Service Delivery by 7Vl7vc


									  Service Delivery
Incorporating concepts related to
empowerment and service quality
     into delivery systems
             Organizations need to specify:
   Their overall mission.
   Organizational goals.
   Programmatic goals and objectives.
   Protocols/policies for establishing eligibility for service.
   Protocols/policies for actually delivering services.
   Policies for hiring/firing staff and staff behavior.
   How services will be funded.
       The organization’s mission statement
   Define the problem to be addressed by the organization.
   Contain a statement of need.
   Contain one or more goals that pertain to the problem to be
    addressed by the organization.
   Identify core values that the organization will follow.
   Identify a target population or intended beneficiaries.
                          For example:
Needs statement:
   Elderly people, over 65, critically need a readily accessible, reliable, and affordable
   service to refer them to providers who can help them obtain the services they need
   to continue living independently in their own homes or apartments.
Problem statement:
   Many elderly citizens in the community are forced to give up living independently
   because they lack transportation, are unable to perform heavy housekeeping and
   maintenance tasks, and no longer have regular personal or family contacts.
Client Population:
   Residents in the downtown neighborhood over 65 who live independently but who
   need assistance to continue living in their own homes or apartments.
The National Association of Social Workers
(NASW) is the largest membership
organization of professional social workers in
the world, with nearly 150,000 members.
NASW works to enhance the professional
growth and development of its members, to
create and maintain professional standards, and
to advance sound social policies.
Department of Social Work Education, CSUF
     The Department of Social Work Education is specifically committed to the education of
     social workers at the bachelor's and master's level who will provide social welfare
     services and leadership within the central San Joaquin Valley. Graduates of both
     programs intervene with individuals, families, groups and other small systems as well as
     with human service agencies, voluntary organizations, neighborhoods, and communities.
     The department is committed to enhancing both the quality of life in the region and the
     capacity of citizens to identify and address their own social welfare and social justice
     concerns and needs.

 To fulfill its mission in the region, the Department prepares social workers for agency and
 community-based practice and for informed, active participation as social workers and
 citizens who are compassionate and proactive in response to human needs.
             Department Program Goals
1    To educate beginning level generalists (BA) and advanced autonomous (MSW)
     social work practitioners to serve the surrounding region of the university
     focusing primarily on the Central San Joaquin Valley.

2    To educate generalists and advanced autonomous social work practitioners to
     practice within a commitment to social justice.

3.   To educate generalists and advanced autonomous social work practitioners to
     practice within diversity/cultural awareness and exhibit diversity/cultural

4.   To educate generalists and advanced autonomous social work practitioners to
     practice within an empowerment perspective.
         Goals and objectives are used to put the
           organization’s mission into action
   Goals are broad, ambiguous, and pertain to an ideal we want to
    reach such as “end homelessness” or “improve the quality of
    life in the community.”
   Objectives are steps to reaching the goal and must be
    a) Measurable
    b) Time-limited
    c) Related to a specific task or process
    d) Evaluable
   Sample Goals & Objectives for a Medi-Cal
            Outreach Program:
Goal: Improve health care status among community residents
Objective 1: Recruit 10 community residents for paid employment as peer
  health educators by February 1, 2003. Evaluation criteria – number of
  residents recruited
Objective 2: Provide a series of six training workshops on Medi-Cal eligibility
  by April 1, 2003. Evaluation criteria – number of workshops actually held,
  number of people attending, findings from evaluation survey distributed to
  those attending.
Objective 3: Inform the public about Medi-Cal eligibility through local media
  and community forums. Evaluation criteria: number of calls for more
  information to Medi-Cal hotline. Number of people attending forums.
    Goals & Objectives can either focus on
              task or process:
   Task objectives focus on completing a specific activity or
    delivering a specific number of services.

   Process objectives are a means used to complete a task-related
    activity. In community practice process objectives are most
    often related to recruiting new members, leadership
    development, increasing public awareness, or strengthening
    the organization.
        Once goals & objectives are in place, the
                  organization must:
   Conduct a needs assessment to determine any service
    gaps or community/population needs. Develop a
    structure and policies for delivering the service.
   Examine how funding sources may determine how
    programs should be delivered and who should get
   Determine what potential beneficiaries want (ideally
    through a formal process of consultation).
        For government funded programs, regulations will often
          determine who is eligible for the service and how the
                 service is delivered. This means that:
   The organization must comply with what the funder wants them to do.
   The organization must be able to prove that they have delivered the service
    and that it has been delivered in the intended manner.
   Funding can be withdrawn or sanctions imposed if the organization does
    not do what the funder wants.
   The wants and needs of the program beneficiaries may not be adequately
   The organization may be required to balance conflicting demands from
    constituents, funders, and clientele in order to remain in operation.
      Examples of Regulations include:
   Child Welfare Code
   Medi-Cal reimbursement requirements.
   Affirmative Action & Fair Employment Laws
   School attendance policies
   Social work licensing requirements
      Regulations often guide how organizations
      determined who gets what in organizations.

   Eligibility criteria
   Application processes and other intake
   Target population
   Costs associated with receiving the service
     Consequently, regulations may affect:
1)    Whether the services is actually accessible to people who
      need them.
2)    Whether the organization actually “sticks with” its
      primary mission & target population.
3)    The degree to which the eligibility process incorporates
      popular perceptions of morality and social stigma into
      eligibility determinations.
4)    The degree of actual power the social worker has to make
      eligibility and service-related decisions.
        Front-line workers have power because:

   They determine who gets what.
   The client is often dependent on them for free
    services and consequently, the client is obligated to
    act in an appropriate manner in order to continue to
    receive service.
   The worker has discretion to interpret the rules and
    may incorporate stigma into the decision-making
 Handler (1992) describes why workers have
Workers are members of organizations, and it is the
 organizations that determine how their resources are
 to be allocated. If the clients want these resources,
 then they must yield at least some control over their
 fate. In addition, workers have other sources of
 power: expertise, persuasion, legitimacy, specialized
 knowledge, and interpersonal skills (p. 281).
    Common barriers that prevent client access to programs
   Wait time for service
   Lengthy or complex applications.
   Income-testing.
   Documentation requirements.
   Costs or fees for service
   Hours of operation.
   Geographic Location/Transportation
   Language/culture (printed documents; translation services; bilingual staff,etc.).
   Availability of day care services
   Social stigma
   Physical access/availability of services for people with disabilities.
   Immigration status
   Service coordination, case management, and other gatekeeping processes.
     Organizations may not intend to exclude
   But must preserve/maintain own resources.
   Have organizational values that limit service
    provision to socially acceptable groups.
   Can not meet demand for service and must
    turn people away or refer them elsewhere.
          Although regulations and funder demands may restrict how
      organizations deliver service, organizations can set many parameters
                        for how services will be delivered.

   By establishing their mission, goals, and objectives.
   By reaching a consensus among participants on a future vision
    and values to guide the organization.
   By establishing a strong board of directors that can advocate to
    maintain the autonomy of the program and help make sure
    services fit the needs of clients.
   By hiring administrators who incorporate social work and
    other social justice-oriented principles into their personal
    leadership strategies.
         Three principles identified in the social work
      literature as important for the delivery of services
   Empowerment of staff members and clients.
   A commitment to service quality.
   Making services consumer driven
             Concepts of quality
   Total quality management (staff members help
    establish quality criteria, monitor whether standards
    are met, and devise new ways to measure quality.
   Can be established by licensing and regulatory bodies
   Can be incorporated into program objectives and
    outcome measures for the program.
        Attributes of empowerment-oriented
    The provision of training in leadership and decision-making for clientele.
   The provision of organizational resources such as advocates who can serve
    as liaisons between clients and staff
   The provision of logistical support to clients involved in organizational
    decision-making such as meals, transportation and child care
    The provision of incentives for both staff members and clients to work
    together cooperatively to make decisions.
   The provision of information to clients that allow them to choose among
    available service options.
       Purpose of using empowerment-
   Makes services more responsive to the needs of
   Makes services more effective
   Increases worker job satisfaction and reduces
   Helps develop new resources for the organization
    (worker skills, clients become volunteers and
   Helps conserve agency resources
Service delivery strategies are choices managers make for the delivery of services.
      Gilbert & Specht (1986) differentiate between consumer-oriented and
                         professional-oriented strategies.

     Strategy                           Consumer                 Professional

     Advocacy                     Self-help                  Case Advocacy
     Citizen Participation Consumers on                      No Consumers on
                           Board                             Board
     Coordination                 Limited                    Coordinates
                                  coordination               services
     Eligibility                  No income-testing Income-testing
     Staffing                     Hires para-                Hires only
                                  professionals              professionals
     Additional Reading on Access, Power, &
   Fabricant, M., & Burghardt, S. (1992). The welfare crisis and the transformation of
    social service work. New York: Sharpe.
   Fix, M., & Passel, J. (1999). Trends in noncitizens’ and citizens’ use of public
    benefits following welfare reform, 1994-97. Retrieved from
   Kalil, A., Seefeldt, K., & Wang, H. (2002). Sanctions and material hardship under
    TANF. Social Service Review, 76, 642-662.
   Smith, S. R., & Lipsky, M. (1993). Nonprofits for hire. MA: Harvard University
   Stromwall, L. (2002). Mental health barriers to employment for TANF recipients.
    Journal of Poverty, 6 (3), 109-120.
            Additional Readings on Feminist
Chernesky, R., & Bombyk, M. (1995). Women’s ways and effective management. In J.
   Tropman, J. Erlich, & J. Rothman (Eds.), Tactics and techniques of community
   intervention (pp. 232-239). Itasca, IL: Peacock Publishers.
Gutierrez, L., & Lewis, E. (1999). Empowering women of color. New York: Columbia
   University Press.
Hyde, C. (1994). Commitment to social change: Voices from the feminist movement.
   Journal of Community Practice, 1(2), 45-63.
Morgen, S. (1994). Personalizing personnel decisions in feminist organizational theory
   and practice. Human Relations, 47, 665-684.
Van Den Bergh, N., & Cooper, L. (1986). Feminist visions for social work. Silver
   Springs, MD: National Association of Social Workers.

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