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					Today’s Lecture:

England and the Colonies

Number:

8

Lecture Organization: • Class Announcements

• Review: English Revolution
• Significance of England • English Government • English Colonies • Colonial Governing Structures • Mercantilism • The English Empire • The Great Quandary Begins

Time

Class Announcements

???

Questions?
Time

Old World
Divine Right
Great Chain of Being Primogeniture

Monarchy Aristocracy Gentry

Aristocracy
Feudalism

Peasants, Serfs City-dwelling drunks

Government as a personification Subjects, not citizens
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No branches of government
4

Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007

New World

Monarchy Aristocracy

Inalienable Rights Social Contract
Gentry

Science and reason; not superstition
Peasants, Serfs

consent of the governed removal of leaders who misgovern
City-dwelling drunks

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Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007

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Finance capitalism

New World

Social Mobility
Monarchy Aristocracy

English revolution Beheading the King Then brining monarchs back again “constitutional monarchy”
Peasants, Serfs Gentry

City-dwelling drunks

English Declaration of Rights
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Two-Party System
Significant voting in lower house
Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007 6

constitutional monarchy (a) Parliament names the King (William and Mary)

(b) the King is subject to “the law” (e.g., no dispensing power)
(c) Parliament is permanent institution that passes the laws (d) The (English) people have some basic rights that cannot be infringed by the King (e) there are elections where middle-class people can meaningfully participate in the lower house of government

constitutional monarchy (f) parliament has the right to remove the monarch if he/she violates the liberty of the people (John Locke) -- but the King retains certain powers, such as: (a) commander in chief (b) an absolute veto (c) power to “prorogue” (d) spoils and patronage Compare: if we had an hereditary (e) life-tenured job
presidency with an absolute veto (can’t override). Example: Kennedys

Declaration of Rights -- When, William and Mary ascended to the throne, they agreed to abide by a declaration of English rights … • -- can’t tax the people without parliament’s approval • -- no detention of citizens without cause shown • -- no military in the private homes • -- limitations on when Martial law could be declared • -- King did not have the power to “suspend law” • -- No excessive bails, cruel-and-unusual punishments • -- jury trials in criminal cases (and other process)

The First Modern Country? -- England in early 1700: (a) Permanent Parliament

Voting – 1. 40 Shilling Franchise 2. 1722 – 330,000 males (1/5th of adult males) (5.8% of the population)

(b) Central role for the House of Commons

(c) Party press (Whigs and Tories)
(d) “The Rights of an Englishman” (e) Significant amount of voting:

Time

English Government
The power sharing relationship -- out of the turmoil and social change of the 1600s, England had created a power sharing relationship based upon social sectors.

Each Institution represents a class or sector having Monarchy power in the society
Aristocracy
Gentry Peasants, Serfs

Power-Sharing Relationship Royal Governance House of Lords House of Commons

CONSUL City-dwelling drunks

Note the similarity here with Rome
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SENATE

Assembly of the Plebeians
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(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

“Virtual Representation”

Royal Governance House of Lords House of Commons

Peasants, Serfs

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(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

13

eligibility = birth selection = operation of law

Royal Governance House of Lords House of Commons

eligibility = birth selection = election
Peasants, Serfs

Question: How is one ELIGIBLE to get into the House of Commons?
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eligibility = birth selection = operation of law

Royal Governance House of Lords House of Commons

eligibility = birth selection = election
Peasants, Serfs

Tricky Question. At first, 2nd and 3rd sons After the financial revolution, if you are rich enough “Gentrified” takes on a different meaning. (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. (“exalted” “demarked” “conspicuous”) 15

1. “children of” tended to dominate 2. but they started 1/18/2007 selling titles too

CONSUL

Royal Governance House of Lords House of Commons

SENATE

Assembly of the Plebeians

Question: Where is the Judicial Branch? In America, it would be like having the Senate be the Court
Time
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(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

The English Colonies
The New World -- The discovery of the “new world” was an important development for Europe -- Resources that could alter the balance of power

-- Columbus had landed in the new world by accident
Resources: gold, silver, timbers, resins, forest products, furs, fish – the resources of national power.

illustration

The English Colonies
two strategies to exploit the new world extraction: -- take and extract precious commodities back to the King. -- Spain, France did this. colonization: sent your people to live and expand your territory. You settle the place. • expand your land, your economy, tax revenue, etc.

England

• expand your culture, your people – like planting seeds.

Timeline

The Defeat of the Spanish Armada Beheading of Charles Settling America The The GloriousModern Country? The First Revolution

1588

1600

1649

1688

1722

CromwellParliament installs and the Protectorate; Outbreak William and Mary as of Religious Radicalism King and Queen; Constitutional Monarchy Established
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The English Colonies
England’s colonization: • send dissenters over here • send paupers over here • send laborers who can’t find work in the countryside or in the cities (population boom -- land-labor problem) -- let’s look at a colonial map …

Time

Colonial Governing Structures
Early Virginia (1600s) What kind of government? • When first settled, it was a corporation not a “state” -- 1608 (Jamestown) was settled by a corporation (Virginia Company) looking to make money.

-- when that failed, England had to impose a governing structure

Colonial Governing Structures
Early Virginia (1600s) What kind of government?

-- King sends over a Royal Governor to govern the colony
-- no salary is given -- The colonists have to raise money to pay the Governor’s salary

-- An assembly of the Burgess is called

Colonial Governing Structures
Early Georgia Social Experimentation -- founded as a “poor colony” in 1732 by James Oglethorpe -- he wanted to create a colony only for the “deserving poor” (cure them of their flaws) Government: • no legislature!

• Oglethorpe and his people rant the colony as “Trustees”

Colonial Governing Structures
Early New England Puritan settlements -- 1620: puritans in England create a corporation -- Arrive in 1630 in what is Boston Harbor today. Government: -- Company president is the Governor -- The Board of Directors is the “General Court” Supreme Court & Legislature

Colonial Governing Structures
Early Carolinas Political Experimentation -- interesting mixture between those wanting to make a profit from the territory & political radicals wanting to experiment

-- they put together a corporate group called the “Carolina Proprietors” (the “Lord Proprietors”)

Colonial Governing Structures
Early Carolinas Political Experimentation -- John Locke is asked to draft a constitution for the Carolinas -- He wants to do something radical:

• create a society without a monarch
… here is what he came up with

Elite Body Strange entity (Cabinet?)

Palatine Court
Supreme Court AND Congress Passes Laws AND Interprets them Composed of the 8 proprietors Corporate Board of Directors?

“The People”

Grand Council
Small in number – (Privy Council)
Propose Legislation

Assembly
Popularly Elected Veto Power!

Question: What Power do you think the Assembly had?
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Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007

Colonial Governing Structures
the “standard” governments -- colonies eventually came to adopt very similar forms of government (that imitated England)

The Structure of Colonial Governance Congress or Parliament

Royal Governor England!
Appointed by Crown; Governor had Veto

General Court
Supreme Court; Upper House

Assembly

“the people” (property qualifications) (Males) (Free)
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Executive Council
Cabinet
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Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007

Governance from England
THE KING THE PARLIAMENT

King’s Veto

Privy Council

Time

Colonial Local Government
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The Colonies of the mid-to-late 1700s
Population Growth -- Exponential growth; most of it is internal reproduction • 4 million by 1776 (500,000 African American slaves) compare: • French had 52,000 in all of New France by 1750

The Colonies of the mid-to-late 1700s
Population Growth -- most of the growth is internal reproduction Massachusetts study: • Women who married in the late 1700s (1780, 1789) in rural mass usually married at age 23 or 24 and could expect 7 or 8 live births.

Broader Emigration
-- In the later 1700s, English stop emigrating as much • Germans & Scots Irish

The Colonies of the mid-to-late 1700s
Economy Income distribution -- more flat than in England -- but there is an elite rich that exists

• “Gentrified Americans.” These people would be gentry in status in England
(e.g., plantation owners in Virginia -- Jefferson, Washington, etc)

-- As a general rule, our gentry were less rich than their gentry, on average

Time

The Colonies of the mid-to-late 1700s

A Frenchman’s Perspective During the Revolutionary War Economy WhatIncome distribution in one country was commonly known as passed for gallantry adultery in the other. The American coffee was undrinkable and the food-- Frenchman’sthe people were overly familiar [cousins mating?]. uneatable. And quote The appetite of the American was matched only by his ignorance concerning the meal before him. Their questions were direct, the children spoiled, the women graceless and unshapely, yet uncommonly clean. American women were aged by 20 and decrepit by 35, whereas a French woman, every one knew, was 29 until she was 60. It was difficult to distinguish the rich from the poor, and as to the very poor, there were none. America was a cultural waste land devoid of conversation. -- Source: Stacy Schiff

Mercantilism
Mercantilism commercial trading network -- England has a vast merchant marine/superiority on the high seas. (Her ships trade in goods all over the globe) (a central repository for trade and distribution through Europe) -- she needs two things: • more cash crops coming through her ports.

• more agricultural produce (land is sparse)

Mercantilism
Mercantilism commercial trading network -- America is to supply the agricultural goods that England needs and to make her ports have more products -- As a general rule, colonies are only allowed to trade with or through their mother country (key point)

Mercantilism
Mercantilism Setting up the Mercantile Regime • Shipping Act (1600s) – must use British ships • Navigation Acts – early 1700s.

Mercantilism
Mercantilism Setting up the Mercantile Regime -- no banks (new institutions) -- no arms industry.

-- no manufacturing
Otherwise, England left us alone Benign neglect George III will try to change this
Time


				
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