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					                                                                                                                                Googling to the Max
    Googling Guide #3                                                                                        Research Quality Web Searching, Part 1
                                                                                                                                  Teaching Library
    Limit Commands in Google                                                                                                          UC Berkeley
    MIXING LIMIT COMMANDS: You can combine or mix most limit commands with other limit
    commands and/or search terms. You can use Boolean operators, and phrases to do this. However,
    you cannot mix anything with commands that apply to all terms that follow the command (e.g.,
    allintitle: allinurl:).

Limit/Focus                       Suggested Uses                                           Examples:
Commands                          & Limitations:
intitle:                          Requires terms to occur in the<Title>                    • intitle:"sea level" rise california
                                     field, part of the HTML <Head> or                     • intitle:"global warming" intitle:"sea
                                     top section.                                            level" california
                                  Finds pages likely to be focused on your                 • intitle:"global warming" site:epa.gov –
                                     terms.                                                  site:com
allintitle:                       Requires all terms that follow to be in                  • allintitle: global warming sea level rise
                                     title field. Equivalent of repeating                  • allintitle: global warming "sea level
                                     intitle: before all terms.                              rise"
                                  Words may be in any order unless
                                     quotes are used to force phrases.
                                  Focuses narrowly on pages about the
                                     terms used.
inurl:                            Requires terms to be in URLs.                            • inurl:"joe barker" finds pages with these
                                  Can be used with or without quotes, and                    two in URLs, allowing any punctuation.
                                     repeated.                                             • inurl:joe barker finds pages with joe in
                                  URL punctuation is ignored.                                URLs, and barker somewhere in the
                                  Usually finds pages focused very                           document.
                                     specifically on terms.
allinurl:                         Requires all terms to occur somewhere                    • allinurl: infopeople training finds pages
                                     in URLs, in any order.                                  like www.infopeople.org/training/
site:                             Must be followed by all or the last part                 • site:infopeople.org finds all pages in
                                     of the top level of a URL, which                        Google from this site.
                                     identifies a "site." Must include org,                • site:infopeople.org training finds pages in
                                     edu, com, etc.                                          Google from this site with the word
                                  "www" and http:// optional.                                "training."
                                  Requires all results to have this as the                 • site:org OR site:edu librarian training
                                     top level URL (or site).                                finds pages with these terms inside .org or
                                  Use to search within a site or limit to                    .edu sites in Google.
                                     type of site (e.g., org or edu).
filetype:                         Follow by a file extension (pdf, xls,                    • filetype:pdf "native americans" diabetes
                                     doc, ppt, etc.).                                      • filetype:pdf OR filetype:ppt "boolean
                                  Requires terms to be in these types of                     searching"
                                     documents.
daterange:Julian                  A more precise way to limit by date last                 • web searching daterange:2452640-
dates (date Google                   crawled than the Adv. Search, which                     2453005 finds pages containing these
visited & found content              allows only 3 mos, 6 mos, l yr.                         terms crawled between 6/1/03 and 6/1/04.
changes).                         Finds recently updated pages, pages
                                     created on a specific date, and un-
                                     updated pages.
                                  If you don't know Julian dates:
                                     www.faganfinder.com/ google.html


                                                                -- M O R E --
    Googling to the Max, Teaching Library, UC Berkeley, 2004-2005. Adapted from materials developed by Joe Barker for "Extreme Googling," an
    Infopeople Workshop. The Infopeople Project [infopeople.org] is supported by the U.S. Institute of Museum and Library Services under the provisions
    of the Library Services and Technology Act, administered in California by the State Librarian.
Limit/Focus                       Suggested Uses                                               Examples:
Commands                          & Limitations:
numrange:                         An optional way of specifying that you                       • numrange:1920..1930
..                                   want pages only containing a certain
                                     range of numbers.
-                                 You can just type 123..456, 123.., or
                                     ..456 and get the same result.
                                  Google also accepts 123-456, 123-, or
                                     -456.
Sites from foreign                Find web pages from servers in a                             • Step 1: In Google Search Box, perform the
country (URL                         specific country, regardless of TLD.                        search:
                                  List of country codes at                                       recipes OR cooking brazil OR brazilian
hack)                                www.iana.org/cctld/cctld-whois.htm                        • Step 2: In Address box, append to the URL
After a Google search,
                                                                                                 created by step 1:
append to resulting
                                                                                                 &restrict=countryBR
URL in Address box:
&restrict=country
XX
with XX being a
capitalized two-letter
country code.


Limit Commands                    Suggested Uses                                               Examples:
for Web Managers                  & Limitations:
and Authors:
intext:                           Requires search terms to occur in the                        Limited application, because in text is default.
                                    text or <Body>.                                            • intext:"sheet music" lincoln
                                  They may also occur in the title, url, or
                                    other places, and so this search
                                    resembles the default search, which
                                    looks at text.
allintext                         Requires all search terms to occur in the                    • allintext: finding information
                                    text or <Body>.
                                  Equivalent of repeating intext: before
                                    each term.
inanchor:                         Require terms to be in the anchor text,                      • inanchor:"infopeople project" finds pages
                                    the descriptive text that is linked to                       with this as text linked to, in URLs, or in
                                    in HTML, found between > and <                               links. Retrieves all kinds of pages with this
                                    the anchor or link.                                          text in them somehow linked to.
                                  The circled text in this example is
                                    anchor text:
                                      <a href:"http://infopeople.org">Infopeople Project</a>
                                  Text may also occur elsewhere and not
                                    in anchor text.
                                  Many pages found point to a page with
                                    the anchor text and do not contain it.
                                  Of value to web authors looking for
                                    links to a page via text (as opposed to
                                    the link: search, which reads the
                                    URLs in links).
allinanchor:                      Requires all search terms to occur in the • allinanchor: irs 1040
                                  anchor text any order, as explained
                                  above.

    Extreme Googling Summer/Fall 2004 - This material has been created by Joe Barker for the Infopeople Project [infopeople.org], supported by the U.S.
    Institute of Museum and Library Services under the provisions of the Library Services and Technology Act, administered in California by the State
    Librarian. Any use of this material should credit the author and funding source.

				
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