant. He should kind for the workers and tries to motivate them necessarily.
Then contractor can easily achieve their goals at relevant time.




                        National Diploma in Engineering Sciences.
                            Institute of Engineering Technology.
                                      Katunayake                                           2
N&A Engineering (PVT) Ltd.                                   Basic Industrial Training


1.2 ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
      The organizational culture of the N & A Engineering Services (Pvt) Ltd can be
said to be an achievements culture, were the achievement of the organization goal is
the main objective was each individual and department of the company.
      All most everybody is making a big sacrifice for the company. Especially for
this period, all the employees in the company do their jobs in their level best and
work hard to get new jobs without thinking extra payments. The best thing I observe
in this company if someone free from his work, he always give his service to others.
The major characteristic of the N & A Engineering Services has is the employers can
be think freedom and can present their ideas to the directors of the company.




1.2.1 COMMUNICATION

      The higher degree of communication that exists among the all sections is the
major strength of the company. With in the company, as every one is aware of what
is going on and there fore they can contribute there maximum to make it a success.
Especially with the on going project is always connected with a telephone system.



1.3 SPECIAL PROJECTS
The special on going projects doing by the N & A Engineering Services (Pvt) Ltd
during this year.


           Construction & completion of proposed apartment project at DWAT-
             E-HADIYAH, NO.247/55, Vijaya Kumaratunga mawatha, Colombo-
             05.


           Construction & completion of proposed apartment project at No: 04,
            Greenlend Avenue, Colombo 05 for Mandakini residencies.


           Proposed Construction & completion of “FURNITUR ARCADE”
             building at 670/1 idama, Galle road, Moratuwa.

                       National Diploma in Engineering Sciences.
                           Institute of Engineering Technology.
                                     Katunayake                                          3
N&A Engineering (PVT) Ltd.                                    Basic Industrial Training



          Construction & completion of proposed apartment complex “GOLDEN
           ARC” at No: 57/5, Railway Avenue, Nugegoda for E.T.I.Homes.


          Construction & completion of proposed 8 storied steel building at Bray
              Brook place, for MTN Networks (pvt) ltd.


          Construction & completion of proposed shops and residencies building
              for the curry bowl restaurant (pvt) ltd at No: 24, Deal place, Colombo
              03.


1.4 DETAILS OF PROJECT

    Project                      : Proposed apartment for DAWAT-E-HADIYAH

    Client                       : DAWAT-E- HADIYAH (Sri Lanka),
                                    41, Glenaber place, Colombo 04.

    Consultant                   : Building Services consultants

    Architects                   : Design Cues (pvt) Ltd.

    Contractor                   : N &A engineering Services (Pvt) Ltd.

    Contract sum                 : 205 Millions

    Type of Contact              : Measure & Pay

    Date of Commencement : 1st of May 2007

    Defects liability period     : 365 calendar day

    Total Floor Area             : 50,200sqft.




                        National Diploma in Engineering Sciences.
                            Institute of Engineering Technology.
                                      Katunayake                                          4
N&A Engineering (PVT) Ltd.                                    Basic Industrial Training


                                     CHAPTER 02
 HISTORY OF TRAINING

      When I was training at N & A Engineering Services (Pvt) Ltd for a period of 1
year Basic Industrial Training programme, commencing from 07-07-2008 to 7-7-
2009, I was exposed to many activities took place in Polhengoda Apartment
Complex site, 237/55,Vijaya Kumaratunga Mw, Colombo 05.




Summary of the Training Performance:

    Setting out Work

    Leveling

    Formwork

    Reinforcement
    Concrete Work

    Finishes

    Tools & Machinery

    Labour handling

    Documentary Work




Following shows the description of general work carried out in this project.




                        National Diploma in Engineering Sciences.
                            Institute of Engineering Technology.
                                      Katunayake                                          5
N&A Engineering (PVT) Ltd.                                    Basic Industrial Training


                                      CHAPTER 03
SUMMARY OF TRAINING PERFORMANCE

SETTING OUT

Setting out is the process which is done to locate the shape of the building
plan on the ground.

LEVELING

Leveling is very important to done our construction correctly. Such as a corrected
height of slab top to slab top or floor level at any floor. If not gained correctly that,
many problems are occurring. Like water supply in the building.

REINFORCEMENT

Reinforcement is very important in construction taking most of the tensile
force, which are faced by reinforced concrete structure while concrete, takes
care of the compressive loads.


FORMWORK

Concrete is in liquid state therefore moulds are required to support it, forming
the desired shape until the concrete has set. That is the function of formwork

CONCRETE WORK

The   concrete    should     posses   the    Strength ,Durability, Impermeability and
resistance to abrasion required for the proposed structure.

BRICK WORK

9” & 4.5” wall contracted by using 1:5 mortars mixing. English and Flemish bond are
included.

PLASTERING

Plastering is main part of the finishing work. Beams, columns and wall ware plastered.
Chicken mesh is used for brick and concrete joints.


                        National Diploma in Engineering Sciences.
                            Institute of Engineering Technology.
                                      Katunayake                                            6
N&A Engineering (PVT) Ltd.                                     Basic Industrial Training


                                   CHAPTER 04
                                   SETTING OUT
4.1 INTRODUCTION

       Setting out is the most important part of the construction work. Correct
positions of each component can be correctly located by proper setting out. After
completion of cleaning and leveling of the land setting out was started. The
building was set out with reference to a grid system.


4.2 TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

      Theodolite
      Marking chord
      Tie square
      Steel tape
      Wire brush
      Lime brush
      Pencil
      Concrete nail




4.3 BASIC SETTING OUT

       Setting out is done with the reference to grid lines. When the grid lines are
given in the drawing, setting out is done with reference to these grid lines using any
type of technique means measuring angles or distances. In the absence of any kind
of grid lines detail first the location is at the site. Considering other requirements of
usage and setting out is done with reference to any base line or permanent
structure.
      The accuracy of setting out depends on the instrument which was used. There
are two types of measuring instruments one is measuring angles and other is by

                         National Diploma in Engineering Sciences.
                             Institute of Engineering Technology.
                                       Katunayake                                           7
N&A Engineering (PVT) Ltd.                                    Basic Industrial Training


length the whole setting out work is done either by measuring angles or by
measuring lengths or by measuring both. Setting out of a raft foundation is very
important and the accuracy of the whole structure is depending on it.
     In our site Theodolite is used to carryout setting out. Sensitivity of
Theodolite is high enough to do accurate setting out to this particular building.
Setting out was started from ground floor and continued to the other floors. If
error is not allowable setting out has to be done again.

4.4 IMPORTANCE OF SETTING OUT

      The results of setting out should be the true interpretation of the
information given in the drawings.

      Setting out should always have independent checks for readily detecting any
errors and well recorded methodical approach for future reference. The basic
requirements for setting out are the measurement of distance, the measurement of
angles and the establishment of levels.

4.5 SETTING OUT OF A COLUMN

      In column setting out first the corner columns are aligned using plum bob
and according to the dimension of the column sections and the centerlines are
marked. Then according to the detailed drawing other position of the other columns
centerlines are marked with help of grid lines. After locating the centers the
centerlines are marked on a cement grout base to avoid disappearance of the marks.


Grid line
Grid lines are shown in the drawing. 3’ off grid lines were marked on the RCC slab
according to the drawing. Theodelite, tape & ink marker were used to mark the grid
lines. From the grid lines columns position were marked.
     First the theodolite is stout over a base point and bisect a target set or
      another base point and clamped.
    Then nails are driven at different locations along the line which is
      described by the vertical cross hair of the telescope, to obtain the grid


                        National Diploma in Engineering Sciences.
                            Institute of Engineering Technology.
                                      Katunayake                                          8
N&A Engineering (PVT) Ltd.                                      Basic Industrial Training


      line on the floor.
    Then the line is marked using an inked thread holding between nails the
     lines perpendicular to the base line is also marked as required.
    The distances to the centre of each column from two perpendicular grid
     lines are calculated and noted down.
    Finally, by direct measurements from grid lines are marked to give the
     column centre.



                          Grid
                          llineslin                             Colum
                          es                                    n
                                                   18”


                                 22.5                      3’
                                 ”

                                3’ off
                                lines
                                  Colu
                                                                        15’9”
                                  mmn
                                  wall




                     3’               11’7”




                          National Diploma in Engineering Sciences.
                              Institute of Engineering Technology.
                                        Katunayake                                          9
N&A Engineering (PVT) Ltd.                                    Basic Industrial Training


                                  CHAPTER 05
                                   LEVELING

5.1 INTRODUCTION

      A temporary bench mark is given at the site for the datum of all the leveling
work of the building. All the excavation work has to be done according to the levels
given in the drawing. All the slab and beam work has to be done according to the
levels given in the drawings. By tightening and loosing the support jacks the correct
levels can be achieved. Therefore leveling is very important to the construction field.

5.2 EQUIPMENT USED FOR LEVELING
    Dumpy level or Engineering level
    Staff
    Hammer
In our site we used Dumpy level for leveling.



5.3 ADJUSTMENT OF THE LEVELING INSTRUMENT

There are two types of adjustments
  1. Permanent adjustment
  2. Temporary adjustment


1) Temporary Adjustment
      Fixing the instrument on stand.
      Leveling up to the instrument (Done approximately by the tripod legs and
      correctly by the leveling screws)
      Focusing the eye.
2) Permanent Adjustments
      Adjusting the circular level.
      To set the axis of the bubble tube parallel to the line of collimation.



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                            Institute of Engineering Technology.
                                      Katunayake                                          10
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5.4 PRACTICAL USAGE OF LEVELING
1. Thousand levels grid line for column
    After removing the column formwork, 1.000m level line was marked on the
column by using dumpy. The 3’ Level line & Grid line is given in the figure.




                     Fig5.4.1. Thousand line and Grid line




2. Slab and beam leveling
       After completed slab & beam reinforcement work, using tilting level checked
the slab & beam formwork level. (The slab & beam reinforcement work will be
discussed later chapters)




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                            Institute of Engineering Technology.
                                      Katunayake                                          11
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                        Bottom of the slab
                        formwork

      Dumpy
      level
                              A                  B


                                                             Column /
                                                             Shear wall
                                             C


                                                             3’ level
                                                             line



                             Fig 5.4.2. Slab leveling

 A – Height between bottom of the slab formwork and collimation line (Staff
 reading).
 B – Height between bottom of the slab formwork and 3’ level line.
 C – Height between 3’ level line and collimation line.
 In our site,
 There are two types of slab thickness 5”, 6’’, 7”, 8”.
 Take thickness of slab concrete = 5”
 Plywood thick = 15mm
 Height between two slab = 10’ 2”
 B = 10’ 2” – 5” – 3’ – 15mm
 A=B–C
 A should be (B – C)
 If it is not equal to (B – C) slab formwork level has to adjust to correct level by
 using adjustable jacks.




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                             Institute of Engineering Technology.
                                       Katunayake                                          12
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3. How to transfer the level to a floor
       Actual level of a floor can be transferred to that floor using level instrument
and steel tape. For this task we used the rectangular voids that we established to
transfer the grid to each floor. Those voids have been established exactly one above
the other. When transferring the level for a particular floor first we measured the
back sight of the instrument (while the staff on TBM) and foresight was measured by
focussing the instrument to the steel tape that was hung from the floor though
those rectangular voids. After that doing simple calculations we can measure the
actual level of the floor.



4. Column leveling
       Since column is one of most important element of a building. It was really
vertical. If it is not vertical it will affect the verticality of the building. Here under
column levelling we check the verticality and twisting of the column. Verticality of a
column can be measured using plumb bob. If the column is vertical the distance
between the formwork and the string of the plum bob was same in both top and
                                                           bottom. As shown in the
                                                           figure. For large column even
                                                           the column is vertical, it can be
                                                           twisted. So twisting can be
                                                           checked as shown in the figure.
                                                           For this we draw a line 300mm
                                                          away from the column face and
                                                           two plumb bobs are fixed as
                                                           shown in the figure. If the
                                                           column is not two plumb bobs
                                                           should fall in to the line.

                             

              Fig5.4.3. Column leveling




                         National Diploma in Engineering Sciences.
                             Institute of Engineering Technology.
                                       Katunayake                                              13
N&A Engineering (PVT) Ltd.                                        Basic Industrial Training


                                       CHAPTER 06
                                     REINFORCEMENT

6.1 INTRODUCTION


        In case of civil engineering construction the reinforcement is acting a major
character, In this case imported or local ‘Tor Steel’ and ‘Mild Steel’ is used as reinforcing bars.
Before using steel, they should be tested in Sri Lanka Steel Co-operation laboratory, or
other approved laboratory to get the approval from the consultant.

If the steel is corroded, in specially the sites near the sea, it should be wire brushed properly
before concreting should take place.

There are two main types of reinforcement steel used for construction purpose in Sri Lanka.

 Tor Steel (Yield Steel) - strength 450 N/mm2
 Mild Steel - strength 250 N/mm2

The main aspects of reinforcement includes

                Types of reinforcement
                Method of applying
                Labor involved in preparation and fixing.
The mild steel bars are produced to the specified tensile strength of 250 N/mm 2 and tor
steel bars are produced to a specified strength of 410 N/mm2 and they have a special ring
mark. But the imported bars have strength of 450 N/mm2 In case of reinforcement, the
special symbolized method is used to express more details of steel in a short way is as
follows.




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                               Institute of Engineering Technology.
                                         Katunayake                                                   14
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REINFORCEMENT BAR NOTATION
Standard reinforcement bar detailing is bellow.


       35 Y 10 – 08 – 250 – B/T
                                                   Bar location
                                                   Space between two bars
                                                    Bar mark
                                                    Diameter of the bar
                                                    Type of bar
                                                     No of bar




Reinforcement bars should comply with specifications in BS 4449: 1988. Steel rein forcing
bars considered in the design are high yield strength bars for diameters
10mm,12mm,16mm,20mm,25mm,32mm.

       Characteristic strength should be           460N/ mm2
       6mm bars are mild steel and strength        250N/ mm2.



6.2 INTRODUCTION TO RE-BAR DESIGN
    After Tsunami disaster, re-bar designing has been changed. Lap length, anchorage
length, stirrup spacing and stirrup shape have been changed to withstand against earthquake.
Also, the shape of the stirrups link has been changed.


6.3 LAPPING AND ANCHORING
    Although 12m length reinforcement bars are available in the market, in the practical
situation, bars have to be lapped together. In the case of beams, lap area should be
positioned in suitable place.

    If the beams top bars are lapped it should be lapped within the ‘2/3’ area of the
     beams span.
    If the beams bottom bars are lapped it should be lapped within the ‘1/3’ area of the
     beams span


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              Lap length               – 50Ø
              Anchorage length         – 50D from the face which re-bar comes in to the
                                       support.




                                   A




          B




                                                                       Column or beam face

                            Fig 6.3.1. Beam bars anchoring



              A+B    =50 D
              Ø – Diameter of the smallest bar of lapping bars
              D - Diameter of the anchoring bar
Lapping

      Normally, steel bars have a 6m length. If length of a bar is not enough to keep the
reinforcement, we have to provide lap. Normally, lapping position is at where near the
minimum shear force is acting. Some disturbs occur to maintain the caver and spacing
uniformly due to lapping. The length of the lap was 60 times of diameter of the bar in our
site.




                                       45                                    



                              Fig6.3.2. Lapping on bars



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Anchorage on bars

     The reinforcement, which subjected to direct tension, so must be provided Anchorage
to withstand the tensile forces. In the site, the anchorage was provided as indicated in the
drawing. The anchorages used in our site are shown as following Figures.




                             Fig6.3.3. Anchorage on bars




Cranking detail

                                                 Reinforcement bar



                                                                                  Y


           X/y<10                            X
           x>300

                             Fig6.3.4. Rebar cranking




6.4 REINFORCEMENT ERECTION AND LYING

6.4.1 Reinforcement fixing in beams
       Tying wire, used to fix reinforcement, spacers and chairs is normally 16 gauges. There
are two categories of beams to be considered when bar schedules are made.

          1. Main beam
          2. Secondary beam


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       Those are clearly detailed in the drawings. In the case of main bean meats secondary
beam and bottom level or top level of the beams are same, reinforcement have to be
cranked. That means, secondary beam should goes through the main beam.




                                  Main beam bar

         Stirrups




                                                                         Secondary beam
                                                                              bar




                Fig6.4.1. Re-bar arrangement in main & secondary beam




PROCEDURE OF RE-BARS FIXING IN BEAMS

First, in top or bottom layer two corner bars of the beam are positioned on a support
(commonly top layer).Supposing that is top layer
Then, adjust the layer by keeping nominal covers to the support end.




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                                                    Nominal cover

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                                                               Nominal cover




                           Fig6.4.1.1. Top bar arrangement




    Stirrups positions are marked on one of that beam bar according to the stirrups
     spacing in drawing.
    Then all the stirrups are tied to the corner bars of the beam.
    Then, other bars of top layer are input and tied to the stirrups.
    Then bottom layer is inputted and tied.
    Finally, second layer and third layer are tied to the top or bottom layer by keeping
     spacer bars.

                              Stirrups space             Top layer            Stirrups




                                                                          Bottom secondary
                                                                                layer




                                 Spacer                        Bottom layer

                               Fig6.4.1.2. Side elevation of
                               beam
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SPACER BAR ARRANGEMENT

       There are two or three re-bar layers in some beams, spacer bars have to be used
between layers. The length of the spacer bar is decided by the width of the beam and side
nominal covers. That is same as to width of the stirrup. The spacing of the spacer bars is
generally 1m.The diameter of the spacer bar should be, at least the smallest diameter of
touching two bars.




                                                                             Stirrups

              Top layer
                  Spacer bar                                            Bottom second layer




                                                                        Bottom layer

                      Fig6.4.1.3. Elevation of spacer bar arrangement




6.4.2 Reinforcement fixing in Slabs

Procedure of re-bars fixing in slab
        The position of the bottom steels (B1) are marked by a chock on the form work
         at both edge of the panel, according to the B1 spacing.
        Then position of bottom steels (B2) are marked in the other span according to
         the B2 spacing
        Then B1 re-bars are laid. After that B2 are laid on the B1 steels. Then B1 and B2
         steels are tied together using bindings, so that all the bars are straight.

           In this case B1 or B2 or both bars will be ended with ‘U’ shape. The short part of
the U bar should goes on the top layer of the beam
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                       B1




                                  B2




                       Fig.6.4.2.1. Plan view of re-bar of a slab




                                               Distribution steels




                    Fig.6.4.2.2..Elevation of re-bar of a slab




                                                          U bar (B1 orB2)




                                     Fig6.4.2.3.Slab’s U bar at the beam


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 Here B2 U bar should go through the B1 U bar. Because, at the ‘U’ end shot part of the
  B1 will be T1 and shot part of the B2 at the ‘U’ end will be T2.

 Then T2 re-bar positioned are marked on the beam bar according to the T2 spacing in
  drawing and tied T2 bars on the beam. Now is the time to lay distribution bars for top
  net. In this project distribution steel spacing is 300mm

 Distribution bars along the B2 bars are placed on the marks at 300mm intervals .But
  they are not tied.

 Then the other T1 bar positions are marked at the other end of the panel on the beam
  top bar.

 Then T1 bars are tied to beam top bar.

 Then, formally laid distribution bars are tied to T1 bars, keeping lap length to B2 ‘V’ bar.

 At the final, distribution bars for the other span along B1 are tied.




                       B1              T1




                       Fig .6.4.2.4.Top steel of a slab




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                                   Distribution steels
                  B1                                                     T1



                    Lap length



                 Fig.6.4.2.5 .Distribution steel arrangement of a slab




           When slab re-bar are fixed, must be careful about the position that B1, and B2 are
changing in the next panel. In this case, when distribution steels are fixed with top net, must
be very
Careful. Here, reinforcement nets are interchanged at the beam.

            T1                                                                T2




                  B1                                                          B2

                  Fig 6.4.2.6.Changing B1 & B2 at the beam




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6.4.2.1 Stools
Designing of Stools



                        T10-15-250 T1                      T10-13-250 T2




                      T10-16-200 B2                              T10-14-250 B1




                        Fig .Stool arrangement of a slab


In this project we generally dealt with 125, 150, 200mm slabs. Supposing it is a 200mm
thick slab. Steel stool are designed to keep on the B2 of the slab net as shown in the figure.


Stool height =200-(10+10+10+10+top cover +Bottom cover)
(If top cover is 20mm and bottom cover is 30mm)


           Height                       = 110mm
           Leg length                   = (B2 spacing + 50mm)
                                        = 250mm
6.5 COVER OF REINFORCEMEN



       Category                                     Nominal cover
       Piles, pile caps and foundations             75mm

       Ground beans to stirrups                     75mm

       Ground floor slab
            From earth face                         75mm
            From top face                           25mm


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       Retaining walls
            From external
                                                     75mm
            From internal
                                                     40mm

       Columns
            Below ground                             75mm
            Above ground                             40mm

       Floor beans to stirrups                       30mm

       Floor slabs and staircase                     20mm


                          Table 2: Nominal covers

These nominal covers are maintained by using spacers and chairs. For this, concrete cover
blocks and steel stools, steal spacers were used.
         Round shape concrete cover blocks are made in the site by using grade 50 concrete
and to make those, prepared P.V.C. pipes are used as mould.
Spacers are components which provide covers between 15mm and 100mm in 5mm
increments, between the reinforcement and formwork. There are two main categories.

          1. Clip-on where the clip action is an integral part of the design of the spacer.
          2. Wire-on where the spacers are attached to the bar by the use of tying wire.


   Chairs are manufactured from steel wire to provide cover large than 75mm. They are
commonly used to support top horizontal reinforcement or to separate vertical
reinforcement in walls.

6.5.1 Covering for slab

  Bottom face
          All bar reinforcement nearest to the bottom face should be supported by spacers
at 50d centre but with a maximum of 1000mm centre and staggered



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  Top Face
   Top reinforcement should always be supported off the bottom reinforcement where
such reinforcement exists. Where, there is no bottom reinforcement, the top reinforcement
should be supported from the form work by the use of individual chairs.




                       Fig 6.5.1.Elevation of a slab with spacers




                         Fig 6.5.1.Plan view of a slab with spacers




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6.5.2 Covering for beams

Bottom Face
          In the narrow beams, that means wide is less than 250mm wide one spacer should
be positioned in the middle of the bottom of the link.

Side Face
           One spacer should be provided on each vertical leg at the mid-height of the
beam. For deep beams, spacers should be provided at centre not exceeding 50d. Spacers on
each side of the beam should be at the same level above the sofit.




                Fig 6.5.2.Elevation of a beam with spacers




                  Fig .section of a beam with spacers




6.5.3 Covering for columns
           In wide columns, side of columns which exceed 50d should have two spacers
positioned within 50mm of the ends of the straight portion of the link, not on the curve
part of the link. Intermediate spacers should be provided so that the distance between
spacers does not exceed 50d.

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d- Nominal size of the bar nearest the surface of the concrete including links.




                                             Fig 6.5.3.Plan view of a column spacers




 Fig .Elevation of a column with spacers




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6.6 BAR- SCHEDULES
        Bar schedules are prepared to send Nawagamuwa re-bar yard. Bar schedules are faxed
to the yard, 7 days before to the required date. All the necessary details, bar size, length of
bar, shape of bending and dimensions, total no of bars required are clearly explained in the
bar schedule. Form of bar schedule is shown below.

In the bar schedule total weight of each size of bars are calculated then it is very easy to get
the total re-bar weight that sub contractor has fixed. Because, sub contractors are paid,
according to the re-bar weight.



FORM OF BAR SCHEDULE


PROJECT                          :                        CODE NO                 :

DATE OF SUBMISSION               :                        STEEL BRAND                 :

REQUIRED DATE                    :

SHEET NO                         :
                                                              LENGTH                      SHAPE        OF
           BAR    TYPE &   NO        OF   NO OF BARS   TOTA             TOTAL
MEMBER                                                        OF EACH                     BENDING      &
           MARK   SIZE     MEMBER         IN EACH      L NO             LENGTH
                                                              BAR                         DIMENTION




DIMETER OF BAR(mm)         T32        T25      T20      T16      T12      T10     R10             R6
TOTAL LENGTH(m)
TOTAL WEIGHT(Tons)
CUMILATIVE
TOTAL(Tons)




In the case of transporting, prepared re-bars from yard to the site, all the re-bars relevant to
one beam, are tied together except stirrups. Then, the whole beam can be loaded in to the
transporting vehicle by using mobile crane in the yard and, it can be unloaded in the site by

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hand or anything else




STANDARD WEIGHT OF RE-BAR



         SIZE OF THE BAR                WEIGHT (Kg/m)
                T40                            9.864

                T32                            6.321

                T25                            3.758

                T20                           2.404
                T16                            1.539

                T12                           0.866

                T10                           0.592
                R10                           0.592

                R6                             0.213




                 Table 1:Re-bar density




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                                  CHAPTER 07
                           FORM WORK AND SCAFFOLDING
7.1 INTRODUCTION OF FORM WORK

   Formwork is a sort of temporary construction provided for laying cast-in-situ
concrete to required shape. A good formwork should satisfy the following
requirements.
   1. it should be strong enough to withstand all types of dead and live loads such
      as self weight, weight of reinforcement, weight of wet concrete, loads due to
      workman, construction equipment, other incidental loads and forces caused
      by placement and consolidation of concrete, imposed upon it during and after
      casting of concrete.
   2. It should be rigidly constructed efficiently propped and braced.
   3. The joints in the formwork should be tight against leakage of cement grout.
   4. The material of the formwork should be cheap, easily available and should be
      suitable for reuse several times.
   5. The formwork should be set accurately to the desired line and levels and
      should have plain surfaces.
   6. The formwork should be as light as possible.
   7. The material of formwork should not warp or get distorted when exposed to
      sun, rain or water during concreting.
   8. The formwork should rest on firm base.

7.2 MATERIALS FOR FORMWORK

                 Various materials used for formwork as follows.
   1.   Plywood sheets or Timber.
   2.   2” * 2”, 4” * 4”, 3”* 4” Logs.
   3.   Acro    jacks (Medium duty, Maximum height 3900mm, Minimum height
        2450mm)
   4.   Galvanized steel pipes.
   5.   Concrete nails.


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   6.   Adjustable “U” heads.
   7.   Adjustable “T “heads.
   8.   Sprit level.
   9.   Scaffolding frames, joint pins and cross bracings.
             a) Separators
             b) Form ties
             c) G.I clamps
             d) Wire nails
             e) Power saw
         Formwork can be made out of timber, plywood, steel, pre-cast concrete or
fiberglass, used separately or in combination. The type of material to be used for
formwork depends upon the nature of construction as well as the availability and cost
of material. For formwork makes timber the most suitable material. It can be of board
form either worn or unworn depending on whether a smooth or rough surface is
required.
         Plywood is extensively used to construct formwork units since it is strong, light
and supplied in sheets of 1.2m wide with standard length of 2.4m, 2.7m and 3.0m. The
quality selected should be and exterior grate and the thickness related to the
anticipated pressure so that the minimum number of strengthening cleats on the back
is required.
Steel forms generally based upon a manufacture’s pattern system and within the
constrains of that system is an excellent material. Steel is not as adoptable as thinner
but if treated with care will give 30 or 40 uses, which are approximately double that of
similar timber forms.


7.2.1 Plywood
         Plywood is also extensively used to construct from-works since it is strong
light and supplied in sheets of large sizes. The selected should be of a superior
grade and the thickness should be related to the anticipated pressure. In our site
we used 12mm thickness plywood.


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      If we used timber or plywood for formwork we should order to apply
mould oil before placing the concrete. If it is column or wall formwork mould oil
should be apply before fixed the formwork.
      2400mmx1200mmx12mm sizes of sheets are used bounded with phenol-
resin water proofing agents. This resin-resin solution is further caused for
durability of plywood & to avoid peeling of the edges. Plywood sheet quality
selected should be an exterior grade and the thickness related to the anticipated
pressure so that the minimum number of strengthening cleats on the back is
required.

7.2.2 Advantages of using plywood sheets
    Good surface finish can be obtained

    Plywood formwork is economical because this can be used repeatedly
     although the cost of plywood is higher than class II timber planks

    Since the plywood sheet covers large area, the time taken to construct the
     entire shuttering is less

    It can be easily cut to the required shapes

7.2.3 Disadvantages of using plywood sheets
    Even after removing the shuttering adhered plywood particles can be seen
     on the surface of the slab. This can be avoided by using high quality
     plywood.
    Due to the slenderness of the sheet large number of strengthening cleats is
      required, Otherwise formwork gets deflected.


Mould oil
      Mould oil can be applied to the inside surface of the formwork. Then we can
alleviate follow defects which can offer on the surface of finish concrete.
    1. Uneven colour - this is caused by irregular absorption of water from the wet
      concrete by the formwork material.
   2. blow holes – these are small holes being less than 15mm in diameter caused by
      air trapped between the formwork and the concrete face.

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Scaffoldings

     Scaffoldings are temporary structures used to withstand the weight of
formwork wet concrete and waking people So many types of scaffoldings are
available.
    Independent scaffolds

    Putlog scaffolds [single ]

    Birdcage scaffolds

    Scaffolds towers

    Truss out scaffolds

    Suspended scaffolds

    System scaffolds

    Scaffolding sets

       In this site scaffolding sets and independent scaffolding were used
scaffolding sets have working plates , mainframe , joint pins and cross bracing.


7.3 TYPE OF FORM WORK USED IN OUR SITE

       Various type of form work was used in our site. Those types depend upon the
necessity of our construction. Those are explaining in following terms.

7.3.1 Column formwork

       A column formwork or box consists of vertical mould , which has to
resist Considerable horizontal pressure in the early stages of casting .
      The thickness of plywood sheet is 12 mm and the length                       and the
breadth are 2410mm and 1220mm respectively .



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    In first , setting out the column box by using theodolite , carpenter s
     square , marking
    Chord and steel tape.

    Then placed the strips of plywood s around the marked line by using
     concrete nails.
    Then the ¼’’ thick sponge were placed for and grout tight joints .
    Then the constructed plywood and 2’’ 2’’ reaps were placed. for fixing
    leveling this formwork by using G.I pipes , separators, 2’’2’’reaps and jacks
    Then check the column was leveled vertically by using plumb-bobs and
     off lines. The actual pressure will vary according to: Rate of placing
    Type of mix being used generally; the richer the mix, the grater the
     pressure
    Method of placing If vibrators are used, pressure can increase up to 50%
     over hand placing And compacting
    Air-Temperature The lower the temperature, the slower is the hydration
     process and consequently higher pressure encounter .




                                                           Reinforcement bars




        Formwork


                                                                   Support props




                             Fig.7.1. Column Form work

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Checking column form Work
      The column from work was checked for vertically using two plumbs
which were hanging from the top of the form work. The horizontal distance
between the from work & string line can be measured at the top and
bottom to ensure the vertically of the from work The props should be
adjusted until the distance between from work and string at top and bottom
are equal finally all the clamps and props were cheeked for tightness. Then it
can be concrete.


7.3.2 Beam formwork

   This level was stouts on the column because it was easy to place beam
Bottoms reference to that level marked. That is the 0.00-m level above the
finish basement floor level.
   A beam formwork consist of a three sided box which is supported by cross
members, which are propped to the under side of the soffit board.


7.3.3 Slab formwork
    Floor or roof slab formwork is sometimes called shuttering and consists
     of panels of size that can be easily handled.

    The panels can be framed or joisted and supported by the beam forms
     with any intermediate propping , which is required .

    The beam formwork was continuing with that of the slab formwork .


    4’*3’ timber joists can be placed on the adjustable props at the level of
     beam


    Top level minus diameter of G.I. pipes and they were kept in place
      using , 2’*1’



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    Wooden tie pieces temporarily. Then 2’ G.I. pipes were laid over the timber
      joists.


    After that, plywood sheet were laid over the G.I. pipes with the help of 2’*2’

7.3.4 Staircase formwork

    The level of starting point and the level of the finishing height were
     checked according to the drawing .

    Staircase soffit board was fixed according to level. mark the width of the
     staircase and fixed the sideboards.

    Setting out the steps on the sideboard.

    Before marking the steps , a line was drawn along the sideboards . This is
     for mark the stair waist. steel tape , tri square , spirit level and marking
     chord were used to mark correct sizes of risers and going.


ECONOMY IN FORMWORK.
      It may be noted that the total cost of concrete construction includes the cost
of formwork as well. Construction of formwork involves considerable expenditure in
terms of cost of material, cost of labour for fabrication, direction and removal of
formwork and time element. In case of buildings, the cost of formwork may range
between 30% to 40% of the cost of concrete work. Following steps should be
followed to effect economy in the cost of formwork.


   1. The building should be plan in such a way that there are minimum numbers of
      variations in the size of rooms, floor area etc. so as to permit reuse of the
      formwork moulds repeatedly.
   2. The scheme of the formwork should be efficiently planned and suitably
      designed to determine the most economical but safe sizes of different
      components including the supports or props.
   3. The formwork should be constructed in such a way that timber is cut to the
      minimum and it can be struck off with ease and reused with leased damage.

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The quality of finished concrete surface depends to a great extent upon the quality of
formwork used in the work. In case the formwork is made out of rough timber and is
not constructed properly, the resultant concrete surface will be irregular and full of
defects.
The expenditure involved in rectification of defects in such works is invariably more
than the saving made in the cost of formwork.


7.4 ORDER AND METHOD OF REMOVING FORM WORK.
       The formwork should be planned and constructed in such a manner that it is
possible to remove the different components in the following order or sequence.
       1. Shuttering forming vertical faces of walls, beams and columns sides should
          removed first.
       2. Shuttering forming soffit to slabs should be removed next.
       3. Shuttering forming soffit of beams, girders or other heavily loaded
          shuttering should be removed in the end.


Duration of time up to which the formwork should be kept in place depend upon
many factors such as,


          1. Type of cement used.
          2. shape and position of the member(whether member is horizontal,
             vertical or inclined)
          3. Loads to be carried by the members.
          4. The temperature of the air.


In general, rapid hardening cement, warm weather and light loading conditions allow
early removal or formwork.
Early release of formwork permits its re-use in other areas and this result in economy
by way of optimum utilization of material and fast construction. At the same time
premature removal formwork may prove to be dangerous and should not be

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allowed.
In normal conditions (where air temperature is above 20c and where ordinary
Portland cement is used) the formwork may be struck or removed after the expiry of
the period indicated against respective members in following table




           No         Description of structural members.           Period of time




           01      Walls, columns and vertical sides of             1 to 2 days.
                   beam

           02      Slab (props left under)                             3 days.

           03      Beam soffits (props left under)                     7 days.



           04      Removal of props to slab:                           7 days.
                   (a) for slabs spanning up to 4.5 m
                   (b) for spanning over 4.5m
                                                                      14 days

           05      Removal of props to beams and arches
                   (a)spanning up to 6m                               14 days.
                   (b) spanning over 6m                               21 days.




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                                     CHAPTER 08

                                 CONCRETE WORK

8.1 INTRODUCTION
Mixing together cement, aggregates and water produces concrete. Sometimes
admixtures are also added to this to vary the properties of the concrete. The quality
of concrete will depend on the raw materials used, the method of production and the
method of construction.

8.2 MATERIALS USED FOR CONCRETE

    Cement
    Aggregates
    Water

8.2.1 Cement
The most widely used cement in our country, and indeed the world is ordinary
Portland cement; it accounts for approximately 90% of all cement production. Over
the years, several varieties of Portland cement have been developed; rapid-hardening,
sulphate -resisting, white and low heat. As their name imply, they exhibit special
characteristics or properties, which are of value in appropriate circumstances. They
have in common the fact that they all contain the same active minerals – only the
proportion of each is different.
It is self – evident that cement should be kept dry during storage. Problems of long-
term storage are usually avoided by planning cement deliveries so as to anticipate
only the short-term requirements.


IMPORTANT PROPERTIES OF CEMENT
Fineness:         - this is a measure of the smallness of the cement particles.
Setting time:      - setting is the term used to describe the stiffening of cement
Heat of hydration: - rate of evolution of heat
Strength:          - rate of development of strength.

8.2.2 Aggregates
          Aggregates occupy a large volume of the concrete. First aggregates were
used as inert material since aggregate is a lot cheaper than cement. But a recent

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investigation into the properties of concrete has revealed the important functions of
the aggregates. Aggregates can be divided as natural aggregates and factory produced
aggregates. Factory produced aggregates are lighter than natural aggregates. But in Sri
Lanka natural aggregates are widely used. Natural aggregates can also divide as
uncrushed aggregates and crushed aggregates.
 There are two types’ of aggregates, fine aggregates and coarse aggregates. Aggregates
smaller than 5mm are known as fine aggregates while lager than 5mm are know as
coarse aggregates. Sand is used as fine aggregates and crushed metal is used as coarse
aggregates widely in Sri Lanka.


PROPERTIES OF AGGREGATES
Following properties of aggregates are very important to select a suitable aggregate
type for high quality concrete work.

    Shape
    Surface texture
    Strength

Since the aggregates make large part of the concrete, the strength of concrete cannot
exceed the strength of the aggregates.
Absorption
Aggregates are porous; some of the pores being open to the surface while others are
impermeable. The percentage increase in weight of a dry sample when immersed in
water is termed its absorption.
The other properties like toughness, hardness, relative density, bulk density, moisture
content, bulking of sand, chemical reactivity, etc are also very important.
There are so many laboratory tests are available to inspect above properties. Some
laboratory tests are sieve analysis test, flakiness index test, angularity index test,
moisture content, Bulk and relative densities, impact value test, crushing value test,
etc.


8.3 MIXING OF CONCRETE
Mixing of concrete was carried by hand and by machine, but the mixing by machine
is always preferred. Whatever may be the method the mixing of materials of concrete
was done thoroughly to ensure the uniform distribution of materials in concrete
mass and this was judged by uniform color and consistency of concrete.


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8.3.1 Mixing by hand
Mixing by hand was carried out in case of small works and unimportant works where
small quantity of concrete was required. In hand mixing it is always desirable to use
ten per cent extra cement to account for the possibility of inadequate mixing due to
lesser efficiency of this method.
In this, mixing was carried out by hand on a clean, hard and watertight platform
normally on the existing slab. Cement and sand were first mixed dry with the help of
shovels until the mixture attained a uniform color. Aggregates were then added to
this mixture and the whole mixture was then turned by shovels, until the ingredients
were uniformly spread throughout. The desired quantity of clean water was then
added into the heap of the dry mix so prepared. The mass was then turned to obtain
the workable mass and then consumed within 30 minutes after the adding of water.


8.3.2 Mixing by machine
The machine used for mixing concrete is known as mechanical concrete mixer, or
simply concrete mixer. There are two main types of concrete mixers in common use,
namely,
Continuous mixer
Batch mixers or Drum mixers
In our site it was used batch mixer. In batch mixer, all the materials of the desired
proportioned mix were fed in to the hopper of the revolving drum and then drum
was rotated and mixed the materials with the aid of a series of blades provided inside.
The resulting mix was finally discharged from the drum and conveyed for use.


8.4 PROPERTIES OF FRESH CONCRETE
There are two important properties of fresh concrete.
Workability
Stability

8.4.1 Workability
Workability is the amount of useful internal work necessary to produce the full
compaction. Three characters are consistency, mobility and compact ability.
Workability is depend on some factors like
    Water content
    Aggregate properties
    Ambient conditions
    Time

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    Cement content
    Admixtures
    Slump test, is used for measuring workability.

8.4.2 Stability

Fresh concrete should have a composition such that its constituent material remain
uniformly distributed in the concrete during both period between mixing and
compaction and the period following compaction before concrete stiffens.

Segregation
Segregation is said to have occurred when there is a tendency for the large and fine
particles in the mix to become separated. Extreme dry mixes, extreme wet mix,
deficient in fine particles, dropping from excessive height during placing and over
vibration during compaction are some reasons for segregation.


8.5 TRANSPORTING OF CONCRETE
The transport of concrete is an essential item in the process of concrete
construction and all too often not enough attention is given either to the choice of
the method or to its use on site. If the equipment is used improperly or carelessly,
the concrete quality will suffer and so will efficiency and productivity.
       Different methods are available for transporting concrete, ranging from
wheelbarrows to pumps. Transporting method depends on some factors. The nature
of the site, the ground condition, the distance to be covered, and the size of the job
are some of main factors. On many sites several different methods or a combination
of methods may be required.
       Our building is a high rise one. The maximum distance to be covered was less
than maximum building length plus two meters. There has disturbs to the path, so
that transporting of concrete is somewhat easier in our site. Usually concrete has to
be transported both horizontally and vertically in every site



8.5.1 Horizontal movement
    There are several methods are used to fulfill horizontal movement in the
   construction works such as iron pans, wheelbarrows, dumpers and lorry-mounted
   transporters.



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   IRON PANS
   These pans have got a small capacity and are usually of such a size that one man
   can lift and walk easily over the required distance. This method of transporting
   concrete was adopted for small and medium size buildings as it was worked out to
   be the cheapest method with such type of construction. This method was used for
   very short distance movement in the site.

   WHEELBARROWS
    Wheelbarrows are still used for handling small and medium scale construction
    works in our country. A wheelbarrow can take a comfortable load of about
    0.03m3 of concrete. Three wheelbarrows were continuously used for one mixer.
    Traveling path was made comfortably for efficient work. The wheels may be fitted
    with pneumatic tires to prevent the segregation of concrete on account of series
    of jerks, which the wheelbarrow is likely to experience while traveling over uneven
    surface.
8.5.2 Vertical movement
Vertical movement is some difficult than horizontal movement. For the large work
concrete pumps or skips and buckets which move using tower cranes are used in
modern construction field.
        But in our site iron pans were used for vertical movement up to second floor.
For raising concrete over some height so as to place it on the top floors of building
scaffolds was erected and men stood at various levels. The same pan was transferred
from one person to the other quickly. For the concreting of slab, concrete pump was
used to transport horizontally and vertically.


8.6 PLACING AND COMPACTING
Before the concrete was placed final checking’s for formwork, reinforcement, clean,
and other necessary things were done. The constructed formwork was first carefully
examined. The accuracy of plane vertical surfaces was controlled by plumbing and
that of horizontal planes by a level. The stable placing of the posts of false work and
of wedges under those, the bracing of shuttering was checked. And also all formwork
cleaned and surface of the formwork was treated to prevent adhesion of concrete.
Blower was used to clean the inside of the formwork.
       Then the reinforcement was checked whether they were according to the
drawing or not. The layout of the reinforcement, the diameter and the number of
bars and also the distance between bars were checked. And it was checked for the
protective concrete cover was occurred or not. The required thickness of the cover
was provided by a cement cover blocks under the reinforcement and the steel tool in

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between the two reinforcement mats. The purpose of the concrete cover is chiefly to
protect the reinforcement of the structural element from corrosion. It was used
40mm cover blocks for the raft foundation and 25 mm cover blocks for other
places.
        The concrete should be placed in its final position rapidly so that it is not too
stiff to work. Water should not be added after concrete has left the mixture. A heap
of concrete, which will have to be moved to some other part of the form, should not
be allowed to accumulate in one place. Normally concrete was placed in even layers
and each of layers was compacted before the next layer was placed. Each layer was
placed before the previous layer has got set. But for the slab it was placed as single
layer.
        Poker vibrator was used for compaction. If concrete is to achieve its maximum
strength, it must be compacted so that it contains the minimum of unwanted air.
This is easy with a wet, workable mix, but the excess water in this sort of concrete
contributes to weakness. The strongest and most durable concrete is as dry as can be
fully compacted by the means available. The internal vibrator or poker was used in
our site, which is the most common type of vibrator. This is a vibrating tube at the
end of a flexible drive. Pokers vary in size, usually from 25mm to 75mm in diameter.
A poker vibrator should not be dragged through the concrete, nor used to help
heaps of concrete to spread out. It should placed vertically in the concrete, held in
position until air bubbles cease to come to the surface, then slowly with drawn so
that concrete can flow into the space previously occupied by the poker. This should
be repeated at about 0.5m centers. The concrete should be placed in layers never
more than 600mm thick, and the vibrator should be lowered at least 100mm in to
layer beneath
For the small quantities hand compaction was used. Hand compaction was carried
out by either Roding or hammering. Roding was adopted for vertical sections and
hammering was for massive plain concrete works by using wooden or steel hammers.
These methods required high water -cement ratio.


8.6.1 Pokering
    Considering points
    Poker vibrator should not be dragged through the concrete.
    Should placed vertically in the concrete, held in positioning bubbles cease to
       come to the surface, and then slowly withdrawn so that concrete can flow into
       the space previously occupied by the poker.
    The concrete should be placed in layers never more than 600mm thick and
       the vibrator should be lowered at least 100mm.

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    Over-vibration may cause segregation and the formation of a weak layer.

When concrete must be placed in a slopping lift

         Correct

                              Start placing at bottom of slope so
                              that compaction in increased by
                              weight of newly added concrete.
                              Vibration consolidates.
       Concrete
          Concret
          eee

         Incorrect

                              To begin placing at the top of slope upper
                              concrete tends to pull apart, especially when
                              vibrated below, as vibration starts flow &
                              removes support from concrete above.




Systematic vibration of each new lift:


    Correct
    s
                                                  Vertical penetration of vibrator a few
                                                  inches into previous lift (which should
                                                  not yet be rigid) at systematic regular
                                                  intervals found to give adequate
                                                  consolidation


               Concrete




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8.7 CONSRTUCTION JOINTS
       Generally it is not possible to place concrete continuously; construction joints
must be therefore be provided such joints are a potential source of weakness. They
should be located and formed care, and their number kept to a minimum. Whether
possible, the position of construction joints should be settled before any concreting
begins. Joints in raft and slabs are made at with in the middle third of the span.
Horizontal joints in walls are usually made in top of the one form level (4’/ 8’).
Vertical joints in walls are kept to a minimum.

Consideration about the construction joints
   Just before the concreting is resumed, the roughened joint surface is
      thoroughly cleaned and loose mater removed.
   Curing of the joint surface is suspended a few hours before concreting is to be
      resumed in order to ensure superficial drying. Sprayed currying membranes
      and release agents are allowed to contaminate the joint surface.
   Special care is taken to obtain through compaction and to avoid segregation
      of the fresh concrete at the joint plane.
   Forms are tightening at this point because grout leaks cause weakness of the
      joint as well as being unsightly.




8.8 DETAIL OF READY MIXED CONCRETE

Concreting was done using ready mix concrete, having the following characteristics.

Suppliers                      : MAGA Engineering (Pvt) Ltd.

Type of cement                 : opc

Maximum size of aggregate      : 20 mm

Slump                          : 120 mm

Grade                           : 20




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8.8.1 Concrete grade
The standard recommended compositions are as follows .Concrete grade was decided
according to the requirement of the structure. The basis and the method of
proportioning of concrete are depending on the grade of concrete and the structural
importance of the members.




Grade 15 mix
       The grade 15 concrete was used for the screeding purposes


       Grade 15 mix is obtained by the following proportion


      Cement: Fine aggregate: Coarse aggregate=1:3:6


Grade 25 mix
  The grade 25 concrete was used for the columns, beams slabs, walls & stair cases

 Grade 25 mix is obtained by the following proportion

      Cement: Fine aggregate: Coarse aggregate=1:1.5:3


Grade 30 mixes

    The grade 30 concrete was used for the water retaining structures.
    Grade 25 mix is obtained by the following proportion
   Cement: Fine aggregate: Coarse aggregate=1:1.2

8.9 IMPORTANT THINGS BEFORE CONCRETING
    Check the reinforce details, stools, services, cover, dimensions, etc
    Check the levels of formwork, reinforcement
    Check the reinforcement at all intersection whether the bars, links should
      securely tied together with 1.6mm soft iron wire. Whether ends of the wires
      must not point towards the face
    Check the support of the formwork and construction joint key
    Clean the surface( roughened joint surfaced which has to concreting) using
      compressor
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    Wet the surface, formwork just before concreting using water
    Check along construction joint whether properly chipped or not
    Slump of the concrete

8.10 CONCRETING

8.10.1 Concreting columns
Usually in a single pour about 2400mm was concreted that is height of a form work.
But if half way though beams column connection was met then concreting was
stopped until beam erected. Sometimes met end of one stretch of fixed
reinforcement then concreting was done up to providing provision for lap length of
steel bar for fix next stretch of reinforcement. Concrete was transported up to the
column location using a skip of 1.0m3 capacity, by means of the tower crane.
Concrete placing was done by discharging the concrete into the column form while
hanging the skip over the column formwork. At the same time compaction was
done with porker vibrators 25mm. Concreting was stopped at a level little bit below
the soffit level of deepest beam running through that column.


8.10.2 Beams and slab concreting.

Beams and slabs were concreted together. To transport concrete up to the location a
1.3m3 of skip was used. After placing concrete it was spread over the slab. 25mm &
38mm poker vibrators were used for compaction. Timber plank was moved across the
slab at same velocity uniformly thick slab. Thickness of slab was ensure the by using
string line and allowing a 300mm PVC pipe move between the top of slab and
string line. Green concreting was raked for get rough surface finish. For obtain drops
for toilet & bathroom after concreting that area & then place the form and shutter
it.

8.10.3 Lift wall and staircase concreting.
       Before concreting a staircase shear wall and lift wall was concreted. After
gained adequate strength concreting of staircase was started. Concrete was poured to
the shear wall and lift wall and compaction of concrete was done using a poker
vibrator or steel rod.




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8.11CURING
       Column curing started immediately after removal of formwork. Concrete
surface was kept covering with damp absorbent material after placing of concrete.
Slab, beam & staircase usually start curing after 12 hours. Surfaces kept by frequent
spraying of water.

8.11.1 Purpose of curing
The setting and hardening of cement depend on the presence of water. Drying out, if
allowed to take place too soon, results in low strength and a porous concrete. At the
time the concrete is placed, there is normally an adequate quantity of water present
for full hydration, but it is necessary to ensure that this water is retained so that the
chemical reaction continues until the concrete has thoroughly hardened.
If curing is efficient the strength of the concrete increases with age; this increase is
rapid at early ages and then continues more slowly for an indefinite period. Correct
curing increases the impermeability and durability of the concrete, this is particularly
important when it will be subject to water pressure or severe environmental
conditions.
Curing increases resistance to abrasion; effective curing is thus most necessary for
floor and other and surfaces subjected to wear. Continuous curing from the time the
concrete is placed helps to ensure a hard, dense surface and to reduce the risk of
crazing and dusting.



8.11.2 Factor effect for the period of curing
   1.   Types of cement
   2.   Mix proportions
   3.   Required strength
   4.   Size and shape of mass concrete
   5.   Weather or future exposure condition

8.11.3 Methods of curing
     Ponding, sprinkling, flooding immersion in water
     Damping by wet covering
     Polythen covering
     Sealing compounds
     Steam covering

       It was carried out ponding for the slab curing. Sand was used for around the
slab and then water was ponded to the slab. It was also done about ten days. For the
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column curing it was used wetted gunny bags and for some other places water was
sprayed to the surfaces to be cured. Normally curing was started after about 12 hours
from the concreting.



8.12 DEFECTS ON CONCRETE SURFACES
Due to some incorrect methods several defect have been found on the concrete
surfaces. These defects decrease the strength of the concrete. We should try to
minimize these defects. Different kinds of defects, causes for the defects and suitable
remedies are given in the following table briefly.




  Defect            Causes                     Remedies
  Honey             Due to mortar in           Tighten shutter boards and seal
  combing           concrete leaking out       openings.
                    between concreting
  Pinholes on       Concrete not well          Depth of the concrete should be
  vertical          tamped against the         sufficient. Proper compaction.
  surfaces          shutter
  Irregular lines   Improper mixing            Each lift of concrete must be
  at the start of                              thoroughly worked in to concrete
  each lift                                    already placed.
  Concrete          Due to adhesion            Use galvanized sheets. Use non
  breaking at                                  staining mould oil for timber and
  shutter                                      non staining mould oil or grease
  removal                                      for steel
  Colour            Due to difference in       Do not use wet forms. Boards used
  difference of     porosity of timber.        same number of times. Slight
  concrete          Smooth forms at            roughness plywood forms are the
                    some places                best.




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                                 CHAPTER 09

                             MASONRY WORK

9.1 BRICK MASONARY

       Bricks can be used to build internal and external walls. Normally 225mm thick
brick walls are used to external walls and 112.5 thick brick walls are used to internal
walls. Nominal dimensions of a brick are 220*105*65mm.
       There are machine made bricks and hand made bricks. Average compressive
strength of machine made bricks is 10 N/mm2 and of hand made bricks is 4.8
N/mm2. Up to two stories buildings, hand made bricks can be used and load bearing
multi storey buildings need machine made bricks. All the finishing lines of the walls
are marked by using a survey instrument by a surveyor. Bricks to be used are wetted
with water before use on works.10mm thick 1:5 cement: sand mortar joint is used for
brick work.
       English bond and Flemish bond are the most commonly used brick work
types. For one brick thick walls in buildings, the most commonly used brick work
type is English bond.
      At the beginning of every course, two bricks at the two ends of the wall are
kept and checked vertically by using plumb bob. And a string is kept combining
these two bricks and with the help of the string, the latter bricks are placed.
7.1.1 General Principles of Brick Masonry Construction
The following are the general principles which should be adhered, to for a good brick
masonry.

    The height of brick walls built for one day should be less than 5 feet.
    Before the bricks used in the construction work, they should be properly
       immersed in water at least 8 hours.
    When immersed in water for twenty-four hours the brick should not absorb
       water more than 1/6th of their own weight.
    Curing of the brick work should be done at least 7 days.
    All the courses should be laid truly horizontal and all vertical joints should be
       truly vertical. If it is planned to increase the length of the wall under

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      construction at a future date, the wall is stopped with a toothed end. This
      ensures continuous bonding between the old and the new work.
.




                                          Length
                   Width

                                                                      Bed face
                 Height



                     Stretcher face
                                                              Header face

                             Fig.9.1.1 Physical terms of bricks



9.1.1 Types of bonds used

      The overlapping arrangement of bricks in order to tie them together to form
the brickwork is termed as the 'bonding’. It is very important to do the bonding
accurately as the bond governs the strength of the wall. The selection of a proper
bond pattern and adopting it correctly is very important in this regard.
In our site,

              All the 9” walls in our site are done in English bond.
              All the 4 ½” walls are done in Stretcher bond.


Stretcher Bond

In such type of bond, all the bricks are laid with their lengths in the longitudinal
direction of the wall. As only stretchers are visible in elevation, this is known as
stretcher bond. This bond is only useful for half brick thick partition walls. In thicker
walls, this bond is not suitable as there is no proper bonding across the wall.

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                  A                                                       A
                  B                                                       B
                             Elevation view

      Plan of A



      Plan of B




English Bond

This is the most commonly used brick work type for walls. In this type on a stretcher
course, a header course is placed. Then again a stretcher course. This is usually used
for one brick thick walls.




                                                                              A
                                                                              B
                                                                              A


Plan view of A




Plan view of B




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Header Bond

In this type of bond, all the bricks are laid as header towards the face of the wall. This
is suitable for one-brick thick walls and also used for footings in foundations for
better transverse load distribution.



9.1.2 Wall construction

       The walls of the building are non-load bearing walls, which serve the basic
function of separation of spaces. Except for certain structural elements all the walls
and structural elements are designed to have a 15mm thick plastering. The houses are
luxury apartments, thus adequate sound and insulation qualities and durability are
some of the primary requisites a house should possess. The cost utilizable could
neither be too high nor be too low. Considering these facts the designers have
decided to go for brick walls of 9// & 4½// thickness except for the reinforced shear
concrete walls and the lift wall which serves some additional functions related to the
structural stability.
      For the construction of wall we have to give more attention for the verticality
and the alignment of blocks.
       In our site before start to construct the wall the surveyor helpers who do the
setting out procedure marked the lines. These lines were normally marked easily
from the grid off lines. By using a Theodalight, plum bob, long tape and marking
chord.
Rest of the wall construction is carried out by the masons



9.2 BLOCK MASONARY

Blocks are in two types.

    Solid blocks

    Hollow blocks

   Solid blocks have small holes and these holes should not exceed 25% of the
volume of the block. Hollow blocks are the blocks which have holes exceed 25% of

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the volume of block. Generally 15mm thick 1:5 cement: sand mortar joint is used for
block work.



9.3 LINTELS

Lintels are provided along the walls from column to column where there are
openings. In some buildings, along every wall lintels are provided.
Normally reinforced concrete Grade 20 is used for lintels.




                                                               Lintel




                             Opening




9.4 PLASTERING WORK

Plastering was done to get a smooth surface of walls. There are two kinds of
plastering was used in the site. Those are
      1. Rough plaster
      2. Smooth plaster
The rough plaster was applied for the outer surface of walls and the smooth plaster
was applied for the inner surface of walls.
Initially the wall was wetted in order to prevent absorption of water from the plaster.
If water was absorbed the cracks will produced on the plaster and also the bond
between the wall and plaster will be reduced. Then the Rough plaster was applied in

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1:1:5 cement lime plaster and smoothed well. The smooth plaster was applied in 1:1:5
cement lime plaster and smoothed with lime putty. The plaster was applied from top
to bottom. For plastering the sieved sand was used to get smooth surface.


The purposes of plastering are
    To get smooth surface
    Easy to painting
    For good appearance
    To protect the walls from the affect of the atmosphere influences
    Economical than tiling


PROCEDURE

    Firstly checked the aligning of the wall horizontally and vertically by using
     string and plumb bob.
    Then mortar spots           to the required thickness of the              plaster are
      established on the wall.
    These spots are provided at about one meter interval in both ways.
    The first two spots are established horizontally at the two top edges of the wall
      & a string is drawn along them.
    Then intermediate spots are established.         The      top   spots   heights     are
      transferred to the bottom & mid at the wall by using plumb bob.
    Then strips of plaster are made joining the established motor spots. Then
      the balance part (mid space) is filled with the motor. Before plastering work,
      the wall has to be wetted to prevent absorption of water from the
      plaster )
    Finally surface is leveled by straight edge. Surface finishing done by order of
     the requirements.




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USING CHICKEN MESH

To prevent the cracking in the plaster chicken meshes are used. This is done where
there are joints of concrete column or beams with brick or block walls.
A chicken mesh is connected to the wall and columns or beams by using concrete
nails before plastering.



USING PLASTER BEADS

Plaster beads are used for the edges of walls to prevent damaging.
These are steel members which can be fixed to the edges with the use of the mesh at
both sides of it.
After keeping spots on the wall keeping the required thickness of the plaster, at the
corners spots are kept at both sides.
Then cement grout is pasted along the corner, checking the level with the use of
straight edge.
Then the angle bead is kept at position and straight edge is kept along it and leveled
vertically by using the plumb bob.



PLASTERING OF CONCRETE SURFACE

At the plastering of concrete surface (column & beam surfaces), the cement putty
was applied roughly on the concrete surfaces because concrete surfaces are very
smooth. After that we can do plastering as explain in above plastering of brick wall.

Defects in plaster.
The following defects may occur in plaster work:
   1. Cracking: this consists in formation of cracks in plaster work which may be on
       account of the following.
                  i.   Old surface not being properly prepared.

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                 ii.   Excessive shrinkage of plaster due to the application of mortar
                       in thick coats.
                iii.   Workmanships and the method of application of the plaster.
                       Rough textured finished are generally less likely to show
                       cracking than smooth finishes.




   2. Blowing or blistering of plaster:
      This consists in formation of small patches of plaster swelling out beyond the
      plastered surface and is chiefly due to improper slaking of lime particles in the
      plaster. Properly slaked lime should therefore, be used to prevent blistering.


   3. Falling out of plaster:
   This defect may arise due to the following reasons:
      i.   The adhesion of the plaster to the back-ground may not be perfect.
     ii.   Excessive thermal changes in plaster or backing.
    iii.   The bond between the successive costs of plaster may not be perfect.
    iv.    In-adequate curing of the plaster.




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                              CHAPTOR 10
                     PLUMBING & SANITARY APPLIANCES

10.1 INTRODUCTION

WATER SUPPLY
        All water supplies originate as rainfall. Rain water is derived from water vapors
rising from seas, river, lakes, etc… forming in to clouds and then condensing as rain,
hail or snow. On reaching the earth part of it is held by the top soil to feed
vegetation but the reminder either falls upon impervious surface or percolates
through the earth and it is from these two sources that we obtain our water supplies.
      The main two basic source of water supply are surface water and ground water.
Surface water is a mixture of surface run-off and ground water and includes rivers,
springs and lakes etc…
Ground water or sub soil water is the most important source of supply such as from
wells and has the following advantages.

    a) It is often most practical and economical to obtain and distribute.
    b) It is likely to be free of pathogenic bacteria and other common impurities and
        is also free of colour and turbidity.

   For the selection of source of supply of two most important factors to be
considered are the quantity and quality.
    For this apartment water is supplied from over head tank which capacity
30000L. There are four main pipes in a tank they were

                          Inlet pipe
                          Outlet pipe
                          Over flow pipe
                          Washout pipe

     The main supply pipe or inlet is connected at the top and outlet or service pipe
connected on the opposite side of the inlet pipe 5cm to 15 cm above the floor of the
tank so as not to take any sediment with it, which might have collected at the
bottom. A stop tap was provided on the supply pipe out side the tank. A washout
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pipe must be provided for cleaning and emptying the tank. It should be made flush
with the tank bottom at its lowest point. Overflow pipe was connected to carry off
the surplus water when being over - filled and fixed to the tank a little below the level
of the inlet.

A float valve is used to control the level in the tank


10.2 PLUMBING SYSTEM

There are four types of plumbing systems for drainage work.

10.2.1 The Single Stack System
       In this system both the soil water and the waste water are discharged in to
single pipe through there traps. Only one vertical pipe is used and which is connected
to the ground drainage system. This system is economical as only one pipe is
provided. But there are disadvantages such as

1. Air or water from the drainage pipes may be forced through traps by back
   pressure due to blockage.
2. Trap seals may be emptied due to sudden discharge form a fixture in the system.

10.2.2 The One-pipe system

In this system both the soil water pipes and the waste water pipes are connected to
one main vertical pipe and which is connected directly to the drainage system. The
traps of all the fixtures are connected to a separate vent pipe. This system is
economical in the case of high building

Where the sanitary fittings can be grouped close together.

10.2.3 The One-Pipe system (partially ventilated)

In this system the traps of only the water closets, urinals and slop sinks, etc…are
connected to the vent pipe.




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10.2.4 The Two-pipe system

In this system two separate sets of pipe are installed as one for the waste water. The
soil pipes are connected to the drain direct and the waste pipes through a trap gulley.

In our site we used two-pipe system. When using the pipe lines we have to consider
about the capacity and the allowable pressure of the pipes. For waste and sewer lines
we used type 600 pipes.

10.3 LAYING PIPE LINES
To supply water and for the waste and sewer lines we used PVC pipes. For the hot
water lines PPR pipes were used




10.3.1 PVC Pipes
       Poly Vinyl Chloride, more commonly known by its abbreviated name PVC is
the oldest and most common plastic being used. These pipes being more flexible
corrosion resistant, light in weight, easy to handle and install, relatively cheap and
available in long lengths compared to metallic pipes, are very suitable in certain
locations of plumbing systems. Can be extensively used in hotels and house services
connections & are well.Polybutylene hot water pipes and fittings were used for hot
water lines

Following types of joints are used for joining PVC pipes.

a] Cement solvent joint.
b] Flanged joint.
c] Screwed or threaded joint.
d] Rubber ring joint.

Cement solvent joint is commonly used. In plumbing work, the first task was to lay
the pipe lines according to our proposed plans. To lay the water supply pipe lines we
cut straits on the walls in relevant levels according to the plan. Before laying the pipes
these straits were water proofed after cleaning.


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10.3.2 Types of pipe used

2O mm (1/2”)                      for the showers

32 mm      (1”)                   for all other supply lines

40, 50, 63 mm (1 ¼”, 1 ½”, 2”) for all waste line of washbasin, gully, sink.

110mm (4”)                        for waste of squatting pan and water closet

25mm PPR pipe and sockets         for hot water lines

After lying the pipe lines the ends were end capped and they were test using the
pressure test.

10.4 PRESSURE TEST


       After laying the pipes along the straits cut on the wall they should be checked
for leaks. Laid pipes were fixed in to wall from several places using mortar. To avoid
coming when pressuring all outlets were end capped using female threaded end caps
in necessary places.
       32 mm diameter gate valve was fixed to the upper of the pipe line and 20mm
diameter gate valve was fixed to the lower end. Pipeline was filled with water and
removed air bubbles. Pressure gauge was fixed to the hydraulic pressure pump and
pressure pump horse was fixed to the 20mm diameter gate valve
Bucket of the hydraulic pressure pump was filled with water and gauge was set for
3bars. After 24 hours, pressure was checked. If the dial gauge reading was reduced a
leak occurs in the pipe line. It should be fixed and again pressure test should be done.



10.5 INSTALLING SANITARY FIXTURES

       Sanitary fittings are made in a great variety of designs and sizes. The use of
water in buildings for sanitary and other purposes is made possible and convenient by
the provision of sanitary appliances. Which are of appropriate from and have water

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supply and out go arrangements sized and placed to assist the function, which the
appliance serves, All sanitary appliances should have surface and preferably also the
body of the material should be impervious the shape should be appropriate to its use
and free from crevices or features, which would make cleaning difficult.


10.5.1 Materials
       The main materials used for sanitary applications are ceramics. It gives very
durable glazed surface in a wide range of colours. There are three main classes, the
significant properties of which from the point of view of sanitary appliances may be
summarized.

The brand of used in this project American standard, Arms etc…
The sanitary fixtures we used are as follows:
           Wash basin
           Water closets
           Squatting pans


FLUSHING CISTERNS
In the site for water closet and squatting pans we used flushing cisterns.
      A flushing cistern is a mechanical device for regulating a predetermined
quantity of water for flushing a water closets and squatting pans. Cistern
circumstances a section of a drainage system. a flushing cistern must be constructed
in such away that, except when flushed water must be able to pass from the Cistern to
the water closet and ensure this basis of operation is a symphonic action.

WATER CLOSET
    The term is used for the flexure as well the room in which it is installed. In
residential buildings water closet rooms should be located according the direction of
the prevailing winds and should preferably be made against external back walls. Water
closet components should not have direct communication with a habitable room or
a kitchen. The access should be from a passage landing hall, lobby or a similar space.
       A water closet consists of pan containing water and receiving excrement and a
device for providing a flush of water. Normally the pan and flushing device are
separate but in some modern fittings they are coupled together. The pans are almost
invariably of ceramic material.

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According to the way flushing cistern fixed to the devised there are 3 types.
     When the flushing cistern is fixed high it is called high level cistern. When it is
fixed low called low level cisterns. When it is attached to the water closet it is called
closed coupled cisterns. High level cisterns are not widely used because they are noisy
when flushing. Closed coupled ones are very expensive than low level cisterns.
      The cistern of water closet seats on water closet with two bolts and joints with
wall in 8 mm brass screws and 12mm roll plugs. The water closet is jointed with tile
floor 3 ½” coach nails & S 10 roll plugs. The waste line of water closet is situated in
200 mm above finish floor level. Water supply gets by using 20 mm* 20 mm angle
valve and flexible horse. Usually water line was laid right side of water closet.

SHOWERS

       Two types of delivery heads are used for showers. The traditional ’rose’ type
delivers water through a disc pierced with holes and is frequently fixed over head. The
adjustable umbrella type spray has come into use relatively recently. This type of
spray consumes very much less water than the rose type and conventionally installed.
In the site we used American standard shower and spout and bossuni over head
shower.

WASH BASINS

       A wide range of sizes and designs are available. Basins are normally made of
ceramic although others such as plastics are available and used weight is important.
Wash basins are designed for washing the upper part of the body. Wash basin seat on
the pedestal. The standard wash basin consists of a bowl, soap tray outlet, water
overflow connected to the outlet and holes for connecting to the taps. Control of
out go is usually by plug and chain.


       Basins can be supported in a number of ways. Some types can be obtained with
lugs for building in to walls so that they canti-lever from the wall. Brackets built in or
plugged to the wall give the same type of support. A ceramic pedestal support is
often used and it conceals the pipe work although making access more difficult.


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       When basins are fixed in ranges there should be a space of at least 100 mm
between the basins and 70 cm between centre to centre of basins, and the centre of
the basin at least 40 mm away from the adjacent wall.


       Wash basins were consisted in all common bathrooms. When fixing wash
basins, care must be taken with there levels. The washbasin was jointed with wall
using S 15 roll plug and 10 mm thread bar type nail with there washers. The water
supply line is laid 550 mm above the finish level & waste of washbasin is 500mm
above the finish floor level. It is consist of an angle valve and a flexible horse & prop
up waste. For waste of washbasin used 40 mm waste line was jointed using a 40 mm
reducer with 63 mm puddle collar.



FIXING OF SQUATTING PAN

110mm diameter puddle collar were fixed by using concrete and with water sealing
method or chemical (hilti RX 100) in the required position of the toilet. Then the
cubical was water proofed. After the pond test was done water proofed surface was
plastered as protection layer. Then 900 Elbow was fixed to the puddle collar and
ceramic S trap. Using silicone gum squatting pan was fixed to the S trap and leveled
the squatting pan using spilt level. Free spaces are filled using sand



TRAPS

      A trap is a bend or loop in a sanitary fitting which retain water and remains
constantly full, shutting off air connection between the fitting and the out side soil
pipe , thus preventing the escape of foul gases from the sewers. The most common
shape is P or S. The deeper is the water seal more efficient the trap.

WATER SEAL

       Water seal is the vertical distance between the dip and crown weir of a trap. It
is the “depth of the water” which when removed from a fully filled trap will permit
the passage of air to pass through the trap.


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10.6 OTHER IMPORTANT APPLIANCES

MIRROR

       Mirrors over washbasins were used 600*600 mm overall size. They were
silvered float glass mirror with slightly rounded ground edges free from effect of
wave image. 19 mm thick polished hard wood backing was fixed to mirror by using
chromium-plated clips. They were plugged to wall by using wall plugs and brass
screws.

TWO WAY TAP

      1\2” diameter chromium plated bib tap and bidet shower out existing in that
tap. No required angle valve for bidet shower when used in that tap.

ROBE HOOKS

      Robe hooks used to keep clothes when we use toilet. Robe hooks (double)
were fixed on the wall in shower areas by using roll plugs and brass screws.

TOWEL RAIL

        Towel bars used to keep the towel when bathing. Normal length of the towel
bars is 450 mm.



GULLIES

      Gullies should be fixed as near the surface level as possible. There should be a
grating on top of the trap to intercept all solid matter bars of grating or cover. Open
gullies should be out side the building where required to take surface waste and
sealed gullies inside the building.
We used floor gullies for toilets and balcony areas. The gully gratings were sealed by
welding so it can’t be open.




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GATE VALVES

       Gate valves are the commonest and most important as the control the flow of
water in a distribution system and are provided at intervals along the main and all
branches and street intersections.
      They facilitate testing the line or shutting off portions of the supply lines for
repairs. Valves must be spaced at short intervals in dislocations of the service if a
portion of the pipe lines has to be shut off. We used gate valves for the supply lines
of each floor. 32 mm diameter gate valve was fixed to the branch of the main supply
line of the service duct at each floor level. And also we used 40 mm diameter gate
valve for the waste line of the tanks in the bath rooms. And a 63 mm diameter one
was used to the service duct supply line at the top.



10.7 INSTALLING SEWER AND WASTE PIPE LINES

         After the puddle collars were placed and concreted the pipe lines were fixed.
Before fixing the sanitary appliances the pipe line, which goes along the bottom
surface of the slab were connected to gullies and connected to the main sewer and
waste lines, which were taken out to the service duct lines. In each floor gullies were
provided at lobby areas, shower areas and in the toilets where water closets are placed.
All the floor gullies were trapped so that the smell may not spread.
       In the service duct there are three main lines waste, sewer, and vent pipe. For
waste and sewer lines used 110 mm diameter type 1000 pipes. For vent pipe used 90
mm diameter pipe. Service duct pipe lines were fixed to the slabs using anchor bolts,
thread bars and brackets. For the maintenance work we fixed a galvanized steel ladder
to the vertical stack of the pipe lines.


10.7.1 Door sockets

       In each floor level for waste and sewer lines, which connects to the service duct
pipe lines were provided with door sockets for cleaning purposes if a block, may
occur.




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10.7.2 Cleaning eyes

        In the waste lines we kept bends with cleaning eyes at relevant places for clean
out, if a block may occur.


10.7.3 Manholes

         The main sewer and waste lines of the service duct was connected to the main
holes.
         Manholes or inspection chambers are openings through the street surface to
the sewer to provide access for inspections and cleaning. Provisions of manholes are
essential in all sewerage lines and are usually provided at all junctions, change of
direction or alignment, change of gradient and size of sewer.
         On small sewers, which cannot be entered for cleaning or inspection, a
manhole should be built at the head of the all sewers and branches and at about 90
to 150 m on strait runs for sewers of 600 mm to 1200 mm diameter.




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                                        CHAPTER 11
                                 QUALITY CONTROLLING
11.1 SLUMP TEST
Test apparatus
 Mould           – Mould has a conical shape, 100mm diameter at the top, 200mm at
                 the bottom and 300mm high. Both top and bottom are opened and
                 they are parallel to each other, and perpendicular to the axis of the
                 cone.
Tamping rod – Tamping rod is 16mm in diameter and 600mm long, rounded at
                 one end.



                         100mm


           300m                                  600mm
           m

                         200mm




         Fig 11.1 -slump test apparatus



PROCEDURE

 Concrete sample was collected, which must be represented of an entire batch.
 Then Mould was cleaned and placed on a hard flat surface.
 Mould was filled in three layers of concrete of approximately equal depth. Each
   layer is rotted with 25 strokes of the tampered rod.
 Top surface of the mould was leveled with the rod.
 Mould was lifted straight up from the concrete and placed it beside the specimen.

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MEASURING OF THE SLUMP

 Tampering rod was placed across the top of the mould and distance between
   bottom of the rod and displaced original center of the specimens’ top surface is
   measured.
 Shape of the slump can be true, shear or collapses indicating below




                      Slump



                                         True            Shear           Collapse
                                        slump            slump            slump

            Fig11.1.2- Measuring of slumps




CUBE TEST

      This test was an effective test in which compressive strength of concrete could
be tested. This test was carried out in laboratories using machines. Normally three
test cubes were made from each concrete batch.


Test apparatus
   1. Cast iron mould size -150*150*150mm
   2. Steel bar              -long 380mm, weight 1.8kg, with ramming face 25mm
                              square




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PROCEDURE

 Concrete samples were taken from the concrete batch.
 Test cube mould was cleaned and oils inner surface. (150mm * 150 mm* 150
  mm*)
 Then the mixture was put in to the mould, 1 / 3 of it height in 3 layers was
  tamped 35 times using the tamping rod
 When the mould was completely filled, the excess concrete was removed using
  trowel and smoothens the top surface and kept for 24 hours.
 Then the concrete cube was removed from the mould and placed in the water
  tank. The cubes were tested after 7 days, 21 days and 28 days.



Number of cubes needed
    In plant 2 cubes in a same truck per 30m3
    In site number of cubes is varied according to the consultant requirement.
     Minimum 8 cubes in which, 3 cubes for 7 day testing & 1 additional, 3 cubes
      for 28 day testing & 1 additional.




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                                      CHAPTER 12
                                 INDUSTRIAL SAFETY
12.1 INTRODUCTION
                  The aim of monitoring safety on site is to avoid injuries arising
from construction activities. Generally many companies have prepared the Safety
Plan. This will be implemented in order to protect all personnel at site minimize the
risk of accidents and incidents that could result in injury. In terms of our Safety Plan,
it needs all levels of implementation and co-ordination in order to militate against
risk and assure that adequate standards safety is maintained throughout the duration
of the project.
                     It will be a priority in all daily activities, undertakings and
endeavors to ensure the safety of workers, the public and other persons directly or
indirectly associated in this project. This safety measures will be continuously
implemented throughout the duration of the project.



12.2 RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE OFFICERS ABOUT SAFETY

Project Manager

    Overall responsibility for all health and safety matters on site.
    Implement the safety Management system.
    Ensure that all line management is conversant with the relevant requirements
       of current legislation and of the Safety Plan and that all managers are assigned
       duties and responsibilities to assist in its effective implementation.
    Appoint a Safety Officer who shall be responsible to him.



Safety Officer

    Is accountable to the Project Manager / Site Manager for the promotion of
       health and safety systems and monitoring all site safety.
    Ensure the safety plan is being correctly managed by Site Management and

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         Subcontractors.
       To write a maintain reports on site inspections, audits and accident
        investigation.
       To develop and maintain site safety training program.
       To carry out regular liaison with Clients and Sub-contractors on safety
         matters...
       To advise a promote safety and health on site by various means and in
         consultation with the Site Manager.
       Shall where necessary on behalf of the Project Manager to stop. Works, which
         he considers to be creating a hazard and risk.
       To organize the safety proposals.
       To keep records on safety.
       CV of Safety Officer attached for review.
       Support to the Safety Officer and responsible for organizing works at site
         incompliance to the required safety standard.
       Implement the safety Management system.
       Ensure that all line management is conversant with the relevant requirements
        of current legislation and of the Safety Plan and that all managers are assigned
         duties and responsibilities to assist in its effective implementation.
       Appoint a Safety Officer who shall be responsible to him.



    All Personal

       Shall take reasonable care on their safety as well as that of others. Who may
        be affected by their actions or objectives at work Required to corporate with
         the management to achieve safety standard.
       Encourage to proposed suggestions to improve health and safety at site to
        their immediate supervisor or Engineer or the Safety Officer.
.

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12.3 SAFE WORKING PROCEDURES

    Safety working procedures are written to ensure that site activities are properly
      controlled and executed safety and without risk to health.
    The safe working procedures, which may be incorporated method statements
      shall be prepared and submitted for approval prior to commencement of
      activity.
    All safety working procedures shall be clearly identified the objectives, the
      sequence of operations the foreseeable hazards and risks and the precautionary
      and protective measures required and be easily understood by the personnel
      who are to carry out the work. Procedures are to be included the control
      measures to reduce risks identified and methods of monitoring to ensure the
      control measures to reduce the risks identified, methods of monitoring to
      ensure the controls are applied.



Permission to Work

    Where permits to work are required for specific operations such as entry into
      confined spaces, work in explosive of flammable atmosphere and special lifting
      operations shall be obtained approval by the Project Manager or persons
      authorized by him.
    The Site Manager shall ensure that the issue of permits to work, and the work
     conducted under them is strictly controlled. Only competent person will
      authorize such permits.



Security Clothing

    Safety Helmets, Shoes, Glues etc.
    ID passes




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Safety Signs
               Safeties Sign boards are demonstrate at site and some pictures are
attached. Following signs shall be provided at appropriate places according to the site
situation/ progress.

      1. Safety first

      2. Wear Helmet

      3. Watch your head

      4. Safety access

      5. No smoking

      6. Smoking area

      7. Fire extinguisher

      8. Dustbin

      9. Other signs as required

Safety Lectures

      New starters will be given introduction by Safety Officer.
      Follow up lectures every month.
      If any incidents, workers will be called aside or lecture & discussion.



Record Keeping

      Daily diary - incidents are reported to SM. Following formats are used for
      recording.




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Site cleaning

    Site shall be always kept clean.
    Dustbins shall be provided at appropriate interval for small garbage with
     indication by sign board.
    Garbage dumping area shall be arranged at site with indication by sign board
    All garbage shall be collected to this area, and collected garbage shall be
      disposed to outside of site periodically.
    A clean site is a safe site.
Protective wear

    Helmet
      All workers/staff shall wear helmet at site.

    Shoes
      Bare foot, Sandals and slippers are prohibited at site.
Other Protective Wear

For organizing works at site incompliance to the required safety standard.

    Safety belt shall be worn for following works
      Structural steel erection, scaffolding erection, etc. at high place

    Goggles shall be worn for following works
      Chipping, Grinding, etc. in case small particles could be emitted.

    Welding hoods shall be worn for following works
      Welding, etc. in case harmful ray could be emitted.

    Mask shall be worn for following works
      Grinding/cutting concrete, etc. in case small particles could be emitted.




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12.4 ACTIVITIES FOR SAFETY

    SAFETY INSPECTIONS

    The objective of safety inspections is to verify whether the safety management
      objectives of the worksite are being met.
    The Company should establish procedures to carry out internal safety
      inspections.
    The inspections may be informal such as spot checks on activities, or formal,
      where documented procedures are followed.
    Personnel carrying out inspections should be competent to do so and should
      be fully conversant with any relevant procedures for safe work practices,
      worksite rules and regulations and statutory requirements.
    The results inspections should be brought to the attention of the Safety
     Officer and personnel having responsibility in the area concerned. Any
      corrective action should be immediately implemented.
    The Company should ensure that inspections are carried out at a specified
      frequency, which will ensure high level of compliance with the provisions of
      the Safety Management System.
    Inspections, which an e a statutory requirement, must be carried out at a
      frequency and in accordance with any procedure given in the said
      requirement. Other inspections should be carried out suitable frequency and
      thoroughness commensurate with the dynamic and rapid changes of the
      worksite. Inspection of shoring of formwork excavation, trenches, cranes and
      scaffolds should be carried out after inclement weather.



      Site Safety Inspection

     Site Safety officer must conduct a site inspection at least once a week, using
      checklist.
     A copy of the inspection report should be given to Site Foremen and Sub-
        contract concerned.


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      A copy of the report will be directed to the Project Manager.
      Site Safety officer shall monitor and follow-up to check if unsafe acts or
       conditions rectified by if deadline. A summary of non-compliance should be
        submitted to Project Manager if unsafe acts or conditions are not rectified.



DAILY SAFETY INSPECTIONS

Full-time staff including Project Manager should conduct safety inspection            in
their daily round. Observations on safety should be noted down on a            prescribed
form to facilitate follow-up.
              A copy of those observations should be given to the Site Safety
                 Officer;
              Non-action on the part of sub-contractors should be noted, and
               discussed at Safety Meeting.




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                                      CHAPTER 13
                             STORES MANAGEMENT

13.1 INTRODUCTION

      In any working site store management plays vital role. The success of the
project basically depends on the correct material handling at the stores. In the N&A
Engineering pvt (ltd), main stores are located at the Nawagamuwa. For the working
sites, separate stores are located nearby & purchasing of things are done through the
main stores. Material handling, vehicle handling were done through the main stores.


      The legal co-ordination between each site stores & the main store is
maintained with important documentations. In all exchanges, receiving, issuing, or
returning should be made. These documents should be approved by the storekeeper,
& authorized person with designation at the site. All of the above are neatly & clearly
done at the N&A Ltd.
Normal characters at a store are,


       Store keeper                - with very high responsibility.
       Asst. storekeeper           - with high responsibility.
       Labors                      - with low responsibility.


      The main objective of the logistic department is to create an effective,
supportive role in the project through effective material handling procedures.
Material handling is an important element in any project. It requires the materials to
be routed to the working sites; at the required quantity at the right time. One main
consideration is to achieve a cost effective methodize: to sustain a material handling
system by balancing between economic senses & minimize material wastages, which
makes direct impact on the project.




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13.2 DUTY OF STORE KEEPER.

      The head of the store is called store keeper. He must be responsible for
materials, equipment of the site he must supply materials & instrument to workers in
time.& also quantity of all materials mark the site notice board like cement, sand,
metal, G.I pipes, clamps,etc.he must be requisition for material when material are not
at the site &also he note down P.R, G.R.N, T.R for all material. He should be issues
the labour equipment and safety items. (Helmet, Gloves, Boots, etc)


13.3 DOCUMENTS USED IN SITE WORK

   a) Purchase Requisition (P.R.)
      If the site needs some materials first of all there should be a requisition by
      using a document. It is called purchase requisition. It includes description,
      purpose, required date, unit, quantity, remarks. This sheet is filled by
      storekeeper and checked by site engineer.


   b) Good Received Note. (G.R.N)
      When materials received for site the details about them must be include in a
      document. It is called good received note. It includes, description, unit,
      quality, date of received, PR no, supplier of material, bill no, & remarks. This is
      maintaining at site to certify that the materials and goods delivered to site in
      correct quantities.


   c) Good Transfer Note. (G.T.N)
      If some material or instrument transfers to other site the details about them
      must be note down. This sheet is called transfer note. It includes receiving site,
      issuing site, date description, unit, quality, and issuer’s remarks. It must sigh
      issued by, checked by & transported by.




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   d) Delivery sheet of ready mixed concrete.
      All details mark this delivery sheet for concrete. It is included delivery volume,
      normal strength, maximum size of coarse aggregates, type of cement, place of
      delivery, measure data, time of delivery, signature officer in-charge of delivery
      and receiving, no of transport vehicle, total no of transport vehicle and other
      details mark this sheet.




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                            Institute of Engineering Technology.
                                      Katunayake                                           82
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                                      CHAPTER 14
                       MACHINERIES AND EQUIPMENTS

14.1 INTRODUCTION
      Various type of machine is used in construction field in the world. Because it
saved time, cost. And also it helped to us for done that work correctly. At the
present, much type of machines is used for the construction field in Sri Lanka.The
types of equipments and machineries that are used in my site are listed below.


14.2 MACHINES

BACKHOE

      In our site backhoe was used for the excavation purposes and also to some
degree of transportation of the soil within the site. This is based upon a tractor power
unit and tractor is powered using diesel. Hydraulic controlled loading shovel at the
front and hydraulic controlled back acting hoe at the rear of the vehicle is available
for the JCB.
      It is essential that the weight of the machine is removed from the axles during
the back acting excavation operation. This is achieved by tout trigger jacks at the
corners or by jacks at the rear of the power unit working in conjunction with the
inverted bucket at the front of the machine.


READY MIX TRUCK

      This is basically a mobile mixing drum mounted on a lorry chassis. Fully or
partially mixed concrete is loaded into the truck mixer at the batching plant. During
transportation to the site the mix is agitated by the revolving drum. The drum
revolves at 1 to 2 revolutions per minute. On arrival at the site the mix is finally
mixed by increasing the drum’s revolutions to between 10 and 15 revolutions per
minute for a few minutes before discharging concrete.




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CONCRETE PUMP
       This is a sophisticated piece of machinery, which basically a pump mounted on
a truck. The concrete is fed to a feed hopper directly from the ready mix truck or by
any other means and is lifted to the required height. The maximum height that can
be reached is 23metres. The steel boom is hydraulically operated and at the end of
the boom there is a 100mm diameter flexible delivery pump.


PORKER VIBRATORS
       Pokers vibrators are powered by Engine. These types of vibrators are most
commonly used. It consists of a poker. This is a vibration at the end of a flexible
tube and they vary in size from 25mm to 75 mm on diameter. The vibrator should
not be dragged through concrete not used to help heaps of concretes to spread out.
It should be placed vertically in concrete and held in one position until air bubbles
short to come to the surface then it should be slowly with draw so that the concrete
can flow into the space previously occupied by the poker. This should be repeated
about every 0.5 to 1 m intervals.
The concrete should be placed in layers of not more than 600 mm thick. The
vibrators should be lowered at least 100mm, into the concrete.

CIRCULAR SAW
             There are 3 circular saws in the site. This is used to timber cutting such as
cut rafters and plywood sheets for slab formworks.
       Brand -       Bosch
       Power input-          1400W
       Saw blade dia. - 7 1/4//
       No load speed         - 4800 rpm
       Weight                - 4.1 kg




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DRILL
        There are 2 drills used in the site. Drilling holes in the column and beam
formworks was done by this for the purpose of insert precone.

        Brand        - Bosch
        Type         - GBM 450/450RE
        Rated input - 450W
        No speed load        -2500 rpm
        Weight       - 1.5 kg


PLATE COMPACTOR

       Plate compactor provides compacting force by combination of weight and
vibration over the filling by layers. This equipment is mostly suitable for light filling
with less depth of layers. This is operated under fuel power and simple in operation
make advance to enrollment.




ROAD ROLLER

       The roller consists of two steel drum wheels, with one tone weight. There is a
vibratory action, so make maximum compaction under weight and vibration. The
roller should have to move lapping one track with other to gain optimum
compaction. The roller can go forward and backward, make better consume of time.
This is widely used for large filling areas like roads and limited ground.




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                             CHAPTER 15
                  PROBLEM ENCOUNTED AND SOLUTIONS


    Honeycombs occurred in the beams and columns were prepared by applying a
      thick layer of construction grout.

    When setting out works started, firstly we cannot get exactly perpendicular
      lines without using theodolite. Then we get exactly perpendicular lines by
      using Pythagoras theorem. [3 – 4 – 5method]

    Applying concreting for staircase, some time steps and landing are finished
     not properly. There fore soloed above problem, chipped or broken down using
      broken

    When the external plastering some times happened crack edge of column and
      edge of brickwork. Prevented of this problem we have to apply to chicken
      mesh edge of columns or beams and brick wall.

    When the concreting, some times concretes was came delay, above stage,
      concrete pump and pipeline was hardness. So solved above problem, by
      cleaned pump and pipeline.

    When the applying concrete using pump car, stationary pump or compaction
     using poker some time, formwork was broken down. Then we remade it
      strongly

    The rain was came, so we have to open area work such as brick work plastering
      work and pain rag work [external], concreting..Etc




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                                     Katunayake                                          86
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                                     CHAPTER 16
                                     CONCLUSION


National apprentice of industrial training authority conducts 12 month basic
industrial training program. This is very essential, very important and very useful for
the NDES students who have been completed 06 month academic period
successfully. Because academic qualification is not enough for working in the
industry in any engineering field.


I would like to state that I have gain great experience in Housing Project , building
construction Including finishing and structural part after finishing my industrial
training under N&A Engineering Pvt(Ltd) in Polhengoda Apartment Complex
Project situated at kirulapone. This Experience I had on handling the labors, dealing
with relevant authorized people where required occasions are much more than the
experience in construction field. But according to my opinion it was a good chance
to expose to that side from my industrial training rather than gaining only a
technical knowledge. It will be worth to my future career as an Engineer has to do
the site management, labors handling in construction field.


The industrial training session is the opportunity available for to get an idea about
the working environment before enter the industry. At that stage we can not
leisurely observe construction activities and learn trial and error methods, since we
will be expected to play the role of a perfect in the busy fast moving atmosphere of
the industry. Therefore this training becomes a one and only opportunity to learn
through mistakes.



                        National Diploma in Engineering Sciences.
                            Institute of Engineering Technology.
                                      Katunayake                                          87
N&A Engineering (PVT) Ltd.                                       Basic Industrial Training


To provide a useful training it is difficult to employ training personal from the
organization, but all the personals in the construction site such as project manager,
site engineer, surveyors, construction supervisors, technical officers and other
personals including lower level staff help me to trained.
Finally, so once again my thanks to the all members who help me to complete my
01st 12 months training period & best wishers for them to all success in the future
carriers.


K. A. J. S. Gunathilaka.
CH/07/6668
National Diploma in Engineering Sciences
Institute of Engineering Technology
Katunayake.




                           National Diploma in Engineering Sciences.
                               Institute of Engineering Technology.
                                         Katunayake                                          88
N&A Engineering (PVT) Ltd.                                   Basic Industrial Training


REMARKS




                       National Diploma in Engineering Sciences.
                           Institute of Engineering Technology.
                                     Katunayake                                          89

				
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