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					      Computers:
Information Technology
     in Perspective

                Larry Long & Nancy Long




Computers: Information Technology in Perspective
               By Long and Long
       Copyright 2002 Prentice Hall, Inc.
       Copyright 2002 Prentice Hall, Inc.
Inside the Computer

                                              Chapter 3




    Computers: Information Technology in Perspective
                   By Long and Long
           Copyright 2002 Prentice Hall, Inc.
                                Be Informed ! !
 3.3            Quit




              And, make good
               decisions when
             purchasing a PC.


Monthly
Technology
Update
               Electronic Signals
3.4     Quit




      Analog




                       Digital
                                   Binary Digits (Bits)
3.5              Quit

                                                      Human
                           On
                            1
                                      Off
                                       0        }    readable
                                                      symbols
       Only 2           Electronic Electronic        Inside the
       states              pulse
                         present
                                      pulse
                                     absent
                                                }    computer’s
                                                    memory (RAM)
      possible
                        Positive    Negative        Permanently
                        magnetic
                         field
                                    magnetic
                                     field
                                                }    stored on
                                                       disks

                                                    Permanently

      On   Off            Pitted
                                      Not
                                     Pitted     }    stored on
                                                      CD-ROM

                                                       Fiber
                          Light
                          Pulse
                                    No Light
                                     Pulse      }      Optic
                                                       Cable
                  Digitizing Data
3.6        Quit




                         Digital



      Analog
                              Encoding Systems
 3.7            Quit




       “A” is represented by this bit pattern
                   1 byte= 8 bits



              01000001 A

Encoding
                                                     ASCII Chart
3.8                 Quit


      Character ASCII Code Character ASCII Code
         A       100 0001     0       011 0000
         B
         C
                 100 0010
                 100 0011
                              1
                              2
                                      011 0001
                                      011 0010    Please memorize
         D       100 0100     3       011 0011
         E
         F
                 100 0101
                 100 0110
                              4
                              5
                                      011 0100
                                      011 0101
                                                   by our next class.
         G       100 0111     6       011 0110
         H       100 1000     7       011 0111

         J
          I      100 1001
                 100 1010
                              8
                              9
                                      011 1000
                                      011 1001
                                                    Just kidding!
         K       100 1011   Space     010 0000
         L       100 1100      .      010 1110
         M
         N
                 100 1101
                 100 1110     +
                               (      010 1000
                                      010 1011
                                                    Other Systems:
         O       100 1111     &       010 0110
         P
         Q
                 101 0000
                 101 0001
                              $
                               *
                                      010 0100
                                      010 1010
                                                     ANSI (8 bit)
         R       101 0010      )      010 1001
         S       101 0011      ;      011 1011      Unicode (16 bit)
         T       101 0100      ,      010 1100
         U
         V
                 101 0101
                 101 0110     ?
                               -      101 1111
                                      011 1111    Hexadecimal display
         W       101 0111      :      011 1010
         X       101 1000     =       011 1101
         Y       101 1001
                     PC System Unit
3.9           Quit




                            Storage
 Motherboard
                            Devices
                               Hard
      Processor
                               Drive

                              Floppy
        RAM
                               Drive

      Expansion              CD-ROM/
        Cards                DVD Drive
                              Motherboard
3.10    Quit




        Electroniccircuit board
        Provides communication among:
            Microprocessor
            Chipset

            Memory chips

            Expansion boards

            Bus

            Device controllers
                    Intel Processor Progression
 3.11                 Quit




                                   286,  386, 486
                                   Pentium®
                                   Pentium® Pro
                                   Pentium® II
                                   Pentium® III
                                   Celeron®
                                   Itanium™


Photo Courtesy of
Intel Corporation
          Microprocessor Components
3.12             Quit




        Control    Unit                             Decoder
            Read/Interpret program instructions
                                                    Program
            Direct the operation of internal
                                                    Register
             components
            Control flow of programs/data to RAM   Instruction
                                                     Register


       Accumulator  ALU
                      Memory Types
3.13   Quit




              RAM


              Cache


              ROM


              PROM


              Flash
                                     RAM
3.14    Quit




        Random    Access Memory
        Solid-state electronic circuitry
        Holds current data and programs at a
         RAM address
        Temporary or volatile storage
                                          RAM Types
3.15              Quit




        SDRAM       (Synchronous Dynamic RAM)
            Can synchronize itself with the processor
        RDRAM           (Rambus DRAM)
          Newer and more expensive
          6 times faster than SDRAM

        Physical        installation
          SIMMs: 32-bit data path to CPU (single)
          DIMMs: 64-bit data path to CPU (dual)

          RIMMs: faster RDRAM chips (use to upgrade)
                      Cache Memory
3.16    Quit




        Faster and more costly than RAM
        Much smaller capacity than RAM
        Holds next likely instructions
        Increases system throughput
                                   ROM
3.17    Quit




        Read  Only Memory
        Permanent; user cannot change
        Loads Operating System during
         boot process
        PROM
                           Flash Memory
3.18    Quit



        Type of PROM
        Can be easily changed by user
        Non-volatile
        Upgrade by downloading software from the
         Web or disk
        No longer need to replace chips or circuit
         boards
                        What Happens Inside
3.19           Quit




                       Control     Arithmetic
                        Unit       Logic Unit


       Input                                        Output
        Unit                                         Unit
                          Main memory


        Control flow             Instruction flow   Data flow
       Instruction Cycle = I-time + E-time
3.20       Quit




                                                Fetch Instruction




                       Place result in memory




                                                                      Decode Instruction
       Everything is
         translated
        to Machine                                      Instruction
                                                            Time
         Language                                 Execution
                                                    Time

          Pipelining


                                                Execute Instruction
                                     Adding Peripherals
 3.21                   Quit



                    Expansion Slot            Peripheral plugs
                                                  into port




                                 Pins plug into slot



Courtesy of ATI
Technologies Inc.                                Expansion Card
                               Bus Types
3.22    Quit




        ISA bus
        PCI local bus
        SCSI bus
        USB bus (hot plug)
        1394 bus (FireWire)
        AGP bus


          Expansion boards are made to fit a
               particular type of bus
                                                Ports
3.23        Quit




              • 8 bits at a time          • 1 bit at a time
                         • Fast                     • Slow
                     • Printers           • Mice/modems
             • Short distances           • Long distances

                   • Keyboard      • Infrared Light waves
                      • Mouse                  • Printers
       • Round 5-pin connector          • Short distance

         • Newest and fastest            •    15 peripherals
                  • Expensive                • Daisychained
        • External hard drives
                                            • High speed
                                   • Buy cable separately
                          Adding Peripherals
3.24       Quit



           Common        boards:
                 AGP (accelerated graphics port)
                 Sound
                 Data/Voice/Fax modem
                 Cable modem
           Other     boards:
                 USB hub
                 Network interface card (NIC)
                 SCSI interface card
                 Video capture card
Surfing
                              PCMCIA Card
 3.25                  Quit




U.S. Robotics Mobile
Communications
Corporation
        Describing the Processor
3.26    Quit




        Word      Size
              64-bit for PCs
        Processor        Speed
            MHz, MIPS, FLOPS
            750 MHz to 2 GHz for PCs

        RAM      Capacity
              128 to 512 MB for PCs
        Processor        Personality
                Storage Capacity
 Quit




 Byte   - one character
 Kilobyte   (KB) - 1024 bytes
 Megabyte    (MB) - about 1 million bytes
 Gigabyte   (GB) - about 1 billion bytes
 Terabyte   (TB) - about 1 trillion bytes
                      Processor Design
3.28        Quit




        Parallelprocessing
        Massively parallel
         processing
        Neural networks
Inside the Computer

                                                The End




    Computers: Information Technology in Perspective
                   By Long and Long
           Copyright 2002 Prentice Hall, Inc.

				
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