Tier III Intensive Instruction

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Tier III Intensive Instruction Powered By Docstoc
					 Instructional
Decision Making
  Session Three
            As You Come In…

Team Preparation Time:
    Take out Action Plan (Days 1 and 2)
    Post Vision Statement
    Prepare to share the vision statement and consensus process

In a Few Minutes, teams will share in mixed-school groups
 • Your vision statement
 • Your consensus process used to determine level of
    staff support for IDM vision statement
    o   Reflect on the positives and challenges of this consensus
        building activity.
Who is here today?
                     Logistics
• Facilities
• Breaks
• Parking Lot
   – Today will be interactive, ask questions whenever you
     want
   – Use the parking lot to post questions
• Contacts
   – Wendy Robinson (1-800-362-2720 Ext. 14548)
   – Shannon Harken (1-800-630-5645) (Cell: 641-891-1651)
                     Outcomes
Participants will be able to:   Teams will be able to:
• Recall the purpose for the    •   Share with other buildings:
  consensus building tools           – IDM Vision Statement
                                     – Process used to determine
                                       level of staff support
• Individually define the       •   Evaluate the status (health) of
  essential components of           the school’s core reading
  reading                           cycle
                                •   Deepen and/or validate
                                    knowledge of the Essential
                                    Components of Reading
                                •   Continue to determine the
                                    action steps for addressing
                                    areas of concerns within the
                                    core cycle
     Effective Team Skills to Increase
          Likelihood of Success

1. Communication
2.    Decision-making

3.    Conflict management

4.    Use of data

5.    Cohesiveness          The Handbook for Smart School Teams
        Teaming Skills -
        Communication
Four types of communication are
Important in teamwork:
    1. Sharing
    2. Discussion         See Handout!

    3. Dialogue
    4. Active listening
                Activity :
             Home Play-Part 1
Share in mixed-school groups:(Number Off)
 • Your vision statement
 • Your consensus process used to determine level of
   staff support for IDM vision statement
    o   Reflect on the positives and challenges of this consensus
        building activity.
            Remember these groups!
                                                       PESA
     Consensus-Building Tools:                         A 2, 4

           At-A-Glance
1.   Building Consensus (Fist-to-Five)
   •    Process/steps to reach consensus- Generic
2.   Formula for Success
   •    Tool to begin analysis of key IDM components
3.   Managing Complex Change
   •    Tool to begin addressing elements of complex
        change
4.   Shared IDM Vision
   •    Multiple options to accomplish this goal
       • Initial Development
       • On-going Commitment
  Trouble Shooting Practice:
  Take Out Your Tool Belts!
• 4 Scenarios
  – 1. Staff feel there are too many initiatives in the
    building.
  – 2. Several staff members are anxious about
    implementing ICC.
  – 3. The building leadership team is divided on how
    to best address professional development needs
    of the staff.
  – 4. Through review of data, it is determined that
    60% of a given grade level is proficient and 35% is
    receiving special education services.
                    Assess ing
                     Needs




Eva lu a t in g




                                    Pla n n in g
                   Contin u o u s
                  Im pr ov e ment




                  Impl e ment ing
  Trouble Shooting Practice:
  Take Out Your Tool Belts!
• 4 Scenarios
  – Transition back to your earlier groups
  – Move to a poster
  – Establish a recorder
  – Brainstorm and document possible
    solutions/points to keep in mind (including which
    “tool” from your tool belt would you use)
  – Determine a “reporter”
  – Large Group Share
CONSENSU   Moving to…
S
           “Infrastructure Building”
   Framework Questions
1. Is our core cycle sufficient?
2. If the core is not sufficient, why not?
3. How will needs identified in core be addressed?
4. How will the sufficiency and effectiveness of the core cycle be
monitored over time?
5. Have improvements to the core been effective?
6. For which students is the core cycle sufficient and not sufficient, and
why?
7. What specific supplemental and intensive instruction/curriculum is
needed?
8. How will specific supplemental and intensive cycles be implemented?
9. How will the effectiveness of supplemental and intensive cycles be
monitored?
10. Which students need to move to a different cycle?
               1. Is our core cycle sufficient?
               2. If the core is not sufficient, why
                  not?
                                           Assess ing
                                            Needs

                                                                          3. How will needs
                       Eva lu a t in g




                                                           Pla n n in g
5. Have improvements
to the core been                          Contin u o u s                  identified in core
effective?
                                         Im pr ov e ment                  be addressed?


                                         Impl e ment ing     4. How will the sufficiency
                                                             and effectiveness of the
          IMPLEMENT!                                         core cycle be monitored
                                                             over time?
                                                     PESA
                                                     D3

                 Core Cycle
Question 1: Is our core cycle sufficient?
  Step 1: Identify screening tool(s)
  Step 2: Identify scoring guide points on
 screening tools for highly proficient, proficient
 and less
 than proficient for identified tools
  Step 3: Collect universal screening data
  Step 4: Enter, organize, and summarize data
                                                  PESA
                                                  D3

               Core Cycle
Question 1: Is our core program sufficient?
  Step 5: Establish desired percentage students
    scoring in the highly proficient and proficient
    ranges.
  Step 6: Determine actual percentage students
    scoring in the highly proficient, proficient and
    not proficient ranges.
  Step 7: Make Comparison
  Step 8: What work, if any, do we need to do
    within our Core Cycle?
           Activity:
        Home Play-Part 2
• As a team,
  – How did your team answer question #1?
  – Were there any surprises?
  – Do you as a team agree you have the
    screening tools necessary to answer
    question #1 accurately and completely?
            Activity :
       ITBS Conversations
• Determine a recorder for your table
• At your table:
  – Guess how accurate on the ITBS reading
    comprehension test does one need to be
    to score at or above the 40th percentile.
  – Brainstorm possible reasons “why” a
    student does not score well on the Iowa
    Tests of Basic Skills?
            Activity :
       ITBS Conversations
• Review ITBS Document
  – 40th percentile = items correct on the
    assessment
• Share possible reasons
• Plan to share with staff and parents
   When curriculum, instruction, and
  assessments are working together…
         Benchmark 1    Benchmark 2   Benchmark 3




Score




                       Time
                 Review:
          IDM Guiding Principle #3
3. Use instructionally relevant assessments
    • Reliable and valid
    • Multiple purposes
    – Screening- Collecting data for the purpose of identifying low
      and high performing students at-risk for not having their
      needs met
    – Diagnostic- Gathering information from multiple sources to
      determine why students are not benefiting from instruction
    – Formative- Frequent, ongoing collection of information including
      both formal and informal data to guide instruction
Question 1 within the IDM Framework, will begin with screening assessments.
           Screening Tools:
           Nonnegotiables
Screening tools need to compare all students to
  the same standard
  – Comparing every student to grade level skill
    expectations (minimum)
     • Must have this comparison to identify gaps between what
       is expected and how the student is performing
     • Assessments that do not go beyond “instructional levels”
       will NOT adequately identify gaps
  – Some tools provide additional off-grade level
    information as well
  – Remember: Screening tools assist us in finding
    those students who are at risk for not having their
    needs met
              Screening Tools:
              Nonnegotiables
• Determine if the screening tool is doing it’s job
   – 1) Does it identify kids who are at risk for academic failure?
     (Accurate)
       • No “surprises” showing up at current BAT/SAT meetings
       • Teachers are not finding additional kids of concern, that look
         fine on screening assessments
• Good screening tools will accurately predict
   – those who are on track to meet grade level expectations
     AND
   – those students who are NOT
     (additional validation of instructional needs will be needed for
     this group)
    Completing Core Cycle
         Questions
• Question 2: If the core is not sufficient, why not?
• Question 3: How will needs identified in core be
  addressed?
• Question 4: How will the sufficiency and
  effectiveness of the core cycle be monitored over
  time?
• Question 5: Have improvements to the core
  been effective?

    Review your IDM Questions and Steps sheet!
            Core Cycle
• Where can we start?
  – Research and Tools Available
  – Deepen content knowledge
  – Do gap analyses
  – Teamwork between schools and AEA
  – Focus on data
          The Water…
Focus on “the
water”-
 • Curriculum    I
 • Instruction         C
 • Assessment
          Review PESA
•   D. Core Cycle
    1. Written/Intended Core
    2. Taught Core
    3. Assessed Core
Iowa Core Curriculum (ICC)
Iowa Core Curriculum (ICC)
  – A state-wide effort to improve teaching and
    learning to ensure that all Iowa students
    engage in a rigorous & relevant curriculum
  – Provides a comprehensive picture of effective
    curriculum that addresses:
     • 1) content 2) instruction and 3) assessment
  – www.iowamodelcore.org
     • Essential Skills and Concepts
     • Technical Assistance
         PET - R
•   Planning and Evaluation Tool for
    Effective Schoolwide Reading
    Programs-Revised
    – Edward J. Kame’enui, Ph.D.
    – Deborah C. Simmons, Ph.D.
           PET - R
•   Elements
    –   Goals/Objectives/Priorities
    –   Assessment
    –   Instructional Practices and Materials
    –   Instructional Time
    –   Differentiated Instruction/Grouping
    –   Administration/Organization/Communication
    –   Professional Development
•   Documentation of Evidence is required
•   Ranking = 0, 1, or 2
    Home Play (PET - R):
   Gathering Baseline Data
• Individually read each section of the
   PET - R.
• Rate each element.
• State evidence to support your rating.
• Consolidate information on the summary
  page.
• Identify strengths and areas for
  improvement.
• Record on action plan.
                         Home Play-1
• PET-R                                  Team Options:
I. Goals/Objectives/Priorities
                                         -Complete together
                                         -Complete individually,
II. Assessment
                                         then summarize together
III. Instructional Practices and
                                         -Complete with grade
Materials
                                         level teams
IV. Instructional Time
                                         -Complete within grade
V. Differentiated Instruction/Grouping
                                         level teams, individually
VI.                                      then share out &
Administration/Organization/Communi
cation
                                         summarize
VII. Professional Development
     Evaluating Core Cycle
• Tools available to provide guidance
• Adequate content knowledge is VITAL
• Lessons learned from previous cohorts
  – Need more/deeper content knowledge
  – “Core” did not originally get enough focus
  – Need “tools” to guide core evaluation
  – Whole staff professional development on
    “quality core elements” is beneficial.
    Building Leadership Team
         Responsibilities
IDM Building Leadership Team   BLT Responsibilities:
                               1)Take LEAD in evaluation of
                               Core, Supplemental, Intensive
                               Cycles (C-I-A)
 Consensus Building            2)Take LEAD in deepening
Infrastructure Development     knowledge of essential
                               components
   Implementation              3)Take LEAD in assessing staff
                               development needs
                               4)Take LEAD in building a
                               “system” that allows
                               implementation
      Evaluating Core Cycle
• Rest of today’s focus is on “deepening
  content knowledge”-Essential Components
  – In order to fulfill BLT expectation, need to know:
    what to teach, how to teach it, & how to assess it
  – Keep in mind your “constituents” that you will be
    reporting back to.
     • Take notes & mark slides that you may wish to share.
• REMEMBER Structured Work Days available
  for additional team work time.
How healthy is the core?


         Let’s look at the
         “Literacy Diet”!
           Matching Core Cycle to
         the 5 Essential Components
  Some basic premises of
 reading and its instruction
• All but a very small number of children
  can be taught to be proficient readers.
• Reading failure can be prevented by
  relying on the extensive scientific
  research base in reading.
  – National Reading Panel Report
• Earlier rather than later
           Basic Premise
• Prevention of reading problems is far
  more effective and efficient than
  remediation.
  – Use of screening assessments
  – Matching strategies to instructional needs
    of students based on data by classroom
    teacher
          Basic Premises
• It takes smart teachers and smart tools
  (instructional materials, assessments)
  working within a smart system.

• Quality professional development is
  essential.
 Comprehensive Reading
       Program
• Based on scientifically based reading research
  (SBRR)

• Addresses the essential components of reading
   – Phonemic awareness
   – Phonics (alphabetic principle)
   – Fluency in connected text
   – Vocabulary
   – Comprehension
    Comprehensive Reading
          Program
• Coherent design of explicit instructional
  strategies and sequences (scope and
  sequence)
• Ample practice opportunities
• Materials that are appropriate to student
  levels (grouping practices)
• Materials aligned with standards and
  benchmarks
• Adequate time for quality instruction
       Comprehensive Reading
             Program
• Provides interventions in the classroom and supplemental
  instruction
   – More practice (strategic)
   – More teaching (strategic)
   – More teaching and more practice (intensive)
• Includes assessment
   –   Screening - first alert
   –   Diagnostic - in-depth view
   –   Progress monitoring - growth charts
   –   Outcomes - reaching our goals
          Food Pyramid
• Healthy,
  balanced diet to         Oils, butter

  ensure good
  physical health       Dairy, meat, fish
                      Fruits and vegetables



                     Bread, cereal and grains
               Literacy Diet
• Powerful literacy
  diet to ensure good      Phonemic Awareness
  literacy health           Alphabetic Principle


                        Accurate and Fluent Reading
Upper Grades                Of Connected Text


                                Vocabulary
                              Comprehension
               Literacy Diet
• Powerful literacy
  diet to ensure good          Comprehension
  literacy health                Vocabulary


                        Accurate and Fluent Reading
Lower Grades                Of Connected Text

                        Phonics (Alphabetic Principle)
                           Phonemic Awareness
     The Literacy Diet: Five Essential
     Components in Reading
• Phonological Awareness - awareness that
  spoken words are made up of sounds
• Alphabetic Principle - understanding that
  words are made up of letters, sounds are
  connected to letters, and can use these
  sounds and sound combinations to read and
  spell unfamiliar words
• Accuracy and Fluency of Connected Text -
  can read words in grade level text accurately
  and effortlessly
     The Literacy Diet: Five Essential
        Components in Reading
• Vocabulary - understanding and use of
  words to acquire and convey meaning
  (mental dictionary)

• Comprehension - complex process of
  listening/reading and reacting to
  spoken/written text in a meaningful way
       Essential Components -
          The Literacy Diet

• All the components are important.
• The components do not fight with each
  other.
• Different students will require different
  levels of instruction to acquire and apply
  the skills contained in the essential
  components.
         Core Instruction
• Core instruction is designed to
  provide the literacy diet that should
  be sufficient to ensure good literacy
  outcomes for a large percentage of
  the students. The core literacy diet
  will benefit all, but will not be
  sufficient for some students.
    When eating out of the food
     pyramid is not enough …
• Need to add iron
  pills, or vitamins, but
  do not stop eating
  from the food
  pyramid.
 Harnessing the Power of the
        Literacy Diet
• Identify critical features of instruction (what
  does the research say)
• Identify high priority skills for each grade level
  (what is critical for literacy outcomes)
• Establish class-wide instructional routines
  around high priority skills
• Match instructional strategies for struggling
  students in the areas of reading that will have
  the highest impact on literacy
 Data Drives Instruction
              1. Assess and
                Diagnose



              2. Teach/Reteach

5. Reassess


4. Apply                            3. Practice

                                 Cooper, Chard, Kiger (2006)
 Current Practices Reflection
    and Communication
• See Handout
• Reflection/Communication Space
  Provided for Each Essential Component
• Remember your constituents
     Phonemic Awareness:
   Teacher Friendly Definition
• Awareness that spoken words are made
  up of individual sounds.
     Phonemic Awareness
• Take out the Reflection/Communication
  Handout
• As a team, REFLECT on:
  – 1) How is phonemic awareness assessed?
  – 2) How is phonemic awareness instructed?
• Continue to take notes to communicate
  back to your constituents
         Phonemic Awareness
•   What Students Need to Learn
•   How We Teach It
•   Critical Features of Instruction
•   High Priority Skills
•   Assessment Questions
           Phonemic Awareness
What Students Need to Learn
• That spoken words consist of individual
   sounds or phonemes
• How words can be segmented into sounds
   and how these sounds can be blended
   together
• How to use their phonemic awareness to
   blend sounds to read words and to segment
   words into sounds to spell them
Adapted from Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts, 2005
            Phonemic Awareness
How We Teach It:
• Provide explicit and systematic phonemic awareness
  instruction that teaches segmenting and blending
• Begin with auditory phonemic awareness activities
  and link phonemes to letters as soon as possible.
• Use letters to manipulate phonemes and help
  students apply their knowledge of phonemic
  awareness when reading and writing
• Monitor students’ progress to inform instruction
Adapted from Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts, 2005
Critical Features of Instruction
• Critical component but not the literacy
  diet
• Focus on one or two types of phonemic
  awareness
• Teach explicitly and systematically
• Teach in small groups
• Teach the children to manipulate
  sounds in connection in print
Curriculum Maps
PA Developmental Continuum

   Easy   • Word comparison
          • Rhyming
          • Sentence segmentation
          • Syllable segmentation and
            blending
          • Onset-rime blending and
            segmentation
          • Blending and segmenting
            individual phonemes
   Hard   • Phoneme deletion and
            manipulation
       Phonemic Awareness
        High Priority Skills
• Sound isolation – identifies first sound in
  a one syllable word
• Orally blends three and four sounds into
  words
• Segments three and four sounds words
  into individual sounds
                                         PESA
                                         E 2, 3
Instructional “Focus” Continuum
Accurate at     Fluent at       Able to
   Skill          Skill        Apply Skill

IF no, teach   If no, teach   If no, teach
skill.         fluency/       application
If yes, move   automaticity   If yes, the
to fluency     If yes, move   move to
               to             higher level
               application    skill/concept
     Phoneme Segmentation
       Multisensory Cues
• Tap the Sounds- beginning with your index finger tap
  once for each sound as you move through each
  finger
• Shoulders, Waist, Toes
• Finger Count - Count and say the sounds one at a
  time, raising a finger for each one
• Pull the Sounds out of Your Mouth
• Use Manipulatives
     Opportunities for Practice
       Outside of Lessons
• Students benefit from opportunities to
  apply skills they are learning in a variety
  of contexts.
• Particularly for struggling students,
  frequent distributed practice throughout
  the day is often more beneficial than
  larger chunks of practice time.
          Classroom Routines

    Routine               PA Skill
Calendar time   Clap the syllables in the
                days of the week
Writing name    Give a word and students
                write # of sounds in word
Line-up         Say first sound in name of a
                student in the class
       Phonemic Awareness
       Assessment Questions
• Does your current assessments
  measure the high priority skills?
  – Sound isolation – identifies first sound in a
    one syllable word
  – Orally blends three and four sounds into
    words
  – Segments three and four sounds words
    into individual sounds
• TAKE TIME TO DISCUSS PA
   Alphabetic Principle (Phonics):
     Teacher Friendly Definition
• Understanding that words are made up
  of letters, sounds are connected to
  letters, and can use these letter and
  letter combinations to read and spell
  unfamiliar words.
       Alphabetic Principle
• Take out the Reflection/Communication
  Handout
• As a team, REFLECT on:
  – 1) How is alphabetic principle assessed?
  – 2) How is alphabetic principle instructed?
• Continue to take notes to communicate
  back to your constituents
          Alphabetic Principle
•   What Students Need to Learn
•   How We Teach It
•   Critical Features of Instruction
•   High Priority Skills
•   Assessment Questions
Alphabetic Principle (Phonics)
What Students Need to Learn:
• Accurate and rapid identification of the letters of the
  alphabet
• Phonic Elements (e.g., letter-sound
  correspondences, spelling patterns, syllables, and
  word parts)
• How to apply phonics elements when they read and
  write
Adapted from Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts, 2005
Alphabetic Principle (Phonics)
How We Teach It/Critical Features of Instruction
• Provide explicit, systematic phonics instruction in:
     – A set of letter-sound relations
     – Blending sounds to read words
• Include practice reading texts
• Give substantial practice applying phonics as
  students read and write
• Monitor students progress to inform instruction
     – Differentiate- Not all need “all”
Adapted from Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts, 2005
      Alphabetic Principle
       High Priority Skills
• Letter - sound correspondences

• Sounding out words

• Reading connected text
High priority skills are the key.
• Develop instructional routines around
  the high priority skills.

• Assess the high priority skills to
  determine beginning point of instruction.
                                         PESA
                                         E 2, 3
Instructional “Focus” Continuum
Accurate at     Fluent at       Able to
   Skill          Skill        Apply Skill

IF no, teach   If no, teach   If no, teach
skill.         fluency/       application
If yes, move   automaticity   If yes, the
to fluency     If yes, move   move to
               to             higher level
               application    skill/concept
 What Skills Does Phonics Include?
              Progression of Regular Word Reading

                           Sounding Out
                             (saying the
                         sound of each letter)

                      Whole Word Reading
                        (vocalizing each sound
                    and blending it to a whole word)

                       Sight Word Reading
                       (sounding the word out in
              your head and then reading the whole word)

                   Automatic Word Reading
               (reading the word without sounding it out)

(Colorado Reading First, 2006)
                                                PESA
                                                E3
         Direct Instruction
1) Gain the learner’s attention
2) Review relevant past learning
3) Communicate goal of the lesson
4) Model the skill to be learned
5) Prompt for correct response
6) Check for skill mastery
7) Close the lesson
    Archer, Anita, Ph.D. Delivery of Lessons:
      Direct Instruction. San Diego State
      University
      Direct Instruction Sample:
           Long “e” Sound
•   1) Gain the learner’s attention- “Good morning class. Please put your
    items down, remember “body basics”, and all eyes on me.”
•   2) Review relevant past learning- “For the past several weeks we
    have been reviewing specific letter combinations, and applying those
    combinations into our reading exercises. Lets read the following
    together for a quick review. (What sound? What word?)
     – oa         ai       oi
     boat    foil   rain foam stain
     Coin loan plain roam spoil
   Direct Instruction Sample:
        Long “e” Sound

                                - “Today we
3) Communicate goal of the lesson
 will be learning two new letter combinations..
 The “ea” and the “ee”. Both of these letter
 combinations make the long “e” sound. Say it
 with me..eeeeeeeee”
      Direct Instruction Sample:
           Long “e” Sound
•   4) Model the skill to be learned- “I’ll read the letter combination
    first and your repeat after me. Then we will practice, What
    sound? What word?”

        ea              ee              ee              ea

        ee              ea              ea              ee

    Feet meat keep clean tweet sweep
    mean
    Direct Instruction Sample:
         Long “e” Sound
• 5) Prompt for correct response
   – “ee”, “ea”: Read below. What sound? What word?

                   ee                  ea

                feet             eat

                meet             mean

                keep             steam
     Direct Instruction Sample:
          Long “e” Sound
• 6) Check for skill mastery- “As a group, please read
  the following words when prompted. I’ll be asking you
  individually to practice with your sheets with your
  partner in a couple of minutes.”

  feet             ream            peel

  seem             steal           real
   Direct Instruction Sample:
        Long “e” Sound
• 7) Close the lesson- “ Today we learned two letter
  combinations that make the same sound. The “ee”
  and “ea”. What sound do they make? ___ Please
  write down two words that include the “ee” letter
  combination and two words that include the “ea”
  combination into your journals. Read with a partner
  the short story about the “Real Feet…” Connected
  Text Practice!
                                                     PESA
                                                     E 2, 3
       Continuum of Instruction
• Instruction needs to occur at the appropriate level(s).-
  ALL MOVE TO CONNECTED TEXT!




Letter & Letter-    Word          Phrase      Connected
     Sound          Level         Level         Text
Correspondence
          Classroom Routines:
          Distributed Practice
      Routine          Alphabetic Principle Skills
Calendar time      Point out the “ay” in the days of
                   the week, and ask what sound
                   does “ay” say?
Writing name on    Give a cvc word and students
Top of the paper   write that word next to their
                   names-CHECK neighbor’s
Line-up            Place word cards on door frame,
                   ask “what sound” & “what word?”
      Assessment Questions
• Do students know the sounds for the letter and letter
  combinations expected for their grade level?
• Can they use the sounds to automatically read words
  (silently in their head)?
• Can they use the sounds or patterns to read
  unfamiliar words?
• Can they apply the sounds or patterns in connected
  text?
• TAKE TIME TO TALK ABOUT ALPHABETIC
  PRINCIPLE
                 Fluency
• Take out the Reflection/Communication
  Handout
• As a team, REFLECT on:
  – 1) How is fluency assessed?
  – 2) How is fluency instructed?
• Continue to take notes to communicate
  back to your constituents
                       Fluency
•   What Students Need to Learn
•   How We Teach It
•   Critical Features of Instruction
•   High Priority Skills
•   Assessment Questions
              Fluency:
      Teacher Friendly Definition
• Ability to read words in grade level text
  accurately with automaticity and with
  proper expression.
           Accurate and Fluent
        Reading of Connected Text
•   What Students Need to Learn
•   How We Teach It
•   Critical Features of Instruction
•   High Priority Skills
•   Assessment Questions
                                Fluency
What Students Need to Learn
• How to read words (in isolation and in connected
  text) accurately and quickly with little attention or
  effort
• How to automatically recognize words (decoding)
• How to increase speed (rate), improve accuracy, and
  read with expression (prosody)

Adapted from Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts, 2005
                                      Fluency
How We Teach It
• Provide opportunities for oral repeated reading with
  support and feedback
• Match reading texts and instruction to students’
  reading levels
• Provide opportunities to read narrative and expository
  texts
• Monitor students’ progress in both rate and accuracy
• Keep the end in mind. Fluency is only part of the
  picture. Differentiation - not all need all
Adapted from Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts, 2005
             To develop fluency
               students must:
• Perform the task or demonstrate the skill accurately
  and

• Perform the preskills of the task effortlessly

• Important to know preskills by grade level

Once accurate, fluency develops through
plentiful opportunities to practice the task
with a high rate of success.
           Fluency Continuum
• Practice needs to occur at the appropriate
  level(s).


Letter & Letter-   Word     Phrase     Connected
     Sound         Level    Level        Text
Correspondence
     Reading Fluency

Dimensions of Reading Fluency

        • Accuracy
           • Rate
         • Quality
  Why focus on fluency?
               Fluency
Fluency is not an end to itself but is the
    “gateway to comprehension.”
  Accurate and Fluent Reading of Connected
                    Text
             High Priority Skills

• Accuracy - How to read words in isolation and in
  connected text accurately

• Automaticity - How to read words in isolation and in
  connected text automatically

• Phrasing and expression - How to read texts
  smoothly and with expression
        Accurate and Fluent
     Reading of Connected Text
• Comprehension is hindered by low
  accuracy.
Activity : Accuracy
          • Task: Read the section from
            the book, The Call of the
            Wild.

          • This selection provides the
            reader with 90% of the
            words. Is 90% accuracy
            enough to comprehend the
            text?
Buck did not read the ______, or he would have
known that ______ was brewing, not only for
himself, but for every tide-water dog, strong of
muscle and with warm, long hair, from Puget
Sound to San Diego. Because men, groping in
the ______ darkness, had found a yellow
_______ and because steamship and
transportation companies were ______ the find,
thousands of men were ______ into the ______.
These men wanted dogs, and the dogs they
wanted were _______ dogs, with strong
muscles by which to toil, and ______ coats to
protect them from the ______. Buck lived at a
     What is reading fluency?
• Automaticity is reading words with no
noticeable cognitive or mental effort.
Fundamental skills are so “automatic” that
they do not require conscious attention.
Examples of automaticity:
• Shifting gears on a car
• Playing an instrument
• Playing a sport
        Enjoyable reading
          is automatic
• Students must recognize printed words
  accurately and automatically so that
  attention is available for
  comprehension.




                                          p. 5
  Neurological Underpinnings
The brain’s cognitive “desk space”
has a limited amount of processing
capacity (attentional resources) at
any one time.
               Reading Fluency
                          Labored, inefficient reading
Declining Comprehension
                                                 Lack of Fluency
 Limited knowledge
                                A
 of academic
 language                Self-                           Lack of
                     Perpetuating                        motivation

                             Cycle
Smaller Vocabulary                              Lack of Practice
 Fluency is More than Speed
• Fluent readers make their message
understood. They read in phrases,
respect the intonation patterns in syntax,
and communicate with the listener.
• Speed is not the issue but sufficient
speed to allow comprehension to occur.
      Behaviors Around the
        Numbers Matter!
• 40 words read correct - most children
  should be freed up to ask “Does it make
  sense?” at the sentence level. The
  student should be able to self-correct
  errors that change meaning. If not,
  directly teach monitor for meaning as
  part of their instruction.
       Behaviors Around the
         Numbers Matter!
• 60 words read correct - Phrasing should start
  to occur. Below this number students are still
  actively involved in the task of word
  recognition and are not able to read words in
  groups. If reading 60 words or higher and no
  phrasing, directly teach phrasing of text
 Behaviors Around the Numbers!
• 140 words read correct - you will find
  conflicting information on numbers for the
  minimum rate at which students need to be
  reading when you can rule out the impact of
  fluency on reading. 140 is still solid in the
  research. With the idea of converging data
  and instructional routines that incorporate
  different big ideas as a focus, the debate
  becomes academic.
             Classroom Routines:
             Distributed Practice
          Routine                  Fluency
Calendar time       Point to the days of the week, and have
                    the students read them “automatically”

Writing name on     Give the students sight words from your
top of the paper    reading work and see if they can
                    “encode” (write) that word
Line-up             Place phrases along the door frame and
                    have students read them
    Additional Routines:
Alternate Passage Reading-
     Anita Archer Video



       QuickTime™ an d a
          decompressor
 are need ed to see this p icture .
      Promote Wide Reading
• Students are more likely to read widely and,
  therefore, build fluency when they are given books
  that are interesting to them and that don’t pose word
  recognition problems.
             Ways to promote wide reading:
• Provide ample reading materials that appeals to a
  range of interests (informational books, other genres,
  magazines, comic books, directions for making
  things, telephone books, cookbooks, cereal boxes -
  anything that interests your students.
     Promoting Wide Reading
             (cont.)
• Team with school and community libraries to improve
  interest in and access to books and magazines.
• Encourage students to form book clubs.
• Have student write scripts based on stories they have
  read and act them out for the class.
• Ask students to write book reviews for the school
  newspaper.
• Establish a link with families by sending newsletters
  home about the reading students are doing in school.
     Assessment Questions
• Do your assessments measure the high
  priority skills in fluency?
  – Accuracy - How to read words in isolation and in
    connected text accurately
  – Automaticity - How to read words in isolation and
    in connected text automatically
  – Phrasing and expression - How to read texts
    smoothly and with expression
• TAKE TIME TO TALK ABOUT FLUENCY
    Harnessing the Power of the
           Literacy Diet
• Provide strong initial instruction focused on the
  essential components in reading
• Establish class-wide routines around high priority
  skills
• Expect and plan for differences in students - match
  strategies to student needs to provide supplemental
  and intensive instruction in addition to the core
• Focus on components that accelerate student
  learning
 Instructional “Focus” Continuum

 Accurate at                        Able to Apply
                  Fluent at Skill
    Skill                               Skill


IF no, teach      If no, teach      If no, teach
skill.            fluency/          application
If yes, move to   automaticity      If yes, the
fluency           If yes, move to   move to
                  application       higher level
                                    skill/concept
Punch Line
     • If you want to see it, teach
       it!

     • If you teach it,
               assess it!

     • If you assess it, analyze it,
       use it to guide instruction!

     • Assess again to see if
       instruction was effective!
       How Does it Fit Together?
          IDM At A Glance
                                  Step 2            Step 3                   Step 4
       Step 1                        Addl.                                  Results
                                                  Instruction
                                   Diagnostic                              Monitoring
                          C       Assessment

  All Students at        80-90%     None           Continue                   Grades
                                                                            Classroom
   a grade level                                     With                  Assessments
                           S                         Core                Yearly ITBS/ITED
                          5-10%                   Instruction
                                                        Small
        Universal
                            I                           Group
                                     Group              Differentiated       2
        Screening         1-5%     Diagnostic           By Skill             times/month



Fall     Winter Spring
                                     Individual      Individualized
                                     Diagnostic        Intensive
                                                                              weekly
The Process is Ongoing
    and Long-Term
CONSENSU
S
                         Home Play-1
• PET-R
I. Goals/Objectives/Priorities
II. Assessment
III. Instructional Practices and Materials
IV. Instructional Time
V. Differentiated Instruction/Grouping
VI. Administration/Organization/Communication
VII. Professional Development
     Home Play Continued
• PET-R
  – Complete the PET-R
  – Document Evidence
  – Determine Action Plan Steps
  – Prioritize Areas of Need
• Share new/confirmed learning from your
  notes sheets with your constituents.
       Quote of the Day
  In absence of clearly defined goals, we
become strangely loyal to performing daily
acts of trivia..
           Author unknown

				
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