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1. Physical agent – white people has less pigmentation, prone to skin cancer. Blue or green eye get
cancer more. More sun, more cataract.
2. Chemical agents. – can cause Aplastic anemia. So wash fruits/veges well.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrosamine in tobacco.
Asbestos, Benzene, Polyvinyl chloride used in plastics.
Ultraviolet, high frequency, and ionizing radiation.
Insecticide ingredients such as Naphthalene and 2-Acetylaminofluorene, arsenic, aflatoxin B, a
mold found on some nuts, fruits, and grains.
3. Genetic and familial factors.
4. Dietary factors – high fat diet (prostate cancer), Salt cured, smoked, nitrate cured foods, Burned
5. Hormonal agent – Oral contraceptives, Diethylstilbestrol, used in 1950 to prevent spontaneous
abortion. Corticosteroid – cause Cancer.(MDs abuse it.) Mask-like effect. 8am is the best time to
6. Stress. – fight and flight phenomenon. Adrenal cortex producing mineral corticoid. (BP↑,
Increased lactic acid, you’re more likely to get injured.
Antioxidant is good. Ex.Salad.
Acrylamide in food
Foods mcg of Acrylamide per serving
Boiled potatoes 4 oz 0
Honey nut cheerios 1 oz 6
Tostitos tortilla chips 1 oz 5
Fritos corn chips 1 oz 11
Pringes potato crisps 1 oz 25
Wendy’s French fries biggies 5.6 oz 39
KFC potato wedges, Jumbo 6.2 oz 52
Burger King French fries, large, 5.7 oz 57
McDonald’ s French fries, large, 6.2 oz 82
Preventions : Exercise, stop smoking/drinking, Vit. A, C, E, Selenium. High fiber diet, fresh fruit, Green
tea(Polyphenol) – Cathechins. Salary, Cabbage are the high fiber.
Tumor Markers (substances produced by cancer cells that are found on tumor or plasma membranes or
in blood, spinal fluid or urine. And enzymes.) Elevated.
1. Alpha-fetoprotein - Liver, Testis
2. CEA (GI area) - Colon, Lung, Stomach, Pancreas, breast
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3. HCG(human chorionic gonadotropin)- Germ cell tumors, pancreas, Lung, liver, stomach.
4. PSA - Prostate (specific antigen)
5. Ca-125 - Ovary, Colorectal, Gastric cancer
6. Ca-19-9 - Gastric cancer, bowel, Biliary disease
7. Ca-15-3 - Breast Ca
8. C-Reactive Protein - Metastic cancer, Lymphoma (M.I too)
9. Hepatoglobin - Hodgkin’s, lungs, intestine, stomach, breast
10. Uric acid - Leukemia, MM, Hodgkin’s (Gall problem, bone marrow, cancer pt)
11. LDH (lactic dehydrogense) - Liver, Brain, Kidney (heart)
12. ALP (alkaline phosphatase) - Liver, Bone, Breast, MM.
13. Ca-242 - Pancreatic cancer
14. Ca-72-4 - Ovarian.
Stage and Grading of Cancer.
Tumor 0 = no evidence, Tumor is in situ = 1,2,3.
Adjuvant therapy – is treatment in addition to the primary approach to control or
prevent any micrometastic disease that may occur.
Palliative therapy – shrinks neoplasms by irradiation, decrease pain.(cure is not a
CytoReductive surgery (as control method) – called (Debulking) is undertaken with the instrument to
reduce tumsor mass to a level that is more manageable for the other treatment modalities.
Radiation therapy – to destroy malignant cells with minimal exposure of the normal cells to the cell
damaging actions of radiation. (Gamma ray – the most common type of radiation). Rad is an acronym
meaning “radiation absorbed dose”
Therapeutic dose in unit id called grays (Rad) which refer to the dose of radiation absorbed by
the tissue. One gray is absorption of 1 j per kg. According to type of cancer, the amount of Rad
is different : e.g. Liver tumor 1200 rad, 5000-6000 rad for breast cancer.
Radiation safety is based on time, distance, and shielding.
Distance – 1m(full) 2m(1/4), 3m(1/9), 4m(1/16 of exposure)
Treatment Modalities :
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a. Enhancing the patient’s own immune response
1. External radiation therapy (Teletherapy) – administered by high energy (Cobalt or linear
Advantage – skin sparing effect : e.g. salivary gland tumors, sarcomas, tumors of prostate and
Nursing implications :
Skin mark – do not erase, no soap, no lotion, have pad.
Fractional doses – dividing total radiation dose into small doses. The purpose of fractional dose
is allow normal cell time to repair themselves between treatment to minimize side effects.
“Boost” dose – One time for beginning therapy (loading dose)
*Dry desquamation first – Wet desquamation later (oozing out, fluid leaking out)
2. Internal therapy (Brachy therapy)
Intracavity – Gynecologic cancers (prostate, vaginal)
Interstitial – into tissue (seeds, needle, capsule) Head, neck, intra-abdominal,
Metabolized – ingestion, instillation, injection of radioactive materials.
a. Sealed source radiation therapy – needle, seeds, intracavity Iridium(192 Ir),
Cesium(137Cs), 131 I, 32P, AU198. (Nurses are protected, no worry)
b. Unsealed source radiation therapy – by IV, Orally or Direct.
Sodium phosphate (32P) IV for Polycythemia vera. 131 I orally for grave’s disease. (Distant
Technique is needed, you CANNOT spill the medicine on the floor)
Sealed sources – Radioisotope can not circulate thru client’s body, nor can it contaminate
urine, sweat, blood, or vomitus. Avoid direct contact with sealed isotope.(only when you go
home, you’re not encouraged to breastfeed the baby) *After Isotope eliminated from the body, No
longer radioactive after 48 hours.
Unsealed sources – used for internal radiation therapy. Come into direct contact with body
tissue(given IV, orally, by instillation directly into body cavity.)
1. All body fluid – “Radioactive” labeled.
2. Place linen, trash, laundry in labeled bag and keep in room until disposal.
Nursing implications :
a. Place the client in Private room
b. Limit visitors
c. No children under 18 years old
d. No pregnant woman allowed
e. Visitors 6 feet away from the client
f. No more than 30 minutes per day exposure
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g. If prolonged contact or care of unshielded are – use lead apron or lead shield.
h. Provide care for client standing at client’s shoulder (for cervical implants) or at foot of bed
(for head and neck implant), avoid any close contact with unshielded area.
i. Never care for more than one client with a radiation implant at same time.
j. Keep long handled forceps and a lead-lined container available on the client
k. Wear appropriate monitoring devices.
l. Serve with disposable tray.
Side-effects from Radiation :
Skin – the most common skin effect – change in color (tanned, or red) - Burn
Tanned – increased pigmentation, red(Erythema causes itching.) No oil based,
or Alcohol based lotion.
Dry desquamation – flaking of skin caused by accumulation of dead skin cells. If basal cell worn out,
dermal ell causes leakage of serum. Causes moist desquamation.
Patient teaching :
1. Wear loosely fitting clothing.
2. Gently wash the affected area with a mild soap and pat dry.
3. Avoid lotion, perfume, deodorants.
4. Avoid pressure on the area
5. Avoid exposure to sun (for 6mo – 1 year)
6. Avoid swimming in salted water or Chlorinated water
7. Avoid heat/cold application
8. Use Water Soluable lubricant for dry desquamation.
The use of Antineoplastic drugs to promote tumor cell death by interfering with cellular functions and
reproduction. Can damage Nerves, Tendons, Muscles (do not start IV on hand, wrist)
Routes of administration
Topical, Oral, IV, intramuscular, subcutaneous, intracavity, arterial(catheter into tumor via main artery),
intrathecal (CAN via spinal canal thru LP). Commonly – IV.
Goals and Principles of cancer chemotherapy
a. comfort when cure or control is impossible
b. Reduction of tumor
4. Adjuvant therapy
a. Adjuvant cytotoxic therapy or biotherapy : Use of chemotherapy following surgery. Surgery
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is the primary treatment.
b. Neoadjuvant cytotoxic therapy : Use of chemotherapy before surgery, chemotherapy is the
5. Chemoprevention : use of agents by individuals to prevent cancer in high risk individuals (e.g.
administration of tamoxifen to woman who have a high risk of breast cancer)
6. MyeloAblation : obliteration of bone marrow(stopped B.marrow) in preparation for blood or
**Cancer pt’s blood vessel is very fragile – easy to infiltrate – so use Central venous catheter.
Peak line – basilic vein to supra venacava.(reflush everyday. Only problem is fibrin sleeve –
inside the blood, create clot). Use it no more than 6 months.
Dacron cuff is absorbed to your tissue – so the catheter never falls out. Why we use it? - We
don’t want it to be dislodged. Easy for the nurse to care.
Antidiarrheal Medications. (from irritated mucous membrane)
1. Diphenoxylate : contains Atropine sulfate(anti-cholinergic). – Lomotil, lofene, Lo-trol, Low-quel.
2. Loperamide : inhibits GI peristaltic activity.
- less side-effects than diphenoxylate
- Imodium, Kaopectate 3, Peptobismol.
3. Octreotide – a synthetic hormone analog used to treat chemotherapy induced diarrhea.
Sandostatin – most common
Agents used to treat Mucositis
1. Cleanliness – Normal Saline, Hydrogen Peroxide(half strength followed by NS)
2. Provide moisture - Water soluble moisturizer(KY Jelly), Synthetic Saliva
3. Maintain mucosal integrity – Sucralfate(Carafate-stomach lining protection), Vit.E, Maslox,
4. Topical anesthesia – viscous Lidocaine 2% - sore anesthetic(swoosh and swallow)
5. Antiviral – Acyclovir
6. Antifungal – Nystatin, clotrimazole, Fluconazole, Ketoconazole.
ExtraVasation(IV Infiltrate) – if vesicant drugs are infiltrated in Subcutaneous tissue, cause
Tissue Necrosis and damage to underlying Tendons, Nerves, Blood Vessels.
Vesicant drugs : adriamycin, nitrogen mustard, mitomycin, vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine,
mithramycin, dactinomycin. (*Watch pt’s IV Every 5 Minutes, Always look over IV site, Document
If Extravasation is suspected.
1. Stop infusion
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2. Call MD (AntiDote comes from MD)
3. Aspirate any residual vesicant agent
4. Report to physician for any further treatment (heat, cold or antidote)
Patient teaching for Chemotherapy induced diarrhea
1. Eat foods containing Pectin, such as bananas, avocados, and asparagus tips, beets, unspiced
applesauce, peeled apples.
2. Drink ginger tea, which has a high Pectin level.
3. Eliminate from the diet foods that are stimulating or irritating to the GI tract (e.g., whole grain
products, nuts, seeds, popcorn, pickles, relishes, rich pastries, raw vegetables)
4. Eat a low residue, low roughage, low fat diet that induces potassium rich foods. The BRAT diet is for
Banana, Rice, Apple and Toast(dry).
5. Avoid alcohol, caffeine containing products and tobacco.
6. Avoid greasy foods, spicy foods and fried foods
7. Avoid prune juice and orange juice.
8. Avoid milk and dairy products.
9. Avoid Hyperosmotic supplements (Ensure, Sustacal)
10. Take warm sitz baths.
Potential routes of exposure
1. Absorption through skin or mucous membranes after direct contact.
2. Injection by needle stick
3. Inhalation of drug aerosols, dust, or droplets.(wear mask while hanging
4. Ingestion with contaminated food, beverage, or tobacco products.
Vesicants and antidotes
Nitrogen mustard – If you have been Extravasated by it – MD orders Isotonic
sodium theosulfate. (not to make it Necrosis)
Actinomycin – cold pad, Oncovin – warm pack. (depends on MD’s order)
1. Small, frequent meals
2. Medicate the patient prior to meals so that the antiemetic effect is active during and immediately after
3. Avoid fatty, spicy, or highly salted foods or foods with strong odors.
4. Encourage the pt to eat Cold or room temperature food.
5. Ginger. (high associated with anti-nausea, has lot of immunity too)
1. Neutropenia : ANC less than 500 - profound Neutropenia.
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2. Anemia - low number of RBCs
3. Thrombocytopenia - low platelets
4. Cytopenia : the lack of cellular elements in circulating blood.(messed up Electrolyte)
5. Nadir : after Chemotherapy, the point at which the lowest blood cell count is reached. The nadir
usually occurs 7-10 days after treatment.
Mixing Chemotherapeutic and Biotherapeutic drugs.
Prepare cytotoxic drugs, including oral drugs that must be compounded or crushed, in a Biological
Safety Cabinet(BSC). The BSC should :
A. Provide Vertical Laminar Airflow. Vertical airflow is important because it will carry contaminated air
way from the BSC operator.
B. Eliiminate exhaust through a High Efficiency Particulate Air(HEPA) filter. Ideally, a BSC should be
vented to the outside.
C. Have a blower(sterile room) that operates continuously.
D. Maintain sterile technique during the prepation of parenteral drugs.
key point : sterile as much as possible.
Guidelines regarding Personal Protective Equipment(PPE)
1. Gloves : made of polyurethane and neoprene were found to be impermeable to 18 cytotoxic agents.
2. Gowns : wear a disposable, lint free gown made of a low permeability fabric.
3. Respirators and face masks : approved by the NISH.
4. Face Shield or Goggles : wear a Face Shield or Goggles.
Complications of Chemotherapy :
GI : Mucositis (inflammatioin of mucosa lining)
Hematology - bond marrow supression
Renal function - BUN, serum creatine, uric acid.
Cardio-pulmonary - CHF, pulmonary function
Neuro - Neurological change
!!! Andriamycin causes Cardiac Muscle Damage (very dangerous drug)
*Vincristine - Peripheral Nerve Changes
Cycolphosphamide*cisplatin) and Methotrexate - Nephrotoxic.
Hormonal therapy (work as Chemotherapy)
Glucocorticoids(Cortison) - Synergenic effect.(Prednisone)
Estrogens (Prostate cancer) – Estrogen for men.
Anti-Estrogen(Tamaxifen) - for breast cancer. (for women)
Progestins - breast cancer, renal carcinoma
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Lupron - prostate or breast cancer. Endometrits
Common Oncologic Emergencies
a. SIADH - producing too much anti-diuretic hormone - gain weight, look puffy
too much fluid in tissue.
b. HyperCalcemia - bone cancer pt - allowed to Ca out of bone - fracture of
bone. Increased Uric acid, chemotherapy itself cause it too.
c. Tumorlytic syndrome - electrolyte leaking out. K is out of tissue -
hyperkalemia - Cardiac arrest(knock out SA node). Ca+ go into intracellularly, nutrients
are blocked off - oxidation is blocked off too. Na+ go into cells and cells become large.
d. DIC, Septic shock - main artery is bleeding. Local vessels' clotting.
a. Cardiac Tamponade - cardiac membranes under Pericardiac sac is
weakened.(<10cc) Water is filled up in the c.membranes. Preload is going up.
Ventricle has no rest - decreased cardiac output – cardiac arrest.
b. Carotid Artery Rupture – pressure. Blood vessel’s weakened.
a. Superior vena cava syndrome - Obstruction. Blood doesn't come back
b. Spinal cord compression – from osteoporosis – shifting off, fracture,
c. Third space syndrome - ARDS - inside the fluid(cardiac tamponade is part of
third apace syndrome, membrane is weakened, so allow the fluid to come in)
d. Intestinal obstruction - electrolyte imbalance. (peristalsis shut down)
Hodgkin's Desease (***More Common in YOUNG PEOPLE)
A chronic, progressive, painless, inflammatory neoplastic disease characterized by Enlarged
lymph nodes(lymphoadenopathy), spleen, liver, digestive tracts, genitourinary tract, bones,
rarely CNS. (Epstein Barr virus takes part, T-cell/B-cell problem)
Can start in young age (18, over 35). Early recognition is important.(better cure)
Cause : unknown.
Bacterial or oncogenic Viral infection, immunololgical defect)
Epstein-Barr Virus related
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Prevalent : early 15-34 year *increased at 50 years old.
20-30 years MF 2:1 Boys:girls 5:1
Curable : 90% curable. (stage 1 and 2)
Pathophysiology : The origin cell is unknown, probably from T and B lymphocytes or
macrophage/reticulum cell line.Immune deficiency, especially cellular is characteristic of
Hodgkin's disease and places persons at risk for infection, especially herpes zoster and PCP.
Proliferative cells are abnormal histocytes - Reed-Sternberg cells – confirming.
Symptoms and signs :
Early - pruritis (unknown)
Painless, firm, Palpable, rubbery, freely movable progress Enlargement of lymph nodes.
Found in *1st Supraclavial nodes and *Cervical (90%), Axillary, inguinal nodes, mediatinal,
retroperitoneal, liver, spleen, bone marrow.
Elderly : 1st SubDiaphragmatic lymph nodes. (over the Diaphragm)
Neutrophil Leukocytosis, anemia, fatigue, Cachexia,
Eosinophilia, Edema in neck, face, lymph node obstruction
Fluid in chest and abdomen, night sweat, Alcohol induced pain over the involved
Infection (bacterial, viral, fungal, protozal infections)
Late - Leukopenia, Hepatomegaly, Spleenomegaly, Renal Failure.
CT scan of abdomen(MRI) - involvement of abdomen. And Pelvic lymph nodes. (shows
hepatomegaly, spleenomegaly, renal failure etc)
LymphoAngiogram – look just like blood vessel. Inject fluid/iodine to lymph nodes. (very
beneficial, something’s wrong with the lymphatic system)
Inferior vena cava gram (blood vessel is checked)
**Lymph node biopsy (reed-sternberg cells – Clearly Hodgkins’ disease)
*ESR, Serum copper, WBCs, alk.Phosphates↑(to do with B.Marrow)
Bone marrow aspiration
Liver/renal function tests
2. 14. Tu Lecture. (Hodgkin’s disease Contd)
Radiation therapy – 95% curable(stage1) and 80%(stage2)
Combination with chemotherapy (for 3 and 4)
Recent therapy : (combination of chemotherapy drugs)
*MOPP – Nitrogen Mustard, Oncovin(Vincristin), Procarbazine, Prednisone
*ABVD - Adriamycin(doxorubicin), Bleomycin, Vinblastine, Dacarbazine
*VBM (Vinblastine, Bleomycin, Methotraxate)
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*MOPP – ABVD (alternating monthly cycles) – based on MD’s order.
Nitrogen Mustard (IV) 1 and 8 day
Oncovin(Vincristin) (IV ) 2 and 9 day
Prednisone (po) 3 and 10 day
Procarbazine (po) 4 and 11 day
Repeat cycle every 28days for a minimum of 6 cycles.(depend on where the pt is) Complete remission
must be documented before discontinuing therapy. Therapy may continue for two cycles after remission.
Progression : 85–95% Ⅰ&Ⅱ (Early detection is very important)
If 5 years relapse, almost cured. (Stage 1 and 2)
Nursing implications :
Pruritis – Antihistamine, with skin care
Pharyngitis, Esophagitis, Stomatitis(mucousitis is #1 targer) – Xylocaine viscous, gargles,
throat lozenges. Decreased citrus fruit (orange juice - burning)
Susp. to herpes
Infection (potential for)
Bleeding. (lymphatic system – high risk)
LymphAngiogram : to see hyperplasia of lymphocytes.
1. No restriction of fluid/drink (No NPO)
2. Procedure for 3-4 hours.
3. Foot(dorsum) Anesthetized and immobilized for lymphatic vessels
4. Lie still during procedure
5. Dye unusual taste, fever, HA(headache), Insomnia, retrosternal burning sensation, bluish-
green discolor urine/stool.(reaction : need to be informed)
6. Check for allergy (iodine, seafoods) (remind the MD first – usually give benadryl
7. Void before the test.
After procedure(flush out the iodine – fluid up)
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1. Check for cut-down site.
2. Oil embolism(oil base dye) – Fever, Chills, Dyspnea, Cough, Chest pain,
SOB. – very important***.
3. Bedrest for 24 hours
4. Elevate Leg for edema, Cold Compress for swollen foot.(important)
5. Do not get original dressing wet.
Most non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma involve with the malignant B or T-lymphocyte. 50 – 60 years old
Symptoms are highly variable, by the time we find out, it’s too late. Poor prognosis.
If the disease is not an aggressive form – radiation alone may be effective, but basically
treatment is depend on MD’s decision.
Multiple Myeloma (Infiltration of the bone marrow by cancerous plasma cells. Malignant plasma cell – no antibodies,
Tumors composed of malignant plasma cells grow within the skeleton, making bones fragile and prone to fracture.)
Plasma cell Myeloma (malignant plasma cell) – so no antibodies made.
Malignant plasma cell produce M Protein(bence jones protein) – Toxic to Renal Tubular→
Unknown (family, radiation exposure, occupational chemical exposure, 50-60 years, M=F)
Anemia(weakened B.Marrow by M-Protein not making healthy RBCs), Proteinuria(RF - kidney tubular is not
Hypercalcemia(calcium leaking out to blood), Bone pain, Fracture, Osteoporosis.
Backpain(Osteolytic process, in pelvis, spine, ribs – easily fracture), Renal stone.(calcium accumulation)
Hgb↓, Ht↓, RBC↓, WBCs↓(Neutropenia - Infection) (WBC down is worse than up, Neutropenia is more
dangerous than the opposite), Thrombocytopenia.
Bone marrow aspiration (immature plasma cells)
X-ray (shows Osteolytic lesion)
Hypercalcemia, HyperUricemia(uric acid) (chemotherapy enhances it)
Urine – **Bence Jones Protein
Blood : LDH, CRP, Microglobulin, Quantitative immunoglobulin ***(IgG(major antibody) should
be higher than IgM(stimulate complement activity))
Oncology, Page 12 of 19
Lymphocytes (Norm : 20 to 40, but it’s increased 40-50%)
MRI (to detect presence of Bone, Tissue abnormalities – not 100%))
Spinal Cord Compression (***careful with Turning pt)
ARF (Acute Renal Failure by M-Protein, Bence Jones Protein)
NephroCalcinosis (Renal Stone)
Infection. (pick up all kinds of fungal infection)
Chemotherapy : Prednisone & Melphalan orally for 7 days and repeated at 6 wk intervals.
If Alkylating agents(N.Mustard) are not effective, VAD(Vincristin(oncovin), Adriamycin,
Dexamethone, Doxorubicin.(others : cytoxan, leukeran, mithramycin, BCNU)
For Hypercalcemia – Dexamathasone(corticosteroid), Mithramycin(hypocalcemic),
Lasix(flush out), Aredia(bone reabsorption inhibitor)
For Hypocalcemia – Calcitonin (Ca supplement)
Nursing interventions :
Give analgesia (they don’t know where it is b/c it’s BONE PAIN)
Avoid fast movement to prevent injury.
Watch for fracture.
Increased fluid intake (3000-4000cc per day) : wash Ca+ out.(hypercalcemia)
Avoid infection(No Invasive Procedure, Avoid Attenuated immunization, reduce
nosocomial infection and cross infection.
Use soft, bristle tooth brush. (bleeding)
Anemia – blood transfusion.
Renal insufficiency. (check monitor often), Plasma percolation(dialysis-3/wk).
Reduce Uric acid (Zyloprim – production from bone marrow)
For Hypercalcemia(avoid thiazide, antacids with high Ca – Malata, no Tums)
*for elders : if complaints of bone pain,
Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis, Multiple Myeloma) – common in old people.
Degenerative joint disease
Then referral for MM.
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (Lupus) – “Wolf” (Blushing face)
Def. A chronic Autoimmune inflammatory disease of Connective Tissue that produces biochemical and
structural changes in Skin, Joints and Muscles, usually with multiple organ involvement. (has exacerbation
and remission) – Black, Pregnant, Female disease.
Oncology, Page 13 of 19
Viral, bacterial infections, Drugs, Food, UV light etc. – Triggers immune activity –
Inheritied defect (on Chromosome6) – LE.
Genetic defect or Environmental factors stimulate production of Autoreactive B-
lymphocytes – B lymphocyte produces AutoAntibodies (AAB) known as Antinuclear
antibodies(ANA) – ANA Kills your own body cells instead of non-self cells.
Shortage or functional Failure of T lymphocytes is believed to be partially responsible.
ANA attack the Nuclei of cells, cell membrane of RBC, WBC, platelets as well as active
particles inside the cell such as lysosomes, mitochondria and RNA.
ANA stimulate an inflammatory response that can involve tissue throughout the body.
Drugs that create Lupus like symptoms(So assess which medication pt’s on)
Procainamide, Hydralazine, Phenytoin(Dilantin), Quinidine, Chlorpromazine, Isoniazid,
Tegretol. Penicillamine, Sulfasalazine.
8-10 times greater in Women than men. (Estrogen is responsible)
Age : 13 – 40 years.
Race : African and Latin, Asian, Native American > White
Child bearing year > estrogen fluctuate
Birth control pills could exacerbate Lupus due to Estrogen.
Pregnant Women with lupus could pass about 5% to their babies.
Baby with mother who has Lupus - 43% of baby have positive ANA antibody titer.
Connective tissue problem(Third space syndrome – Joints & all organs - pericarditis,
pleuritis, hemothorax, pneumothrax, pulsus paradoxus etc.
Assessment : This disease appears in Two forms :
Discoid Lupus Erythematosus(Subcutaneous – all other system is okay)
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. (All Connective Tissues)
Renal(predominantly damaged) : 50-70% imipairment : Hematuria, Proteinuria, HTN,
Edema, BUN, Kidney – Lupus Glomerular Nephritis.
Vasculitis : Raynaud’s phenomenon(Cyanosis of finger arteries – White Fingers), HTN,
Joint :Non-deformity arthriti, joint warm/swelling.
Skins : (Discoid) Sensitivity to sun – SPF 30 or more.(No out 10am-3pm)
Resp : Pleuritis, lung infiltration(weak membranes), pul.Hemorrhage.
CV : Pericarditis, Murmurs, friction rub.
GI : Peritonitis
Eye : Conjunctivitis, Photophobia, Diplopia(2 images at the same time)
Behavior : personality change, depression, psychosis
Hematology : Anemia.
Oncology, Page 14 of 19
Labs *Hb Platelets WBCs
*FANA(Fluorescent AntiNuclear Antibody test) – 95% > of SLE pt.
If FANA results are positive, then ANA test should be obtained >99%
Complement is a series of proteins that assists in the removal of bacteria or destruction of
cells that the body does not recognize as its own.
*Complement level(C2, C3, C4) – are two of the nine major complement protein that bind
with antigen-antigen complexes for the purpose of lysis.
Especially C3 – reduced.
*CRP, ESR, RF(Rheumatoid Factor)(Bone pain, Arthritis and Autoimmune Disease
*Creatinine clearance test. (kidney function test)
RF, M.I, CVA, Pneumonia, (heart failure, Infarction)
Myopathy (steroid induced – too much of it), Increased Blood Glucose because of
too much Cortisone.
BS - increased, imbalanced electrolytes, Osteopenia.
Medications: (to control, No cure)
NSAIDS (for pain)
CorticoSteroids : Deltasone and Florinef (keep it minimum)
AntiMalarial drugs(Plaquenil, Aralen) – Block inflammatory organ damage and decreases
the required dose of corticosteroids. For itching – AntiMalarial cream(Quinine, Plaquenil).
Antineoplastic agents – Immuran, Cytoxan(for exacerbation with cortisone)
Nursing Diagnosis :
Risk for infection
Alteration in comfort : Arthralgia (joint pain) – control.
Nutrition : well balanced diet with low in sodium, low fat.
Rest : good rest, stress accelerate the progression of the disease (Flare-ups – no crowded
Activity : avoid the sun during peak hours of 10 to 3pm because it has an impact on the
epidermal DNA, promoting an inflammatory response and exacerbation of current skin
problems.(tint the car window, wear hat, sunglasses etc. Avoid certain medications that
may cause a photoallergic or a phototoxic reaction (e.g., tetracyclines, phenytoin, sulfa
Oncology, Page 15 of 19
***No Prostate Cancer Questions on Exam1.
Immunizations with weakened LIVE(attenuated) organisms(e.g., Polio, Measles, Measles,
Mumps, Rubella - Never to be given to patients on CorticoSteroid, Cytotoxic therapy -
Immunologic problem, Lupus) produce a very mild case of the disease to stimulate
production of antibodies to protect against the disease.
Killed vaccines (e.g. pneumococcus, influenza, tetanus) are safe.
Osteoporosis : Bone Density test to determine the degree of osteoporosis, joint
arthroplasty.(surgery to reshape, reconstruct or replace a joint)
Plasma dialysis to remove the autoantibody. (regular visit to control)
Oncology, Page 16 of 19
Cancer of Larynx. (throat)
- Squamous cell cancer from vocal cord epithelium.
- 60-65% of laryngeal cancer over in glottic larynx.
- 90% occur in Men who over 50-70 year old.
Alcohol and tobacco intake, smoking, vocal strain
Chronic laryngitis, environmental pollution
Exposure to radiation, Genetic factor
Metastasis – to lungs(common)
Four major Types
Glottic – intrinsic
Supraglottic(above voice box) - extrinsic
Subglottic(under voice box) - extrinsic
Transglottic – extrinsic
Clinical Manifestations for laryngeal cancer.
Persistent hoarseness over 2 weeks.(husky voice)
Pain in throat, esp. During swallowing.
Pain or burning sensation when drinking hot liquid or juices.
Dyspnea, stridor, hemoptysis, dysphasia.
Feeling “something in the throat” for 4 wks.
Swelling of the neck.
Pain referred to ear (otalgia)
Pain (late sign)
Sxs(metastasis) enlarged cervical nodes, weight loss, discomfort of pain radiating to ear.
CBC, SMA-18 (sometimes the symptom is like Anemic)
↑Alk. Phosphate(cancer), low protein level, low albumin
MRI > CT (soft tissue invasion)
Needle Biopsy of enlarged nodes
Laryngoscope with Biopsy (NPO after midnight)
External beam radiation : For early stage (85-90% curable) – 5000-7500 rads over 6
wks or 2x/daily. (Teletherapy)
Implants of iridium seeds into needles inserted in tumor site (brachytherapy)
Methotrexate, Oncovin, Bleomycin, Vincristine, Cisplatin,
5-Fluorouracil, Carboplatin, Cyclophosphamide
Oncology, Page 17 of 19
Removal of portion of larynx above true vocal cord. (voice is still there)
This procedure is performed on clients who have cancer of epiglottis and adjunct structure
above vocal cords.
Without epiglottis, patient must learn a new way to eat, without aspiration. (take a
deep breath, hold the breath, put your head down and swallow). Liquids are great challenge for
epiglottis removal patient.
Teaching after supraglottic surgery.
Surgical Procedures for laryngeal Cancer.
Laser surgery – tumor reduced by laser beam thru laryngoscopy (Ablation therapy – no more
hyperplasia). (metaplasia becomes anaplasia no more)
TransOral cordectomy – tumor resected thru laryngoscopy.
Supraglottic partial laryngetomy
Except total, voice is not gone.
Removal entire larynx, thyroid cartilage, vocal cords, epiglottis, cervical fascia,
sternocleidomastoid muscle, jugular vein and lymph nodes, hyoid bone. (they take out the
surrounding lymph node too)
Pre-op intervention and teaching:
Reduce anxiety/depression (especially with spouse)
Introduce Speech Therapist
Alumni(well adjusted laryngectomees : who went thru same surgery)
Ability to Speak, blow nose, sense of Taste, Smelling(could be back)
Ability to do Valsalva maneuver, coughing, drinking thru straw
Ability to gargling, Whistling, Singing, Laughing (all gone)
Nursing Diagnosis for post Laryngectomy
1. Ineffective Airway Clearance(need to do lots of suctioning) – vital signs, HOB
30 degrees(prevent choking) ABG, TCDB(Turn, Cough & Deep Breathing), humidification of
inspired gases, lung sound, check mental status.
Check for Carotid artery bleeding (spontaneous swallowing) – check VS(BP) very
frequently. (q 15 min)
Oncology, Page 18 of 19
Check dressing every 1 hour(post-op floor) Tracheostomy care with aseptic tech.
***Obturator – STICK IT IN IMMEDIATELY in case of Tracheostomy falls off.
Fluid (IV fluid)
Do not worry about Aspiration. (keep trachea open)
Check Hemovac for bleeding(or Jackson Pratt drain) (fluid & exudate causing infection 30ml
first day, 10ml second day...)
Humidify O2. (pt gets irritated by cold dry air with particles – goblet cells)
2. Pain related to surgery incision.
PCA pump, Back rub, Neck support, Back support is needed.
3. Impaired Verbal communication – provide Pencil and Paper.
Keep call light by patient’s hand
Use Open Close question (Yes or No)
Locate patient near nursing station.
Check pt every 30 min. (Do not forget to go back to check pt)
Avoid sweet food (saliva, decreased appetite)
4. Impaired skin integrity related to Tracheostomy – temp, dressing.
Antibiotics, aseptic tech, Y-dressing.
5. Alteration in Nutrition – HOB30, Weigh pt q 3days, aspirate gastric removal
before next feeding, dysphagia, odynophagia.
Maintain IV fluid or TPN(with NG Tube while pre-op and post-op) until gastrostomy /
Start with Thick fluid – custards, jello, apple sauce(the reflex is still there)
6. Alternation in Body image
Advise him/her to wear Long Necklace or Cover around neck.
Complications from Laryngectomy (good for Observation - Documentation)
Salivary fistula – easily become fissured.
Hemorrhage (Carotid artery rupture)
Cutaneous fistula, Nerve damage
Pulmonary complication.(from secretion going into the lung)
Ostomy opening stenosis – reason why put Laryngectomy Tube.(wider, shorter)
Facial edema(from radical neck dissection of lymph node, due to venous congestion)
Oncology, Page 19 of 19
Prevention of health problems after Laryngectomy
A lump anywhere in neck or rest of body.
Persistent cough, sore throat or ear ache. (means Metastasis of tumor)
Sores around the stoma or inside the trachea that do not heal
Diff. of swallowing or breathing
Change in voice quality.
Any problems that do not, spontaneously or quickly resolve.
Teach Clean suctioning technique.(Family / Spouse needs to learn)
Review the plans of care for radiation or chemotherapy
Teach the client how to clean the incision and provide stoma care including cleaning and
inspection for signs of infection.
Instruct the client to avoid swimming and to take showers with caution. (water should be lower
than the site)
Advise the client to increase humidity in the home.
Tell the client to continue to use the alternative communication method.
Recommend the client to wear a medic alert bracelet.
***After your surgery site is all healed – start chemotherapy. (up to 6 month)
Mechanical Devices – Western Electric Electrolarynx (battery operates) Placed against the
side of the neck.
Cooper Rand – consists of a plastic tube placed within the client’s mouth, that vibrates on
Esophageal speech – pt swallows air, expels air in belch and pressure esophagus.
TracheoEsophageal Fistula (TEF) – surgical fistula is created between trachea and
esophagus either at the time of laryngectomy or in the post op. period. A catheter is sutured.
It’s called Blom-singer voice prosthesis.
When there’s a voice prosthesis, the cuff should be deflated to make sound.
Laryngostomy tube will be removed 4-6 wks, then Tracheostomy tube.
Breast cancer - next week