Job satisfaction

					                                   INTRODUCTION


DEFINITIONS
           Job satisfaction is the favorableness or unfavourableness with which
employees view their work.
                                          -   KEITH DAVIS


           Job satisfaction is the end state of felling, which may influence subsequent
behavior.
                                          -   MIRZA S SAIYADAINEITH


           Job satisfaction is the amount of pleasure or contentment with a job. If you
like your job intensely, you will experience high job satisfaction. If you dislike your
job intensely, you will experience job dissatisfaction.
                                          -   DEBRINS


           Job satisfaction may be defined as reintegration of affect produce by
individual’s perception of fulfillment of his needs in relation to his work and the
situation surrounding it.
                                          -   SINHA


OBJECTIVES OF JOB SATISFACTION:


           The term “job satisfaction” was brought to limelight by Hoppock. According
  to him, job satisfaction is “the combination of physiological and environment
  circumstances that cause a person to truthfully say “I am satisfied with my job”


           Job satisfaction is the end feeling of a person after performing a task. To the
  extent a person’s job fulfills his dominant needs and is consistent with his
  expectations and values the job will be satisfying. The feelings would be positive or
  negative depending upon whether need is satisfied or not. Job satisfaction refers to a
  person’s feelings of satisfaction on job, which acts as a motivation to work. It is not
  the self-satisfaction, happiness on the job.


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           The term job relates to the total relationship between an individual and the
  employer for which he is paid. Satisfaction does mean the simple feeling-state
  accompanying the attainment by an impulse of its objectives.


           Broadly, the job satisfaction can be defined as the expression of favorable
attitudes of employees towards their work. The work is having its own characteristics
and environment on one hand and employees are having their own              aspiration and
expectations on the other hand.


           Satisfaction occurs at a point at which expectations of job and the rewards that
  the job provides are in equilibrium. On the contrary employees try to extract
  maximum rewards for the sacrifice, which they undertake by ways of offering their
  services and production.




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                                INDUSTRY PROFILE
MACHINE TOOLS
                            Sir Joseph Whitworth

                            The Industrial Revolution could not have developed
                            without machine tools, for they enabled manufacturing
                            machines to be made. They have their origins in the tools
                            developed in the 18th century by makers of clocks and
                            watches and scientific instrument makers to enable them to
                            batch-produce small mechanisms. The mechanical parts of
                            early textile machines were sometimes called 'clock work'
                            because of the metal spindles and gears they incorporated.
The manufacture of textile machines drew craftsmen from these trades and is the origin
of the modern engineering industry.

Machines were built by various craftsmen—carpenters made wooden framings, and
smiths and turners made metal parts. A good example of how machine tools changed
manufacturing took place in Birmingham, England, in 1830. The invention of a new
machine by Joseph Gillott, William Mitchell and James Stephen Perry allowed mass
manufacture of robust, cheap steel pen nibs; the process had been laborious and
expensive. Because of the difficulty of manipulating metal and the lack of machine tools,
the use of metal was kept to a minimum. Wood framing had the disadvantage of changing
dimensions with temperature and humidity, and the various joints tended to rack (work
loose) over time. As the Industrial Revolution progressed, machines with metal frames
became more common, but they required machine tools to make them economically.
Before the advent of machine tools, metal was worked manually using the basic hand
tools of hammers, files, scrapers, saws and chisels. Small metal parts were readily made
                                      by this means, but for large machine parts,
                                      production was very laborious and costly.

                                      A lathe from 1911, a machine tool able to shape
                                      parts (usually metal)for other machines

                                      Apart from workshop lathes used by craftsmen, the
                                      first large machine tool was the cylinder machine
                                      used for boring the large-diameter cylinders on early


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steam      engines.   The planning    machine,   the slotting   machine and    the shaping
machine were developed in the first decades of the 19th century. Although the milling
machine was invented at this time, it was not developed as a serious workshop tool until
somewhat later in the 19th century.

Military production, as well, had a hand in the development of machine tools. Henry
Maudslay, who trained a school of machine tool makers early in the 19th century, was
employed at the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, as a young man where he would have seen
the large horse-driven wooden machines for cannon boring made and worked by
the Verbruggans. He later worked for Joseph Bramah on the production of metal locks,
and soon after he began working on his own. He was engaged to build the machinery for
making ships' pulley blocks for the Royal Navyin the Portsmouth Block Mills. These
were all metal and were the first machines for mass production and making components
with a degree of interchangeability. The lessons Maudslay learned about the need for
stability and precision he adapted to the development of machine tools, and in his
workshops he trained a generation of men to build on his work, such as Richard
Roberts, Joseph Clement and Joseph Whitworth.

James Fox of Derby had a healthy export trade in machine tools for the first third of the
century, as did Matthew Murray of Leeds. Roberts was a maker of high-quality machine
tools and a pioneer of the use of jigs and gauges for precision workshop measurement.


INDIAN MACHINE TOOL INDUSTRY ...SHAPING THE FUTURE
    Machine tools – a strategic industry, forms the backbone of many if not most of the
major sectors of industrial activity in a country in the traditional manufacturing context.
Therefore, a country such as India which is on the threshold of becoming a major global
industrial and economic power must have a strong, well-developed, robust and modern
machine tool industry to support and assist its manufacturing sector.


    The machine tool industry in India has played and will continue to play a key role in
enhancing competitiveness and enabling development of quality and excellence in the
output of the manufacturing industry and of the Indian economy as a whole. In India, the
machine tool industry supports the strategic development and growth of the automotive,
the white and brown goods, the capital goods industries as well as strategic sectors such
as defense, railways, aerospace, etc. Machine tools also contribute to the vibrancy of

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small and medium scale manufacturing industries, in particular, the millions of job shops
in the country.


    In India, the Rs. 17 billion machine tool industry supports more than Rs. 2,000 billion
manufacturing sector in the country. The Indian machine tool industry predominantly
comprises manufacturers from the small and medium-sized enterprises. There are about
150 major manufacturers in the organized sector. About three-quarters of total machine
tool production in the country comes out of ISO certified companies that are involved in
manufacturing of metalworking machine tools, manufacturing solutions, accessories, and
cutting tools & tooling systems. India-wide, the sector employs some 65,000 skilled and
unskilled persons.


    Based on current trends and emerging demands, the computer numerically controlled
(CNC) segment is emerging as a key driver of growth for the machine tool industry in
India. Indian-made machine tools are currently exported to over 55 countries – major
ones being United States, Italy, Brazil, Germany, and the Middle East. Lathes and
automats, presses, electro-discharge machines, and machining centers form the bulk of
export orders for Indian manufacturers.




Historical Backdrop
    This sector has had a long history of growth in India, beginning in the 1940s. From
early 1950s to mid 1970s, the machine tools industry evolved under an umbrella of
protection in which the growth was based on import substitution. The Government of
India set up the Hindustan Machine Tools (HMT), which provided a nucleus for
development of technological capabilities and skills. It also spearheaded sprouting of
several ancillary units in the private sector by providing support and thus became local
suppliers of components, etc.


    During the 1950s to mid-1960s, this sector bolstered in confidence and began to
absorb imported technology and manufacture machine tools to specifications given by
foreign collaborators. It also initiated developmental work directed to modifying machine
tools and developing variants of machines for which design had been acquired by the
purchase of licenses.

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    The next phase of liberalization of policies of the government allowed selective
imports that made it imperative for the domestic industry to catch up with quality
specifications of imported machines, at reduced costs and to adopt best practices for
reducing technology gaps.


    In the 1980s, the industry developed further and was able to acquire know-how in
machine tool technology in order to reproduce and even develop new machine tools,
particularly special purpose machine tools (SPMs). The national expertise developed over
the years provided the needed human resources to initiate creative modified versions of
existing machine tools manufactured under license, thereby further paving the way
towards self-reliance through aggressive R&D in India.


    These efforts resulted in the setting up of several entrepreneurial enterprises that
began manufacturing machine tools leading to increased employment opportunities for
engineers and widening the scope of indigenous R&D projects and development of
enhanced technological capabilities over the next decade.


    As a result of the various initiations, output of the Indian machine tool industry,
witnessed a meteoric rise from Rs. 290 million in 1970-71 to Rs. 1,185 million a decade
later. And by the time of the economic liberalization in 1990-91, turnover of the industry
touched a new high of Rs. 4,135 million.


    Indian machine tool industry was among the first industry sectors to be thrown open
to global competition in the economic reforms of the early Nineties. That, however, did
not deter the industry, to face the onslaught challenges – and towards this direction
improved features of their machines, enhanced productivity, increased reliability and
performances, and embraced TQM practices.


    Efforts of domestic machine tool manufacturers made a paradigm shift that led to a
manifold increase in performance. In 1996-97, the industry achieved a turnover of Rs.
8,250 million. A slump in the Indian market in the following years had a severe impact
on the fortunes of the Indian machine tool industry.



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    The spurt in the country’s manufacturing activity since 2003-04 led to increased
potential for Indian machine tools, which got a fillip from the automotive sector. The
booming automotive and auto ancillary industry in India is currently driving growth and
the competitiveness of the Indian machine tool industry. Domestic manufacturers are
fulfilling stringent tolerances, and process capability requirements of the highly
demanding auto industries. The focus of several Indian manufacturers currently provides
machine tools with integrated Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) features. This has
increased the potential and improved the competitiveness of Indian-built machine tools.


    It is evident that 2004-2005 as well as the previous year were more than watershed
phases the machine tool sector in India. Growth of the Indian economy continues at an
increasing pace and for most machine tool manufacturers, orders continue to flow and are
in plenty. The same holds true for importers, who have also thrived from the burgeoning
Indian market. The share of indigenous and imported machine tools in the Indian market
is currently in the ratio of 40:60.


    The strength of the Indian machine tool industry was galvanized by Indian Machine
Tool Manufacturers’ Association (IMTMA) – the apex industry body of machine tool and
manufacturing solutions, which currently represents over 80 per cent of the machine tool
industry in India. With a membership of over 350 small, medium and large companies,
IMTMA is the single point of contact for the machine tool industry in India. Over the
years, the Association has transformed itself to looking beyond – by focusing on issues of
productivity, quality, technology, design, new product development, customer
satisfaction, innovation, etc. IMTMA plays a pivotal role in the growth and global
competitiveness of the Indian machine tool industry.


    In order to give a cohesive direction for enabling growth and competitiveness of the
Indian machine tool industry, IMTMA has developed a long-term strategy. Coined as
‘VISION’, the strategy envisages a major focus on technology, design, and product
development, as well as adaptation of new processes for ensuring manufacturing quality
such as TQM, TPM, and Six Sigma. The strategy also emphasizes the need to invest in
capacity expansion, to enable the industry meet the enhanced demand from Indian and
overseas markets. The other pertinent objective for the industry is to achieve significant
increase in turnover in both the home and external markets.

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    While the Indian machine tool industry takes determined steps to support its users and
customer through a range of value-adding initiatives, along with a greater emphasis on
R&D activities. Simultaneously it has initiated steps to develop mechanisms to protect
and provide market exclusivity, in domestic and international markets, for locally
developed innovations and/or new and improved product and processes.


    Leaders of the Indian machine tool industry are convinced that in a knowledge-based,
highly competitive, dynamic and globalised business environment, new and improved
inventions, innovations, technologies designs and further product development are key to
better servicing machine tool needs of the manufacturing industry – in India and
elsewhere. Achieving this requires a focused action plan for developing and deploying a
knowledge-driven, creativity and invention-led, quality and performance improvement
effort to develop an enterprise, sector and country specific branding strategy in its chosen
niche areas in the machine tools sector.




INDUSTRY STRENGTHS
The machine tool industry in India is recognized for


    •      Capability to manufacture low-cost, highly productive manufacturing solutions,
           especially customized products, for Indian and overseas users – in the range of
           turning centres, machining centres, and grinding machines.


    •      Consistent attempt to transform the industry to become more productive, more
           efficient, and, above all, much more cost competitive. Products offered by the
           Indian machine tool industry today are priced much lower than earlier.


    •      Strong emphasis towards improvement of quality. Over 75 per cent of the total
           production of the industry comes from ISO certified and CE accredited
           manufacturers.


    •      Engineering expertise on design, CAD, documentation, testing and evaluation.
           Most machine tools manufactured in India are indigenously designed.

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    •      Pool of skilled workforce specializing in assembly, design, and software
           development, as well as in efforts to further strengthen their design and innovative
           skills.


    •      Forging backward integration with sub-suppliers and vendors for greater
           standardization of components and assemblies.


    •      Initiatives to form clusters and enter into consortia, with even competing
           manufacturers, for developing world-class manufacturing solutions.


    •      Proactive efforts to reach out to customers through process of interactive
           dialogues – at the industry and at the individual company levels.


    •      Special focus on increasing reach of the industry to other potential overseas
           markets. The machine tool industry is making special forays to establish presence
           in key machine tool markets – through joint participation in overseas fairs, as well
           as establishment of exclusive machine tool show centres. As a result, Indian
           machine tools are today well accepted in China, Germany, Italy, France and in
           North America.


Core Competency
The Indian machine tool industry manufactures almost the complete range of metal-
cutting and metal-forming machine tools. Customized in nature, the products from India
comprise conventional machine tools as well as computer numerically controlled (CNC)
machines. There are other variants offered by Indian manufacturers too, including special
purpose machines, robotics, handling systems, and TPM-friendly machines.


    One of the significant developments in machine tool industry in recent times have
been the Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) machines. Emergence of CNC
machine tools and its dominance over the last few years in the overall product segment
stemmed from its value-added features, such as enhanced productivity, higher precision,
increased reliability, better finishing, and improved aesthetics and design. Achievement
of higher growth and increased share of CNC machines in the overall output surmises the

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commitment of Indian machine tool manufacturers to providing competitive
manufacturing solutions, now at cost effective prices.


   In terms of key product segments, high growth areas for the Indian machine tool
industry include turning centers, machining centers, grinding machines, and cell
manufacturing, amongst others. The other emerging demand is for total manufacturing
solutions, whereby users seek to economize on manufacturing cost and time.


SHAPING THE FUTURE WITH INNOVATION AND IPR
        Indian machine tool industry today is reaping the benefits derived from a
proactive implementation of the VISION strategies. The industry is currently witnessing
fast growth, with several major players doubling their turnover. Indian machine tool
manufacturers have been consistently assisting their users to significantly reduce
breakdowns and maintenance costs, while helping them to reduce cost of ownership over
a longer period of time. Results of this teamwork approach are clearly visible – in the
form of a competitive spirit of the Indian auto and auto ancillary sector.


        The next decade will see the emergence of a phase in business value chain that is
fiercely knowledge-driven and is sustained by rapid innovation and speedy delivery of
the new or improved solutions to markets. Therefore, the creation, protection, effective
exploitation and leveraging of existing and new knowledge in the marketplace will
differentiate the winners from the losers. It is in this context the system of Intellectual
Property Rights (IPR) will play crucial role in improving efficiency and effectiveness of
machine tool manufacturers and for strategically managing all transactions of proprietary
knowledge. As the industry enters an era of “KNOLITICS TM” – that is “knowledge
politics”, an appreciation of the fundamentals of IPR and its role in knowledge
management is increasingly becoming the key ingredient of business strategy.




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PERFORMANCE OF INDIAN MACHINE TOOL INDUSTRY


High growth momentum
The financial year 2007-08 was yet another landmark one for the Indian economy and the
industry, generating a great deal of optimistic growth and promising outcome. The year
was marked by 9 per cent plus GDP growth – earning the accolade of being one amongst
the fastest growing countries in the world.


The surge in demand was rampant across Indian industries, especially in the engineering
and the manufacturing sector. The key aspect about manufacturing industry’s
performance was its efforts to achieve excellence in quality, design and innovation. The
country also posted optimistic results in agriculture and in the services stream.


For the Indian machine tool industry, 2007 was a year on the decline, and is expected to
result in reduced orders from the Indian and overseas markets. Metalworking machine
tool output of the Indian industry worth Rs 17,525 million, registered a growth of 5 per
cent during January – December 2007. Much of the growth in India’s metalworking
machine tools came about because of enhanced requirements from the automotive sector
auto ancillary industry, defense, railways, job shops and small-scale industry units.


Metal-cutting & metal-forming tools
Metal-cutting segment continued to account for 88 per cent of the total output of machine
tools in India. In 2007, metal-cutting machine tool output worth Rs 15,357 million, led to
a growth of 4 per cent.
Turning centres recorded the largest production in the industry during January –
December 2007, with a share of 30 per cent in the total machine tool output. Turning
centres, together with machining & grinding centres, accounted for nearly three-quarters
of the total metal-cutting produce and about two-third of the total metal working output in
2007 calendar year.
Indian manufacturers in the metal-forming segment, on the other hand, registered a
growth of 8 per cent, with an output valuing Rs 2,168 million. Press manufacturers
witnessed the largest volume of business in this segment, with a 60 percent share in
metal-forming machine tools.



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CNC & conventional machine tools
In keeping with the focus of the Indian industry towards enabling manufacturing
excellence, CNC machine tools comprised bulk of the produce from the Indian stable.
This segment had over 70 per cent share in the total metalworking machine tool output in
2007.

CNC machine tool segment in India clocked a marginal growth of 5 per cent with a
turnover of Rs 12,145 million. CNC turning centres. Together with machining and CNC
grinding centres, held a share as high as 80 per cent in the total CNC machine tool
produce and 55 per cent share in the metalworking output in 2007. These three segments
have been leading the pack for over half a decade.
Conventional machine tool manufacturers, likewise, registered a growth of 4 per cent to
an output valuing Rs 5,380 million.


Export scenario
The focus of Indian manufacturers to expand their potential to other frontiers resulted in
tapping new opportunities in overseas markets, albeit marginally. As a result, exports
increased by 98 per cent in 2007. A total of 395 machine tools worth Rs 1,475 million
were exported by the Indian industry during January December 2007. Indian
manufacturers exported to 36 countries, including prominent ones such as Italy, Canada,
Germany and the U S.
The highlight of the machine tool exports in 2007 was the performance in the CNC
segment CNC machines registered a growth of 100 per cent over the previous calendar
year.
Machining centres followed by turning centres, electro-discharge machines and presses
witnessed the highest export orders.




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MACHINE TOOLS' DEMAND TO RISE 25% IN 12TH PLAN

The Indian Machine Tool Manufacturers’ Association (IMTMA) has projected a 2.3
times growth in the demand for the machine tool industry to touch a level of Rs 23,700
crore by end of the 12th five year plan. For the year 2010-11, the industry witnessed a
demand of Rs 10,300 crore, showing a growth of 28.7 per cent over Rs 8,000 crore
recorded in 2009-10.

It also expects the Indian machine tool turnover to substantially increase from Rs 3,600
crore at present to about Rs 13,900 crore by 2016-2017, with an assumption of a growth
rate of 25 per cent compounded annual growth rate (CAGR). During the current fiscal,
the industry is likely to grow by 25 per cent.


Machine tools are power-driven equipment used for drilling, milling, grinding or shaping
of a piece of metal used in any industry.

Making this disclosure at the 65th Annual Session of IMTMA, its President, M
Lokeswara Rao pointed out that achievement of this domestic turnover will also enhance
the market share of the Indian machine tool industry to 50 per cent by 2016-2017, as
against 35 per cent in 2010-2011.

He also mentioned that the major emphasis of the industry in the 12th Five-Year Plan
would be on technology. Some of the major parameters to be achieved in the 12th-Five
Year Plan include development of high precision machine tools; multiaxes, multi-
function machines; heavy duty machine tools; metal-forming machines of various types;
critical mechanical elements; machine tool electronics and other sub-systems; as well as
software for design / analysis / simulation, machining and manufacture. These are
technologies where the industry considerably lags at present.

The other key stress will be on skill development and workforce enhancement. The
Indian machine tool industry currently has a direct employment of 30,000 workforce,
which is estimated to double by 2016-2017, he added.




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Mr. Rao urged the industry to give greater emphasize on expanding capacities; focus on
innovation, design and new product development; working towards bridging technology
gaps; taking measures towards skill enhancement and workforce development.

On this occasion, he announced a partnership between IMTMA and the National Skills
Development Corporation to formulate “Sector Skills Council for Machine Tool
Industry”. The Councils’ primary function is to project sector specific skill shortage, and
address other key issues affecting manpower requirements.

IMTMA Executive Committee — the apex board of the Association, unanimously
elected Vikram Sirur, Executive Chairman, Miven Machine Tools Limited, Hubli as
President of IMTMA and L Krishnan, Managing Director, TaeguTec India Private
Limited as Vice President of IMTMA for the year 2011 - 2012.




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                                       COMPANY PROFILE




   BACKGROUND AND INCEPTION OF THE COMPANY


         H.M.T. is one of the leading public sector companies, in India, HMT I & II Bangalore
   plant was inaugurated in 1953 by PANDIT JAWAHARLAL NEHRU; it has 16
   manufacturing units spread over 10 states, 24 divisions and 29,000 employees in 10 different
   states.

             DR.S.M.Patil started HMT limited as a Hindustan Machine Tools Limited on 7th
   February 1953 in technical and financial collaboration with the DERLIKON MACHINE
   TOOLS WORKS of Switzerland. The first product produced by HMT was lathe on 6 th
   October 1953.Then the government of India bought the shares held by Derlikon thereby
   transforming HMT as a Government undertaking.


   INTRODUCTION OF MACHINE TOOLS LIMITED
             HMT Limited, the pioneer in Machine Tools Industry in India and manufacturers of a
   diversified range of products has incorporated “HMT MACHINE TOOLS LIMITED” as its
   fully owned subsidiary on 9th August 1999.

 “HMT MACHINE TOOLS LIMITED” (HMT-MTL) is a Multi unit, Multi location, Multi
   technology Company manufacturing a wide variety of “STATE-OF-THE-ART” Machine
   Tools.
 Comprehensive Customer Support services including Application Engineering, Customer
   Training and after sales service.
 The best of products in terms of technology, productivity and cost effectiveness.


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 All manufacturing units of HMT Machine Tools are ISO9001 certified.


                             NATURE OF BUSINESS CARRIED:


          HMT limited, the pioneer in machine tools industry in India and manufacturers of a
   diversified range of products has incorporated “HMT MACHINE TOOLS LIMITED” as it’s
   fully owned subsidiary on 9th August 1999.


          “HMT MACHINE TOOLS LIMITED” (HMT-MTL) is a multi unit, multi location,
   multi Technology Company manufacturing a wide variety of “STATE-OF-THE-ART”
   machine Tools. HMT-MTL has its manufacturing units at five locations with each unit
   specialized in a particular family of Machines. The sales and service network is spread across
   the length and breadth of the country. As leading manufacturer of Machine Tools in India,
   HMT-MTL provides the best of products in terms of technology, productivity and cost
   effectiveness.


                         VISION, MISSION AND QUALITY POLICY




   CORPORATE VISION
       To be a leading GLOBAL ENGINEERING CONGLOMERATE Focused on
          CUSTOMER DELIGHT in our fields of Endeavour.


   CORPORATE MISSION
       To establish ourselves as one of the world’s premier companies in the engineering
          field having strong international competitiveness.
       To achieve market leadership in India through ensuring customer satisfaction by
          supplying internationally competitive products and services.

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   To achieve sustained growth in the earnings of the group on behalf of shareholders.




QUALITY POLICY

  To maintain QUALITY LEADERSHIP in all our PRODUCTS & SRVICES


  TOTAL CUSTOMER SATISFACTION through Quality Goods and Services


  COMMITMENT of management to Quality


  To create a CULTURE amongst all Employees towards TOTAL QUALITY
   CONCEPTS


  TOTAL QUALITY through PERFORMANCE LEADERSHIP




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PRESENT STATUS OF HMT
       HMT is contributing to significant capacity established in Bangalore. HMT is to
Focus for major automotive ventures such as Ford, Hyundai, Toyota, Volvo, Skoda, Ashok
Leyland, Hindustan motors and TVS, where there is consistent demand for machine tools in
south India. HMT Machine Tools Ltd would be investing Rs.180 Crores of total packages of
Rs.723 crores given by the center for its revival and aim to double its turnover to 500 in the
next five years.
       The company’s optimism stems from the prospect of accessing working capital freely
after setting off its debts and reducing costs through a fresh voluntary retirement scheme and
increased production and productivity from the replacement of its over four decades old plant
that would be place soon.
       The revival package has infused new life into the ailing HMT, which once guided the
prospects of the manufacturing sector through its indigenous machine tools. For the long
term, HMT Machine Tools would be seeking joint venture partners.
       The immediate goal was to regain its old glory through an initial sustained growth.
The efforts to increase the turnover would be accelerated in the niche products with higher
value. The company hoped to rationalize the number of products and focus on only high tech
and high value to derive higher margins.
       Also by reducing the staff strength by 1000 from the level of 4300 and freeing itself
from the huge annual debt servicing through an Rs.90 crores interest burden would put HMT
Machine Tools back on its keel soon. With its edge in the strategic sectors like defense and
nuclear, HMT Machine would eyeing in the mass market for companies for the automotive
sectors and the CNC systems.




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                      PRODUCT PROFILE




Our Business Domain




                                        Page | 19
                                  ORGANIZATION
                                STRUCTURE OF HMT




                                       GM (MBX)



                DGM             JGM                         DGM (P)
               (CNC)           (PSB)                      PRODUCTION

                                                                           GM (F)
                                                                          FINANCE
                             DESIGN                     QUALITY &
            SALES         DEVELOPMEN                   INSPECTION
            ENGG.              T                         JGM (QI)
            JGM(S)          JGM (DD)                                     FINANCE

   HRM
SECURITY                                      ENGG.
TRAINING                                   SUBCONTRACT
 CANTEEN                                   COMP’R & MIS
JGM (HRM)                                     JGM(E)




 BALL
                       (MFG)                 PLANT                         TRAIL &
SCREW
                        JGM                 SERVICE                       SERVICING
 TOOL
                                            DGM (PS)                     SPARES DGM
ROOM
                                                                             (TS)
                               ASSEMBLY                   FOUNDAR
            PROGRESS                                      Y JGM (F)
            AGM (PR)            JGM (AY)



                                       HOSPITAL CMO             MATERIAL & STORES
                                                                    JGM (M)




                                                                              Page | 20
              MTL-ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE or CHART

                               MD



                             ED (HR)




  GM (HR)                    GM (HRO)                GM (HR)




MTP              MTH           MTB          MTK           MTV




                             GM (MBX)



                             DGM (HRM)




Manager             GM           AGM      Security       PRO
(Establish)      (Finance)      (HRD)      Chief



  Officers        Officers     Officers   Security       CMS
                                          Officer




                                                                Page | 21
CORPORATE STRENGTHS:




                       Page | 22
WELL ESTABLISHED MANUFACTURING BASE:

    Experienced design & development facilities
    Facilities to produce machine tool grade mechanize castings including
        o   Pattern shop
        o   Centralised sand conditioning plant
        o   Metallurgical/Material Testing Laboratory
    Assorted production facilities including
        o   Precision machines (jig boring, gear grinding, etc.)
        o   Special purpose machines
        o   CNC Machines
        o   Heavy duty machines (like Waldrich Coburg, etc.)
    Advanced and sophisticated Tool Room
    Precision measuring & inspection facilities
    Fabrication shop to build huge structures with stress relieving facilities
    Heat treatment facilities
    Material testing laboratory
    Facilities for calibration of measuring & testing equipments
    Skilled assembly work force and established assembly practices.




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TECHNOLOGY AND R&D:



HMT Machine Tools has imbibed a wide range of technologies as a result of its
diversification strategies, to be a truly multi-technology company. The list includes, though
not limited to, the following technologies:


    High Speed Machining

    Hard Parts Turning

    Precision Machining

    Computer Numeric Controls

    Computer Integrated Manufacture

    Flexible Manufacturing Systems/ Modules/ Cells

    Metal Forming including Die casting & Plastic processing


                                               R&D efforts in these technology areas are a
                                               continuous and ongoing process at the Design
                                               & Development Centers of all HMT Machine
                                               Tools’ manufacturing units. In each area of
                                               HMT Machine Tools’ business domain, well-
established research & testing facilities with experienced engineers to man them are in
position. Extensive use is made of in-house CAD facilities for designing products.

The R & D efforts include the design and development of over a 100 new types / variants of
machine tools

HMT Machine Tools’ R&D is committed to provide the best to the customer in terms of
contemporary technology and contemporary designs at competitive prices.




                                                                                     Page | 24
SALES & SERVICE NETWORK:




                           Page | 25
Marketing Network

          Wide marketing network manned by qualified & trained sales & service engineers
          Service outlet at customer doorsteps in major industrial locations.
          Customer training programs on Mechatronics in addition to regular machine-oriented
           training for machine tools.
          Manufacturing Units supplement customer support for tooled-up and high technology
           machine tools.

Specialized components, jigs & fixtures to suit customers' specific/ special application needs.


Major Manufacturing Facilities:

           Can handle machining and assembly of components weighing up to 50 tons

           EOT Crane up to 50T capacity

           Facilities to assemble machines up to 15M height

           Captive foundry of capacity 400 MT per annum

           Experienced in-house design team with CAD facility

           Pattern shop with modern facilities

           Online production monitoring and material management system




                                                                                       Page | 26
COLLABORATION / TECHNICAL TIE-UPS


Machining Centers

Year    Collaborator       Country   Product

                                     Machining Centres for Drilling Milling &
1970-75 AmericanTool Works USA
                                     Boring Operations

1983-91 KTM                UK        CNC Machining Centres


Metal Forming

Year    Collaborator       Country   Product

                                     Presses & Press Brakes – Hydraulic &
1969-79 Verson             USA
                                     Mechanical

1982-89 Verson             UK        Presses

1996-98 Clearing-Niagara   USA       Presses




Special Purpose Machines

Year    Collaborator       Country   Product

1961-68 Renault            France    Special Purpose Machines

1970-77 Fritz Werner       FRG       Ram Bed Type Milling Machines

1971-78 Fritz Werner       FRG       Unit Assembled Bed Type Milling Machines

1976-79 Cross              USA       SPMs

1980-87 Pegard             Belgium   Horizontal Boring Machine




                                                                       Page | 27
Major Projects Executed / Achieved

   Five-Axes Machining Centers

   FMS for Engine Manufacture

   10-Station Transfer line for Auto Sector

   Machining line for cylinder blocks for auto sector

   Wheel & Axle/Wheel Handling Project for Indian Railways

   First Shell Forging Line in the country

   Design, development, manufacture of 8000T Hydraulic Press

   2000T CNC Hydraulic powder compacting press with Auto Dosing equipment

   1000T CNC Hydraulic Press with vacuum pick & place type automation for handling
   steel plates of size 400 mm x 2000 mm

   Press Lines – tandem - for automobile panels forming with link motion Drive lead press

   Hydraulic Presses for manufacturing of shells to Ethiopia

   A host of special purpose machines for varied applications in the auto & auto ancillaries

   Refurbishing of 4x4 Shell Line & Nosing Plant, Double action Mechanical Press,
   Knuckle Joint Presses, etc

   Radiation Shielding Windows and special critical components for nuclear power sector




                                                                                     Page | 28
                          AWARDS OF EXCELLENCE

1990   National Safety Award for Lowest Average Frequency of Accidents

       DSIR National Award for Best R & D efforts in Industry - Mechanical Engineering
2001
       Sector for CNC Gantry Power Mill

       CMTI-PMT Trust Award for Excellence in Design at IMTEX 2004 for Die &
2004
       Mould Machining Center DMC 650




                                                                              Page | 29
                                    JOB SATISFACTION

Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his /her job. The happier people
are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be. Job satisfaction is not the same
as motivation or aptitude, although it is clearly linked. Job design aims to enhance job
satisfaction    and    performance,   methods     include job   rotation, job   enlargement, job
enrichment and job re-engineering. Other influences on satisfaction include the management
style and culture, employee involvement, empowerment and autonomous work position. Job
satisfaction is a very important attribute which is frequently measured by organizations. The
most common way of measurement is the use of rating scales where employees report their
reactions to their jobs. Questions relate to rate of pay, work responsibilities, variety of tasks,
promotional opportunities, the work itself and co-workers.          Job satisfaction refers to a
person’s feeling of satisfaction on the job, which acts as a motivation to work. It is not self-
satisfaction, happiness or self –contentment but satisfaction on the job.
              The term relates to the total relationship between an individual and the employer
for which he is paid. Satisfaction does mean the simple feeling-state accompanying the
attainment of any goal; the end-state feeling accompanying the attainment by an impulse of
its objective. Job dissatisfaction does mean absence of motivation at work. Research workers
differently described the factors contributing to job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction.
Hoppock describes job satisfaction as        “any combination of psychological, physiological
and environmental circumstances that cause any person truthfully to say that I am satisfied
with my job.”
          Job satisfaction is defined as the “pleasurable emotional state resulting from the
appraisal of one’s job as achieving or facilitating the achievement of one’s job values.
          In contrast , job dissatisfaction is defined as” the unpleasurable emotional state
resulting from the appraisal of one’s job as frustrating or blocking the attainment of one’s job
values or as entailing disvalues.” However, both satisfaction and dissatisfaction were seen as
“a function of the perceived relationship between what one perceives it as offering one
entailing.”




                                                                                         Page | 30
History

One of the biggest preludes to the study of job satisfaction was the Hawthorne studies. These
studies (1924–1933), primarily credited to Elton Mayo of the Harvard Business School,
sought to find the effects of various conditions (most notably illumination) on workers’
productivity. These studies ultimately showed that novel changes in work conditions
temporarily increase productivity (called the Hawthorne Effect). It was later found that this
increase resulted, not from the new conditions, but from the knowledge of being observed.
This finding provided strong evidence that people work for purposes other than pay, which
paved the way for researchers to investigate other factors in job satisfaction.

Scientific management (aka Taylorism) also had a significant impact on the study of job
satisfaction. Frederick Winslow Taylor’s 1911 book, Principles of Scientific Management,
argued that there was a single best way to perform any given work task. This book
contributed to a change in industrial production philosophies, causing a shift from skilled
labor and piecework towards the more modern of assembly lines and hourly wages. The
initial use of scientific management by industries greatly increased productivity because
workers were forced to work at a faster pace. However, workers became exhausted and
dissatisfied, thus leaving researchers with new questions to answer regarding job satisfaction.
It should also be noted that the work of W.L. Bryan, Walter Dill Scott, and Hugo
Munsterberg set the tone for Taylor’s work.

Some argue that Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, a motivation theory, laid the foundation
for job satisfaction theory. This theory explains that people seek to satisfy five specific needs
in life – physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, self-esteem needs, and self-
actualization. This model served as a good basis from which early researchers could develop
job satisfaction theories.

Job satisfaction can also be seen within the broader context of the range of issues which
affect an individual's experience of work, or their quality of working life. Job satisfaction can
be understood in terms of its relationships with other key factors, such as general well-being,
stress at work, control at work, home-work interface, and working conditions.




                                                                                        Page | 31
FACTORS OF JOB SATISFACTION:
Job satisfaction refers to a general attitude which an employee retains on account of many
specific attitudes in the following areas: (1) Job satisfaction,(2) Individual characteristics, and
(3)Relationships outside the job. There are different factors on which job satisfaction
depends. Important among them are discussed here under
Personal factors:
  They include workers sex, education, age, marital status and their personal characteristics,
family background, socio-economic background and the like.


Factors inherent in the job:
   These factors have recently been studied and found to be important in the selection of
employees. Instead of being guided by their co-workers and supervisors, the skilled workers
would rather like to be guided by their own inclination to choose jobs in consideration of
‘what they have to do’. These factors include the work itself, conditions, influence of internal
and external environment on the job which are uncontrolled by the management etc.
Factors controlled by the management:
   They include the nature of supervision job security kind of work group, wage rate
promotional opportunities, transfer policy duration of work and sense of responsibilities. All
these factors greatly influence the workers. Their presence in the organization motivates the
workers and provides a sense of job satisfaction.
   Though performance and job satisfaction are influenced by different set of factors, these
two can be related if management links rewards to performance. It is viewed that job
satisfaction is a consequence of performance rather than a cause of it. Satisfaction strongly
influences the productive efficiency of an organization whereas absenteeism, employee
turnover, alcoholism, irresponsibility and un-commitment are the result of job dissatisfaction.
However, job satisfaction or dissatisfaction forms opinions about the job and the organization
which results in employee morale.




                                                                                          Page | 32
MODELS OF JOB SATISFACTION

AFFECT THEORY

Edwin A. Locke’s Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job
satisfaction model. The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a
discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. Further, the theory
states that how much one values a given facet of work (e.g. the degree of autonomy in a
position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/aren’t met.
When a person values a particular facet of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly impacted
both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met),
compared to one who doesn’t value that facet. To illustrate, if Employee A values autonomy
in the workplace and Employee B is indifferent about autonomy, then Employee A would be
more satisfied in a position that offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a
position with little or no autonomy compared to Employee B. This theory also states that too
much of a particular facet will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker
values that facet.

DISPOSITIONAL THEORY

Another         well-known     job     satisfaction     theory      is    the      Dispositional
Theory Template:JacksonApril 2007. It is a very general theory that suggests that people
have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of
satisfaction, regardless of one’s job. This approach became a notable explanation of job
satisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across
careers and jobs. Research also indicates that identical twins have similar levels of job
satisfaction.

A significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theory was the Core Self-
evaluations Model, proposed by Timothy A. Judge, Edwin A. Locke, and Cathy C. Durham
in 1997. Judge et al. argued that there are four Core Self-evaluations that determine one’s
disposition towards job satisfaction: self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control, and
neuroticism. This model states that higher levels of self-esteem (the value one places on
his/her self) and general self-efficacy (the belief in one’s own competence) lead to higher
work satisfaction. Having an internal locus of control (believing one has control over her\his
own life, as opposed to outside forces having control) leads to higher job satisfaction. Finally,
lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job satisfaction.

                                                                                        Page | 33
TWO-FACTOR THEORY (MOTIVATOR-HYGIENE THEORY)

Frederick Herzberg’s Two factor theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene Theory) attempts
to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. This theory states that satisfaction
and dissatisfaction are driven by different factors – motivation and hygiene factors,
respectively. An employee’s motivation to work is continually related to job satisfaction of a
subordinate. Motivation can be seen as an inner force that drives individuals to attain
personal and organizational goals (Hoskinson, Porter, & Wrench, p. 133). Motivating factors
are those aspects of the job that make people want to perform, and provide people with
satisfaction, for example achievement in work, recognition, promotion opportunities. These
motivating factors are considered to be intrinsic to the job, or the work carried out.[6] Hygiene
factors include aspects of the working environment such as pay, company policies,
supervisory practices, and other working conditions.

While Hertzberg's model has stimulated much research, researchers have been unable to
reliably empirically prove the model, with Hackman & Oldham suggesting that Hertzberg's
original formulation of the model may have been a methodological artifact. Furthermore, the
theory does not consider individual differences, conversely predicting all employees will
react in an identical manner to changes in motivating/hygiene factors. Finally, the model has
been criticized in that it does not specify how motivating/hygiene factors are to be measured.



JOB CHARACTERISTICS MODEL

Hackman & Oldham proposed the Job Characteristics Model, which is widely used as a
framework to study how particular job characteristics impact on job outcomes, including job
satisfaction. The model states that there are five core job characteristics (skill variety, task
identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback) which impact three critical
psychological states (experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility for outcomes,
and knowledge of the actual results), in turn influencing work outcomes (job satisfaction,
absenteeism, work motivation, etc.). The five core job characteristics can be combined to
form a motivating potential score (MPS) for a job, which can be used as an index of how
likely a job is to affect an employee's attitudes and behaviors----. A meta-analysis of studies
that assess the framework of the model provides some support for the validity of the JCM.



                                                                                        Page | 34
COMMUNICATION OVERLOAD AND COMMUNICATION UNDERLOAD

One of the most important aspects of an individual’s work in a modern organization concerns
the management of communication demands that he or she encounters on the job (Krayer, K.
J., & Westbrook, L., p. 85). Demands can be characterized as a communication load, which
refers to “the rate and complexity of communication inputs an individual must process in a
particular time frame (Faraca, Monge, & Russel, 1977).” Individuals in an organization can
experience communication over-load and communication under- load which can affect their
level of job satisfaction. Communication overload can occur when “an individual receives too
many messages in a short period of time which can result in unprocessed information or
when an individual faces more complex messages that are more difficult to process (Farace,
Monge, & Russel, 1997).” Due to this process, “given an individual’s style of work and
motivation to complete a task, when more inputs exist than outputs, the individual perceives a
condition of overload (Krayer, K. J., & Westbrook, L., p. 86) which can be positively or
negatively related to job satisfaction. In comparison, communication under load can occur
when messages or inputs are sent below the individual’s ability to process them (Farace,
Monge, & Russel, 1997).” According to the ideas of communication over-load and under-
load, if an individual does not receive enough input on the job or is unsuccessful in
processing these inputs, the individual is more likely to become dissatisfied, aggravated, and
unhappy with their work which leads to a low level of job satisfaction.

MEASURING JOB SATISFACTION

There are many methods for measuring job satisfaction. By far, the most common method for
collecting data regarding job satisfaction is the Likert scale (named after Rensis Likert).
Other less common methods of for gauging job satisfaction include: Yes/No questions,
True/False questions, point systems, checklists, and forced choice answers. This data are
sometimes collected using an Enterprise Feedback Management (EFM) system.

The Job Descriptive Index (JDI), created by Smith, Kendall, & Hulin (1969), is a specific
questionnaire of job satisfaction that has been widely used. It measures one’s satisfaction in
five facets: pay, promotions and promotion opportunities, coworkers, supervision, and the
work itself. The scale is simple, participants answer either yes, no, or can’t decide (indicated
by ‘?’) in response to whether given statements accurately describe one’s job.




                                                                                       Page | 35
The Job in General Index is an overall measurement of job satisfaction. It is an
improvement to the Job Descriptive Index because the JDI focuses too much on individual
facets and not enough on work satisfaction in general.

Other     job     satisfaction    questionnaires     include:     the Minnesota      Satisfaction
Questionnaire (MSQ), the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS), and the Faces Scale. The MSQ
measures job satisfaction in 20 facets and has a long form with 100 questions (five items
from each facet) and a short form with 20 questions (one item from each facet). The JSS is a
36 item questionnaire that measures nine facets of job satisfaction. Finally, the Faces Scale of
job satisfaction, one of the first scales used widely, measured overall job satisfaction with just
one item which participants respond to by choosing a face..

Superior-Subordinate Communication

Superior-subordinate communication is an important influence on job satisfaction in the
workplace. The way in which subordinate’s perceive a supervisor’s behavior can positively
or negatively influence job satisfaction. Communication behavior such as facial expression,
eye contact, vocal expression, and body movement is crucial to the superior-subordinate
relationship (Teven, p. 156). Nonverbal messages play a central role in interpersonal
interactions with respect to impression formation, deception, attraction, social influence, and
emotional expression (Burgoon, Buller, & Woodall, 1996). Nonverbal immediacy from the
supervisor helps to increase interpersonal involvement with their subordinates impacting job
satisfaction. The manner in which supervisors communicate their subordinates may be more
important than the verbal content (Teven, p. 156). Individuals who dislike and think
negatively about their supervisor are less willing to communicate or have motivation to work
where as individuals who like and think positively of their supervisor are more likely to
communicate and are satisfied with their job and work environment. The relationship of a
subordinate with their supervisor is a very important aspect in the workplace. Therefore, a
supervisor who uses nonverbal immediacy, friendliness, and open communication lines is
more willing to receive positive feedback and high job satisfaction from a subordinate where
as a supervisor who is antisocial, unfriendly, and unwilling to communicate will naturally
receive negative feedback and very low job satisfaction from their subordinates in the
workplace.




                                                                                         Page | 36
EMOTIONS

Mood and emotions form the affective element of job satisfaction. (Weiss and Cropanzano,
1996). Moods tend to be longer lasting but often weaker states of uncertain origin, while
emotions are often more intense, short-lived and have a clear object or cause.
There is some evidence in the literature that moods are related to overall job
satisfaction. Positive and negative emotions were also found to be significantly related to
overall job satisfaction. Frequency of experiencing net positive emotion will be a better
predictor of overall job satisfaction than will intensity of positive emotion when it is
experienced.
Emotion work (or emotion management) refers to various types of efforts to manage
emotional states and displays. Emotion management includes all of the conscious and
unconscious efforts to increase, maintain, or decrease one or more components of an emotion.
Although early studies of the consequences of emotional work emphasized its harmful effects
on workers, studies of workers in a variety of occupations suggest that the consequences of
emotional work are not uniformly negative.

It was found that suppression of unpleasant emotions decreases job satisfaction and the
amplification of pleasant emotions increases job satisfaction. The understanding of how
emotion regulation relates to job satisfaction concerns two models:

    1. Emotional dissonance. Emotional dissonance is a state of discrepancy between public
        displays of emotions and internal experiences of emotions, that often follows the
        process of emotion regulation. Emotional dissonance is associated with high
        emotional exhaustion, low organizational commitment, and low job satisfaction.
    2. Social interaction model. Taking the social interaction perspective, workers’ emotion
        regulation might beget responses from others during interpersonal encounters that
        subsequently impact their own job satisfaction. For example: The accumulation of
        favorable responses to displays of pleasant emotions might positively affect job
        satisfaction.
        performance of emotional labor that produces desired outcomes could increase job
        satisfaction.




                                                                                    Page | 37
RELATIONSHIPS AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS

       Job Satisfaction can be an important indicator of how employees feel about their jobs
and a predictor of work behaviors such as organizational citizenship, absenteeism, and
turnover. Further, job satisfaction can partially mediate the relationship of personality
variables and deviant work behaviors.

       One common research finding is that job satisfaction is correlated with life
satisfaction. This correlation is reciprocal, meaning people who are satisfied with life tend to
be satisfied with their job and people who are satisfied with their job tend to be satisfied with
life. However, some research has found that job satisfaction is not significantly related to life
satisfaction when other variables such as nonworking satisfaction and core self-evaluations
are taken into account.

       An important finding for organizations to note is that job satisfaction has a rather
tenuous correlation to productivity on the job. This is a vital piece of information to
researchers and businesses, as the idea that satisfaction and job performance are directly
related to one another is often cited in the media and in some non-academic management
literature. A recent meta-analysis found an average uncorrected correlation between job
satisfaction and productivity to be r = 0.18; the average true correlation, corrected for
research artifacts and unreliability, was r = 0.30. Further, the meta-analysis found that the
relationship between satisfaction and performance can be moderated by job complexity, such
that for high-complexity jobs the correlation between satisfaction and performance is higher
(ρ = 0.52) than for jobs of low to moderate complexity (ρ = 0.29). Job Satisfaction also have
high relationship with intention to quit. It is found in many research that Job Satisfaction can
lead to Intention to Stay / Quit in an organization (Kim et al., 1996). Recent research has also
shown that Intention to Quit can have effect like poor performance orientation, organizational
deviance, and poor organizational citizenship behaviors. In short, the relationship of
satisfaction to productivity is not necessarily straightforward and can be influenced by a
number of other work-related constructs, and the notion that "a happy worker is a productive
worker" should not be the foundation of organizational decision-making.

       With regard to job performance, employee personality may be more important than
job satisfaction.[27] The link between job satisfaction and performance is thought to be
a spurious relationship; instead, both satisfaction and performance are the result of
personality.


                                                                                        Page | 38
                            RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
NEED FOR THE STUDY:
        Job satisfaction of an employee plays a very important role in any organization. If
an employee is satisfied with his job, the performance of him will be increased and hence
the goals of the organization can be obtained. The companies who fail to improve job
satisfaction are at the risk of losing their talented people.
        Hence, the study of job satisfaction of employees and the factors influencing job
satisfaction of employees will help the organization in influencing /enhancing the
performance of an employee and so, the study has been undertaken.


OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:
        To know the satisfaction level of employee towards their job in the organization.
        To understand the superior-subordinate relationship in the organization.
        To identify the areas that causes dissatisfaction to the employees.


SCOPE OF THE STUDY:
         The study focuses on administrative levels of the organization .It considers the factors
influencing dissatisfaction of employees which helps HR managers to take appropriate
decisions. The study covers work environment, pay scale, relationship between the
employees & employers, policies, safety measures & work timings of the organization and
also the other factors like canteen and transportation facilities.


PERIOD OF THE STUDY:
The study has been under taken during the period of May 12, 2011 to July 11, 2011.




                                                                                        Page | 39
SOURCES OF DATA:
       The data was collected through primary and secondary sources.
  Primary data: Collected by administering a well structured questionnaire.
  Secondary data: Collected from company manual and various websites.
  Statistical techniques: Simple percentage method.


SELECTION OF TOPIC:
       Since Job satisfaction plays an important role in motivating an employee there is an
increasing attempt by all organizations to improve that. It also helps in increasing the
production of organization, reducing turnover of employees. Hence it is decided to go for
study in the Job satisfaction.


RESEARCH INSTRUMENT:
       A questionnaire is the most frequently used instrument in a survey. In this survey we
also, have done personal interview and observation. The questionnaire was designed in such a
fashion so as to reduce the respondent fatigue. The questions include both open ended as well
as closed ended questions.


METHOD OF SAMPLING:
       In the present study I have done Non Probabilistic Convenient Sampling method. I
have selected employees randomly covering all the departments’ ad even the shop floor
employees.


SIZE OF THE SAMPLE:
The sample size which I have taken is 75 employees covering all the departments.




                                                                                     Page | 40
LIMITATIONS:
The study has the following limitations:
      The survey is confined to the employees of HMT, Hyderabad . The implications so
       found are specific to that unit and any generalization may not be possible.
      The study was conducted by administrating questionnaires and discussions with a
       limited heterogeneous sample of 75 employees.
      Heavy reliance is placed on the respondents’ information, which will be verified.
      The numerical data have implications. There may be several aspects, which are
       rounded off to nearest percentages.
      Due to time constraints and rules of the organization I could not go much deeper into
       the subject.




                                                                                     Page | 41
          1. AGREEMENT LEVEL ABOUT SATISFACTION ON WORKING
                         ENVIRONMENT IN THE ORGANIZATION

                         Measurements            Respondents
                                                                                                     R
                         Strongly Agree                9%             50%
                                                                      45%
                         Agree                         45%
                                                                      40%
                         Neutral                       38%            35%
                                                                      30%
                         Disagree                      8%             25%

                         Strongly Disagree             0%             20%
                                                                      15%
                                                                      10%
                                                                       5%
                                                                       0%
                                                                              Strongly      Agree   Neu
                                                                               Agree
Chart



Inference:


The above graph shows that 54% of the employs agree that Working environment is
satisfactory followed by 38% of employs feel neutral and only 8% of employees disagree.




             2. THE AGREEMENT LEVEL ABOUT SATISFACTION THAT
                ORGANIZATION GIVES EMPLOYEES FREEDOM TO USE
                      THEIR SKILLS IN RESPECTIVE AREA OF JOB


                   Measurements                      Respondents
                   Strongly Agree                    21%
                   Agree                             65%
                   Neutral                           14%
                   Disagree                          0%


                                                                                    Page | 42
                    Strongly Disagree                   0%

                                                                               70%

                                                                               60%

                                                                               50%

                                                                               40%

                                                                               30%

                                                                               20%

                                                                               10%

                                                                                0%
                                                                                     Strongly Agree   Agree
Chart:
Inference:
The above graph shows that 86% of the employs agree that the organization gives them
freedom to use their skills in the area of their job and 14% feel neutral about the satisfactory
level.




         3. AGREEMENT LEVEL ABOUT SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEES THAT
                       MANAGEMENT GIVES YOU RECOGNITION FOR
                                   GOOD RESULTS ACHIEVED


               Measurements                     Respondents
               Strongly Agree                   21%
               Agree                            41%
               Neutral                          26%
               Disagree                         12%
               Strongly Disagree                0%




                                                                                       Page | 43
Chart:

                                       RESPONDENTS


   45%
   40%
   35%
   30%
   25%
   20%
   15%                                                                    1st Question
   10%
    5%
    0%
          Strongly       Agree     Neutral    Disagree        Strongly
           Agree                                              Disagree




Inference:
The above graph shows that 62% of the employs feel satisfactory with management’s
response when they attain good results and the other 38% remain neutral and only 12%
disagree with this statement.




4. FEEL OF EMPLOYEES ABOUT WELFARE SCHEME IN THE ORGANIZATION


                     Measurement                         Respondents
                     Excellent                           0%
                     Good                                25%
                     Can’t say                           22%
                     Dissatisfactory                     53%
                     Highly Dissatisfactory              0%


Chart:



                                                                            Page | 44
                                          Respondents
  60%

  50%

  40%

  30%
                                                                                  Respondents
  20%

  10%

   0%
          Excellent    Good       Can't say   Dissatisfactory       Highly
                                                                Dissatisfactory


Inference:
The above graph shows that 53% of the employs feel dissatisfactory towards the welfare
scheme of the organization where as 25% feel satisfactory with it and 22% can’t say their
feeling towards it.




                  5.AGREEMENT LEVEL ABOUT SATISFACTION ON THE
                      SAFETY MEASURES ADOPTED BY THE COMPANY


                        Measurements                            Respondents
                        Strongly Agree                          6%
                        Agree                                   32%
                        Neutral                                 38%
                        Disagree                                24%
                        Strongly Disagree




                                                                                          Page | 45
Chart:

                                           Respondents
 40%

 35%

 30%

 25%

 20%
                                                                         Respondents
 15%

 10%

  5%

  0%
         Strongly   Agree        Neutral    Disagree Strongly
          Agree                                      Disagree

Inference:
The above graph shows that 38% of the employs feel satisfactory with the safety needs
provided by the company the other 38% of the employees feel neutral and 24% of them feel
dissatisfactory with the safety needs provided by the organization.




    6. AGREEMENT LEVEL ABOUT SATISFACTION ON THE SUGGESTION
                    SYSTEM IMPLEMENTED BY THE COMPANY.


                       Measurements                Respondents
                       Strongly Agree              0%
                       Agree                       29%
                       Neutral                     50%
                       Disagree                    21%
                       Strongly Disagree




                                                                                Page | 46
Chart:
                                  Respondents
 60%

 50%

 40%

 30%

 20%                                                               Respondents

 10%

  0%
       Strongly Agree     Neutral Disagree Strongly
        Agree                              Disagree




Inference:
The above graph shows that 29% of the employs feel satisfactory with the suggestion system
provided by the company and 50%of them feel neutral and 21% feel dissatisfactory with the
system of the company.




  7. AGREEMENT LEVEL ABOUT SATISFACTION ON RELATION WITH THE
                           SUPERIOR IS SATISFACTORY




                      Measurements                 Respondents
                      Strongly Agree               21%
                      Agree                        53%
                      Neutral                      26%
                      Disagree                     0%


                                                                                  Page | 47
                        Strongly Disagree             0%




Chart:

 60%

 50%

 40%

 30%

 20%

 10%

  0%
         Strongly       Agree        Neutral   Disagree    Strongly
          Agree                                            Disagree




Inference:
The above graph shows that 84% of the employs feel satisfactoryabout their relation with
their superiors and 16% of employs feel neutral.




             8. AGREEMENT LEVEL ABOUT SATISFACTION ON THE
                         RELATION WITH THE SUBORDINATE


                    Measurements                   Respondents
                    Strongly Agree                 18%
                    Agree                          50%



                                                                                Page | 48
                    Neutral                      29%
                    Disagree                     3%
                    Strongly Disagree            0%




Chart:
 60%

 50%

 40%

 30%

 20%

 10%

  0%
       Strongly Agree   Agree      Neutral     Disagree    Strongly
                                                           Disagree



Inference:
The above graph shows that 68% of the employs feel satsfactory with their relation with their
subordinates 29% of the employs feel neutral and 3% feel not satsfactory.




   9. AGREEMENT LEVEL ABOUT SATISFACTION ON THAT EMPLOYEE IS
       READY TO TAKE ADDITIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES WITH HIS JOB




                                                                                     Page | 49
                   Measurements                      Respondents
Chart              Strongly Agree                    21%
                   Agree                             62%
                   Neutral                           6%
                   Disagree                          11%
                   Strongly Disagree                 0%




                                       Respondents
 70%

 60%

 50%

 40%

 30%                                                                         Respondents
 20%

 10%

  0%
        Strongly    Agree     Neutral Disagree Strongly
         Agree                                 Disagree

Inference:
The above graph shows that 83% of the employs feel ready to take additional responsibilities
given by the superiors and 17% feel not interested in taking the responsibilities.




                                                                                      Page | 50
             10. AGREEMENT LEVEL ABOUT SATISFACTION ON THE
                MOTIVATION GIVEN AT THE WORK PLACE BY
                     THE SUPERVISOR/SENIOR EXECUTIVE


                   Measurements                Respondents
                   Strongly Agree              6%
                   Agree                       41%
                   Neutral                     38%                     45%
                   Disagree                    15%                     40%
                                                                       35%
                   Strongly Disagree           0%
                                                                       30%
                                                                       25%
                                                                       20%
                                                                       15%
                                                                       10%
                                                                        5%
                                                                        0%
                                                                               Strongly    Agree
                                                                                Agree
Chart:



Inference:
The above graph shows that 47% of the employs have proper motivation from the superiors
and 38% of the employs feel neutral and 15% say that there is no proper motivation from
superiors.




             11. AGREEMENT LEVEL ABOUT SATISFACTION THAT


                                                                               Page | 51
                     COMPANYCOMMUNICATES THE EVERY
                           NEW CHANGE THAT TAKES PLACE


                 Measurements                    Respondents
                 Strongly Agree                  8%
                 Agree                           44%                           50%
                 Neutral                         18%                           45%
                                                                               40%
                 Disagree                        27%
                                                                               35%
                 Strongly Disagree               3%                            30%
                                                                               25%
                                                                               20%
                                                                               15%
                                                                               10%
                                                                                5%
                                                                                0%
                                                                                        Strongly   Agree   N
                                                                                         Agree
Chart:
Inference:
The above graph shows that 52% of the employs agree with the information that the company
informs every new change that takes place in it and 30% disagree with the statement.




         12. AGREEMENT LEVEL ABOUT SATISFACTION ON THE JOB


                 Measurements                         Respondents
                 Strongly Agree                       8%
                 Agree                                62%
                 Neutral                              15%
                 Disagree                             15%


                                                                                       Page | 52
                  Strongly Disagree                    0%

                                                                            70%

                                                                            60%

                                                                            50%

                                                                            40%

                                                                            30%

                                                                            20%

                                                                            10%

                                                                             0%
                                                                                  Strongly    Agree   N
                                                                                   Agree
Chart:
Inference:
The above graph shows that 70% of the employs feel satisfactory with their job and 30% of
the employs feel dissatisfactory with the job.




             13. AGREEMENT LEVEL ABOUT SATISFACTION ON THE
                      PROMOTION POLICY IN THE COMPANY


 Measurements                                    Respondents
 Strongly Agree                                  6%
 Agree                                           26%
 Neutral                                         23%
 Disagree                                        45%
 Strongly Disagree                               0%


                                                                                  Page | 53
Chart:

                                       Respondents


  50%
  45%
  40%
  35%
  30%
  25%
  20%
  15%                                                                      Respondents
  10%
   5%
   0%
         Strongly   Agree       Neutral Disagree Strongly
          Agree                                  Disagree




Inference:
The above graph shows that 32% of the employs agree that promotional policy is good and
45% of the employs disagree with the statement and it shows there is a lot of unrest in the
employee based on the promotion policy.




             14. AGREEMENT LEVEL ABOUT SATISFACTION ON THE
                    WORK TIMINGS OF THE ORGANIZATION


                      Measurements                Respondents
                      Strongly Agree              15%
                      Agree                       53%
                      Neutral                     24%
                      Disagree                    8%


                                                                                   Page | 54
                        Strongly Disagree             0%



                                                                              60%
                                                                              50%
                                                                              40%
                                                                              30%
                                                                              20%
                                                                              10%
                                                                               0%
                                                                                    Strongly    Agree   Neutra
                                                                                     Agree
Chart:


Inference:
The above graph shows that 68% of the employs feel satisfactory with the timings of the
organization where the 8% feel dissatisfactory with the timings.




                            FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS
FINDINGS
Promotion Policy
        32% of the employees agree that promotional policy is good because they got the
         promotions in periodic manner .
        The rest 45% of the employees feel dissatisfactory with the promotion policy because
         the organization is not following the method which is mentioned in its manual where
         it shows there is a lot of unrest in the employee based on the promotion policy.

Satisfaction level towards the job

                                                                                        Page | 55
      70% of the employees feel satisfactory with their job and because they get the value
       in return to the efforts they have placed
      30% of the employees feel dissatisfactory with the job because of the traditional
       policies followed by the organization make them helpless to achieve their goals.

Communication process
      52% of the employees agree with the information that the company informs every
       new change that takes place in it since they satisfy by knowing the information from
       notice board and
      30% disagree because as they are managers they want to know the change in
       organization in person in formal way but not through notice boards

Motivation
      47% of the employees have proper motivation from the superiors as the superiors
       encourage and suggest what to be done when they commit mistakes
      38% of the employees feel neutral about the motivation from superiors they meet their
       superiors rarely .

Responsibilities:
      83% o the employees are ready to take additional responsibilities given by the
       superiors because they have good morale towards the organization and achieve
       individual and organizational goals
      17% feel not interested in taking the responsibilities since they feel that they are
       already carrying the additional responsibilities.




Suggestion system:
      29% of the employees feel satisfactory with the suggestion system because their
       superiors give them chance to give their opinions/suggestions
      50%of them feel neutral because there is no proper suggestion system followed ,and
       no one cares and no one reviews the suggestions placed in suggestion box in periodic
       manner and no panel for suggestion system is maintained in the organization.

Safety needs:



                                                                                      Page | 56
      The majority of the employees are not satisfied with the safety needs provided in the
       organization because there were no proper harm preventive measures in the
       organization like few first aid kits, glouses and there is no ambulance facility to move
       an employee when they meet with any accident.

Welfare scheme:
      The majority of employees feel dissatisfied with the welfare scheme ,the organization
       doesn’t have a regular welfare officer to view and rectify the problems of employees
       we can say this from the answer that there is no proper water facility in the
       organization and no policies for the employee like providing them the quarters to stay,
       providing employee children scholarships for their education etc.,
Encouragement by management:
      62% of the employees feel satisfactory with management’s response when they attain
       good results as they get the rewards and encouragement from management
      38% remain neutral because the rewards and encouragement they get from the top
       level management would be late where all would have would have forgotten the
       achievement




SUGGESTIONS:
      The suggestion system implemented in the organization is so week, so it is required to
       implement the suggestion system effectively by periodically viewing the suggestion
       box and explain the pros and cons of the suggestions in the box so the employees try
       to involve in giving profitable suggestions if any ,and hence it may improve the
       growth of the employ as well as the growth of the organization.


                                                                                      Page | 57
   Management may implement the welfare scheme in the organization effectively, and
    this can be done by placing a welfare officer who views the problems of the
    employees and make certain modifications to the existing welfare scheme.
   The promotion policy implemented in the organization is facing a lot of unrest from
    the employees, so the management may take necessary measure to identify the
    problems in this area.
   Management need to take up safety measures to provide safety needs to the
    employees like issuing them glouses in the working environment, maintaining
    ambulance and safety kits to provide treatment for employees in emergency.
   Management may have to revise the salary packagSSes periodically to maintain and
    improve their standards of living.




                                                                                 Page | 58

				
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