Draft Combined Curriculum Document by 29z84v

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									                                                     Draft Combined Curriculum Document
                                                             Science – High School



Big Idea: Structure and Transformation of Matter (Physical Science) High School
A basic understanding of matter is essential to the conceptual development of other big ideas in science. By high school, students will be dealing
with evidence from both direct and indirect observations (microscopic level and smaller) to consider theories related to change and conservation of
matter. The use of models (and an understanding of their scales and limitations) is an effective means of learning about the structure of matter.
Looking for patterns in properties is also critical to comparing and explaining differences in matter.

Academic Expectations
2.1   Students understand scientific ways of thinking and working and use those methods to solve real-life problems.
2.2   Students identify, analyze, and use patterns such as cycles and trends to understand past and present events and predict possible future events.
2.4   Students use the concept of scale and scientific models to explain the organization and functioning of living and nonliving things and
      predict other characteristics that might be observed.
2.5   Students understand that under certain conditions nature tends to remain the same or move toward a balance.

Program of Studies: Understandings                Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts            Related Core Content for Assessment

SC-H-STM-U-1                                      SC-H-STM-S-1                                       SC-HS-1.1.1
Students will understand that the configuration   Students will classify samples of matter from      Students will classify or make
of atoms in a molecule determines the             everyday life as being elements, compounds,        generalizations about elements from data
molecule’s properties. Shapes are particularly    or mixtures                                        of observed patterns in atomic structure
important in how molecules interact with                                                             and/or position on the periodic table.
others.                                           SC-H-STM-S-9                                       The periodic table is a consequence of the
                                                  Students will investigate the role of              repeating pattern of outermost electrons.
                                                  intermolecular or intramolecular interactions on                                          DOK 2
                                                  the physical properties (solubility, density,
                                                  polarity, boiling/melting points) of compounds     SC-HS-1.1.4
                                                                                                     Students will understand that in conducting
                                                  SC-H-STM-S-12                                      materials, electrons flow easily; whereas, in
                                                  Students will design and conduct experiments       insulating materials, they can hardly flow at all.
                                                  to determine the conductivity of various           Semiconducting materials have intermediate
                                                  materials                                          behavior. At low temperatures, some materials
                                                                                                     become superconductors and offer no
                                                                                                     resistance to the flow of electrons.




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SC-H-STM-U-2                                   SC-H-STM-S-1                                       SC-HS-1.1.4
Students will understand that an enormous      Students will classify samples of matter from      Students will understand that in conducting
variety of biological, chemical and physical   everyday life as being elements, compounds,        materials, electrons flow easily; whereas, in
phenomena can be explained by changes in       or mixtures                                        insulating materials, they can hardly flow at all.
the arrangement and motion of atoms and                                                           Semiconducting materials have intermediate
molecules.                                     SC-H-STM-S-9                                       behavior. At low temperatures, some materials
                                               Students will investigate the role of              become superconductors and offer no
                                               intermolecular or intramolecular interactions on   resistance to the flow of electrons.
                                               the physical properties (solubility, density,
                                               polarity, boiling/melting points) of compounds     SC-HS-1.1.5
                                                                                                  Students will explain the role of
                                               SC-H-STM-S-12                                      intermolecular or intramolecular
                                               Students will design and conduct experiments       interactions on the physical properties
                                               to determine the conductivity of various           (solubility, density, polarity, conductivity,
                                               materials                                          boiling/melting points) of compounds.
                                                                                                  The physical properties of compounds
                                                                                                  reflect the nature of the interactions among
                                                                                                  molecules. These interactions are
                                                                                                  determined by the structure of the
                                                                                                  molecule including the constituent atoms.
                                                                                                                                          DOK 2

                                                                                                  SC-HS-1.1.8
                                                                                                  Students will:
                                                                                                        explain the importance of chemical
                                                                                                           reactions in a real-world context;
                                                                                                        justify conclusions using
                                                                                                           evidence/data from chemical
                                                                                                           reactions.
                                                                                                  Chemical reactions (e.g., acids and bases,
                                                                                                  oxidation, combustion of fuels, rusting,
                                                                                                  tarnishing) occur all around us and in every
                                                                                                  cell in our bodies. These reactions may
                                                                                                  release or absorb energy.
                                                                                                                                          DOK 3




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SC-H-STM-U-3                                       SC-H-STM-S-8                                      SC-HS-1.1.1
Students will understand that when elements         Students will explain the organizational         Students will classify or make
are listed in order by their number of protons,    structure (design) and communicate the            generalizations about elements from data
the same sequence of properties appears over       usefulness of the Periodic Table to determine     of observed patterns in atomic structure
and over again in the list. The structure of the   potential combinations of elements                and/or position on the periodic table.
periodic table reflects this sequence of                                                             The periodic table is a consequence of the
properties, which is caused by the repeating       SC-H-STM-S-10                                     repeating pattern of outermost electrons.
pattern of outermost electrons.                    Students will relate the chemical behavior of                                            DOK 2
                                                   an element, including bonding, to its location
                                                   on the periodic table

SC-H-STM-U-4                                       SC-H-STM-S-1                                      SC-HS-1.1.2
Students will understand that not all atoms of     Students will classify samples of matter from     Students will understand that the atom’s
an element are truly identical. Some may vary      everyday life as being elements, compounds,       nucleus is composed of protons and neutrons
in their number of neutrons (isotopes) or          or mixtures                                       that are much more massive than electrons.
electrons (ions). These variations result in                                                         When an element has atoms that differ in the
properties which are different than the more       SC-H-STM-S-10                                     number of neutrons, these atoms are called
common forms of that element                       Students will relate the chemical behavior of     different isotopes of the element.
                                                   an element, including bonding, to its location
                                                   on the periodic table

SC-H-STM-U-5                                       SC-H-STM-S-2                                      SC-HS-1.1.3
Students will understand that changes of state     Students will investigate the kinetic molecular   Students will understand that solids, liquids and
occur when enough energy is added to or            theory of matter                                  gases differ in the distances between molecules
removed from the atoms/molecules of a                                                                or atoms and therefore the energy that binds
substance to change their average energy of        SC-H-STM-S-7                                      them together. In solids, the structure is nearly
vibration. Most solids expand as they are          Students will explore the relationships among     rigid; in liquids, molecules or atoms move around
heated, and if sufficient energy is added the      temperature, particle number, pressure and        each other but do not move apart; and in gases,
atoms/molecules lose their rigid structure and     volume in the Universal Gas Law                   molecules or atoms move almost independently
become free to move past each other as a                                                             of each other and are relatively far apart. The
liquid. In gases the energy of vibration is                                                          behavior of gases and the relationship of the
enough that individual atoms/molecules are                                                           variables influencing them can be described and
free to move independently.                                                                          predicted.




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SC-H-STM-U-6                                     SC-H-STM-S-3                                     SC-HS-1.1.5
Students will understand that elements are       Students will construct and/or interpret         Students will explain the role of
able to form an almost limitless variety of      diagrams that illustrate ionic and covalent      intermolecular or intramolecular
chemical compounds by the sharing or             bonding                                          interactions on the physical properties
exchange of their electrons. The rate at which                                                    (solubility, density, polarity, conductivity,
these combinations occur is influenced by a      SC-H-STM-S-4                                     boiling/melting points) of compounds.
number of variables. The compounds               Students will predict compound formation and     The physical properties of compounds
produced may vary tremendously in their          bond type as either ionic or covalent            reflect the nature of the interactions among
physical and chemical properties.                                                                 molecules. These interactions are
                                                 SC-H-STM-S-5                                     determined by the structure of the
                                                 Students will identify and test variables that   molecule including the constituent atoms.
                                                 affect reaction rates                                                                    DOK 2

                                                 SC-H-STM-S-6                                     SC-HS-1.1.6
                                                 Students will use evidence/data from chemical    Students will:
                                                 reactions to predict the effects of changes in        identify variables that affect
                                                 variables (concentration, temperature,                   reaction rates;
                                                 properties of reactants, surface area and             predict effects of changes in
                                                 catalysts)                                               variables (concentration,
                                                                                                          temperature, properties of
                                                 SC-H-STM-S-10                                            reactants, surface area and
                                                 Students will relate the chemical behavior of            catalysts) based on evidence/data
                                                 an element, including bonding, to its location           from chemical reactions.
                                                 on the periodic table                            Rates of chemical reactions vary. Reaction
                                                                                                  rates depend on concentration,
                                                                                                  temperature and properties of reactants.
                                                                                                  Catalysts speed up chemical reactions.
                                                                                                                                       DOK 3

                                                                                                  SC-HS-1.1.7
                                                                                                  Students will:
                                                                                                      construct diagrams to illustrate
                                                                                                         ionic or covalent bonding;
                                                                                                      predict compound formation and
                                                                                                         bond type as either ionic or
                                                                                                         covalent (polar, nonpolar) and
                                                                                                         represent the products formed with
                                                                                                         simple chemical formulas.



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                                                                                                        Bonds between atoms are created when
                                                                                                        outer electrons are paired by being
                                                                                                        transferred (ionic) or shared (covalent). A
                                                                                                        compound is formed when two or more
                                                                                                        kinds of atoms bind together chemically.
                                                                                                                                              DOK 2

SC-H-STM-U-7                                       SC-H-STM-S-11                                        SC-HS-1.1.8
Students will understand that chemical             Students will relate the structure of water to its   Students will:
reactions have a variety of essential real-world   function as the universal solvent                          explain the importance of chemical
applications, such as oxidation and various                                                                      reactions in a real-world context;
metabolic processes.                               SC-H-STM-S-14                                              justify conclusions using
                                                   Students will explore real-life applications of a             evidence/data from chemical
                                                   variety of chemical reactions (e.g., acids and                reactions.
                                                   bases, oxidation, rusting, tarnishing) and           Chemical reactions (e.g., acids and bases,
                                                   communicate findings/present evidence in an          oxidation, combustion of fuels, rusting,
                                                   authentic form (transactive writing, public          tarnishing) occur all around us and in every
                                                   speaking, multimedia presentations)                  cell in our bodies. These reactions may
                                                                                                        release or absorb energy.
                                                                                                                                                DOK 3

SC-H-STM-U-8                                       SC-H-STM-S-7                                         SC-HS-1.1.6
 Students will understand that a system may        Students will explore the relationships among        Students will:
stay the same because nothing is happening         temperature, particle number, pressure and                identify variables that affect
or because things are happening but exactly        volume in the Universal Gas Law                              reaction rates;
counterbalance one another.                                                                                  predict effects of changes in
                                                   SC-H-STM-S-13                                                variables (concentration,
                                                   Students will create and/or interpret graphs                 temperature, properties of
                                                   and equations to depict and analyze patterns                 reactants, surface area and
                                                   of change                                                    catalysts) based on evidence/data
                                                                                                                from chemical reactions.
                                                                                                        Rates of chemical reactions vary. Reaction
                                                                                                        rates depend on concentration,
                                                                                                        temperature and properties of reactants.
                                                                                                        Catalysts speed up chemical reactions.
                                                                                                                                             DOK 3




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SC-H-STM-U-9                                       SC-H-STM-S-15
Students will understand that accurate record-     Students will generate investigable questions
keeping, openness and replication are              and conduct experiments or non-experimental
essential for maintaining credibility with other   research to address them, using evidence to
scientists and society.                            defend conclusions




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Big Idea: Motion and Forces (Physical Science) High School
Whether observing airplanes, baseballs, planets, or people, the motion of all bodies is governed by the same basic rules. At the middle level,
qualitative descriptions of the relationship between forces and motion will provide the foundation for quantitative applications of Newton’s Laws.
These ideas are more fully developed at the high school level along with the use of models to support evidence of motion in abstract or invisible
phenomena such as electromagnetism.

Academic Expectations
2.1   Students understand scientific ways of thinking and working and use those methods to solve real-life problems.
2.2   Students identify, analyze and use patterns such as cycles and trends to understand past and present events and predict possible future events.
2.3   Students identify and analyze systems and the ways their components work together or affect each other.

Program of Studies: Understandings                Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts            Related Core Content for Assessment

SC-H-MF-U-1                                       SC-H-MF-S-1                                        SC-HS-1.2.1
Students will understand that representing and    Students will design and conduct                   Students will:
describing motion in a variety of ways provides   investigations involving the motion of objects          select or construct accurate and
data that can be used to construct                and report the results in a variety of ways                appropriate representations for
explanations and make predictions about real-                                                                motion (visual, graphical and
life phenomena.                                   SC-H-MF-S-2                                                mathematical);
                                                  Students will investigate Newton’s Laws of              defend conclusions/explanations
                                                  Motion and Gravitation. Experimentally test                about the motion of objects and
                                                  inertia and gravitational acceleration                     real-life phenomena from
                                                                                                             evidence/data.
                                                  SC-H-MF-S-3                                        Objects change their motion only when a
                                                  Students will experimentally test conservation     net force is applied. Newton’s Laws of
                                                  of momentum. Use tables, charts and graphs         motion are used to describe the effects of
                                                  in making arguments and claims in oral and         forces on the motion of objects.
                                                  written presentations                              Conservation of mechanical energy and
                                                                                                     conservation of momentum may also be
                                                  SC-H-MF-S-4                                        used to predict motion.
                                                  Students will create and analyze graphs,                                                 DOK 3
                                                  ensuring that they do not misrepresent results
                                                  by using inappropriate scales or by failing to
                                                  specify the axes clearly




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SC-H-MF-U-2                                       SC-H-MF-S-4
Students will understand that the usefulness of   Students will create and analyze graphs,
a model can be tested by comparing its            ensuring that they do not misrepresent results
predictions to actual observations in the real    by using inappropriate scales or by failing to
world. But a close match does not necessarily     specify the axes clearly
mean that the model is the only “true” model or
the only one that would work.                     SC-H-MS-7
                                                  Students will create conceptual and
                                                  mathematical models of motion and test them
                                                  against real-life phenomena

SC-H-MF-U-3                                       SC-H-MF-S-1                                      SC-HS-1.2.1
Students will understand that all motion is       Students will design and conduct                 Students will:
relative to whatever frame of reference is        investigations involving the motion of objects        select or construct accurate and
chosen, for there is no motionless frame from     and report the results in a variety of ways              appropriate representations for
which to judge all motion.                                                                                 motion (visual, graphical and
                                                                                                           mathematical);
                                                                                                        defend conclusions/explanations
                                                                                                           about the motion of objects and
                                                                                                           real-life phenomena from
                                                                                                           evidence/data.
                                                                                                   Objects change their motion only when a
                                                                                                   net force is applied. Newton’s Laws of
                                                                                                   motion are used to describe the effects of
                                                                                                   forces on the motion of objects.
                                                                                                   Conservation of mechanical energy and
                                                                                                   conservation of momentum may also be
                                                                                                   used to predict motion.
                                                                                                                                         DOK 3

SC-H-MF-U-4                                       SC-H-MF-S-1                                      SC-HS-1.2.1
Students will understand that the strength of     Students will design and conduct                 Students will:
the gravitational force between objects is        investigations involving the motion of objects       select or construct accurate and
proportional to the masses and weakens            and report the results in a variety of ways             appropriate representations for
rapidly with increasing distance between them.                                                            motion (visual, graphical and
                                                  SC-H-MF-S-2                                             mathematical);
                                                  Students will investigate Newton’s Laws of           defend conclusions/explanations
                                                  Motion and Gravitation. Experimentally test             about the motion of objects and



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                                                  inertia and gravitational acceleration                     real-life phenomena from
                                                                                                             evidence/data.
                                                  SC-H-MF-S-9                                        Objects change their motion only when a
                                                  Students predict which forces would be             net force is applied. Newton’s Laws of
                                                  predominant in a given system and explain          motion are used to describe the effects of
                                                                                                     forces on the motion of objects.
                                                                                                     Conservation of mechanical energy and
                                                                                                     conservation of momentum may also be
                                                                                                     used to predict motion.
                                                                                                                                          DOK 3

SC-H-MF-U-5                                       SC-H-MF-S-5                                        SC-HS-1.2.2
Students will understand that electricity and     Students will develop investigable questions       Students will:
magnetism are two inseparable aspects of the      that guide explorations of the interrelationship        explain the relationship between
same force (electromagnetism). Moving             between electricity and magnetism                           electricity and magnetism;
electrical charges produce magnetic forces                                                                propose solutions to real life
and moving magnetic fields produce electrical     SC-H-MF-S-6                                                 problems involving
forces. Electrical current is due to the motion   Students will investigate the attraction and                electromagnetism.
of charge and has a specific direction.           repulsion of electrical charges to predict the     Electricity and magnetism are two aspects
                                                  behavior of charged objects                        of a single electromagnetic force. Moving
SC-H-MF-U-6                                                                                          electric charges produce magnetic forces
Students will understand that electromagnetic     SC-H-MF-S-8                                        or “fields” and moving magnets produce
forces acting within and between atoms are        Students will explain why the strength of the      electric forces or “fields”. This idea
vastly stronger than the gravitational forces     nuclear force is responsible for the great         underlies the operation of electric motors
acting between the atoms. At the atomic level,    energy release involved in nuclear reactions       and generators.
electric forces between oppositely charged                                                                                                  DOK 3
electrons and protons hold atoms and              SC-H-MF-S-9
molecules together and thus are involved in all   Students predict which forces would be
chemical reactions. On a larger scale, these      predominant in a given system and explain
forces hold solid and liquid materials together
and act between objects when they are in
contact—as in sticking or sliding friction.




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SC-H-MF-U-7                                      SC-H-MF-S-8                                     SC-HS-1.2.3
Students will understand that the forces that    Students will explain why the strength of the   Students will understand that the electric force
hold the nucleus of an atom together are much    nuclear force is responsible for the great      is a universal force that exists between any
stronger than the electromagnetic force. That    energy release involved in nuclear reactions    two charged objects. Opposite charges attract
is why such great amounts of energy are                                                          while like charges repel.
released from the nuclear reactions in the sun   SC-H-MF-S-9
and other stars.                                 Students predict which forces would be
                                                 predominant in a given system and explain




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Big Idea: The Earth and the Universe (Earth/Space Science)
The Earth system is in a constant state of change. These changes affect life on Earth in many ways. At the high school level, most of the
emphasis is on why these changes occur. An understanding of systems and their interacting components will enable students to evaluate
supporting theories of Earth changes. The use of models and observance of patterns to explain common phenomena is essential to building a
conceptual foundation and supporting ideas with evidence at all levels. Patterns play an important role as students seek to develop a conceptual
understanding of gravity in their world and in the universe. High school is the time to bring all of the ideas together to look at the universe as a
whole. Students will use evidence to evaluate and analyze theories related to the origin of the universe and all components of the universe.

Academic Expectations
2.1   Students understand scientific ways of thinking and working and use those methods to solve real-life problems.
2.2   Students identify, analyze, and use patterns such as cycles and trends to understand past and present events and predict possible future events.
2.3   Students identify and analyze systems and the ways their components work together or affect each other.
2.4   Students use the concept of scale and scientific models to explain the organization and functioning of living and nonliving things and
      predict other characteristics that might be observed.

Program of Studies: Understandings                 Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts            Related Core Content for Assessment

SC-H-EU-U-1                                        SC-H-EU-S-3                                        SC-HS-2.3.1
Students will understand that gravity played an    Students will analyze the supporting evidence      Students will:
essential role in the formation of the universe    for the nebular theory of formation of the solar       explain phenomena (falling objects,
and is one of the fundamental forces that          system                                                     planetary motion, satellite motion)
controls the function of the universe and the                                                                 related to gravity;
systems within it.                                 SC-H-EU-S-4                                            describe the factors that affect
                                                   Students will analyze the supporting evidence              gravitational force.
                                                   for the Big Bang theory of formation of the        Gravity is a universal force that each mass
                                                   universe                                           exerts on every other mass.
                                                                                                                                             DOK 3
                                                   SC-H-EU-S-5
                                                   Students will explain the role of gravity in the   SC-HS-2.3.2
                                                   formation and function of the universe             Students will:
                                                                                                          describe the current scientific
                                                   SC-H-EU-S-6                                               theory of the formation of the
                                                   Students will investigate, describe and                   universe (Big Bang) and its
                                                   document patterns of interaction of matter and            evidence;
                                                   gravity                                                explain the role of gravity in the
                                                                                                             formation of the universe and it’s
                                                                                                             components.
                                                                                                      The current and most widely accepted



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                                                                                                      scientific theory of the mechanism of
                                                                                                      formation of the universe (Big Bang) places
                                                                                                      the origin of the universe at a time between
                                                                                                      10 and 20 billion years ago, when the
                                                                                                      universe began in a hot dense state.
                                                                                                      According to this theory, the universe has
                                                                                                      been expanding since then. Early in the
                                                                                                      history of the universe, the first atoms to
                                                                                                      form were mainly hydrogen and helium.
                                                                                                      Over time, these elements clump together
                                                                                                      by gravitational attraction to form trillions
                                                                                                      of stars.
                                                                                                                                               DOK 2

SC-H-EU-U-2                                        SC-H-EU-S-1                                        SC-HS-2.3.2
Students will understand that current estimates    Students will compare methods used to              Students will:
of the ages of the Earth (4.6 billion years) and   measure the ages of geologic features                   describe the current scientific
the universe (10+ billion years) are based on a                                                               theory of the formation of the
variety of measurement techniques that have        SC-H-EU-S-3                                                universe (Big Bang) and its
unique strengths and limitations. The same         Students will analyze the supporting evidence              evidence;
evidence that establishes the extreme age of       for the nebular theory of formation of the solar        explain the role of gravity in the
the universe also indicates its vastness.          system                                                     formation of the universe and it’s
                                                                                                              components.
                                                   SC-H-EU-S-4                                        The current and most widely accepted
                                                   Students will analyze the supporting evidence      scientific theory of the mechanism of
                                                   for the Big Bang theory of formation of the        formation of the universe (Big Bang) places
                                                   universe                                           the origin of the universe at a time between
                                                                                                      10 and 20 billion years ago, when the
                                                   SC-H-EU-S-8                                        universe began in a hot dense state.
                                                   Students will explain how technological            According to this theory, the universe has
                                                   solutions permit the study of phenomena too        been expanding since then. Early in the
                                                   faint, small, distant or slow to be directly       history of the universe, the first atoms to
                                                   measured                                           form were mainly hydrogen and helium.
                                                                                                      Over time, these elements clump together
                                                                                                      by gravitational attraction to form trillions
                                                                                                      of stars.
                                                                                                                                               DOK 2




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                                                                                                      SC-HS-2.3.6
                                                                                                      Students will:
                                                                                                           compare the limitations/benefits of
                                                                                                               various techniques ( radioactive
                                                                                                               dating, observing rock sequences
                                                                                                               and comparing fossils) for
                                                                                                               estimating geological time;
                                                                                                           justify deductions about age of
                                                                                                               geologic features.
                                                                                                      Techniques used to estimate geological
                                                                                                      time include using radioactive dating,
                                                                                                      observing rock sequences and comparing
                                                                                                      fossils to correlate the rock sequences at
                                                                                                      various locations.
                                                                                                                                             DOK 3

                                                                                                      SC-HS-2.3.5
                                                                                                      Students will understand that the Sun, Earth
                                                                                                      and the rest of the solar system formed
                                                                                                      approximately 4.6 billion years ago from a
                                                                                                      nebular cloud of dust and gas.

SC-H-EU-U-3                                        SC-H-EU-S-5                                        SC-HS-2.3.3
Students will understand that stars have cycles    Students will explain the role of gravity in the   Students will explain the origin of the
of birth and death, and the lives of large stars   formation and function of the universe             heavy elements in planetary objects
end in explosions that provide the elements to                                                        (planets, stars).
create new stars and planets. All living things    SC-H-EU-S-7                                        Some stars explode at the end of their
on Earth are also formed from this recycled        Students will describe the life cycle of stars     lives, and the heavy elements they have
matter.                                            and the products/consequences of their deaths      created are blasted out into space to form
                                                                                                      the next generation of stars and planets.
                                                                                                                                              DOK 2

                                                                                                      SC-HS-2.3.4
                                                                                                      Students will understand that stars have life
                                                                                                      cycles of birth through death that are
                                                                                                      analogous to those of living organisms. During
                                                                                                      their lifetimes, stars generate energy from
                                                                                                      nuclear fusion reactions that create
                                                                                                      successively heavier chemical elements.



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SC-H-EU-U-4                                        SC-H-EU-S-4                                     SC-HS-2.3.2
Students will understand that the speed of light   Students will analyze the supporting evidence   Students will:
is dwarfed by the vastness of the universe,        for the Big Bang theory of formation of the          describe the current scientific
resulting in the human view of the sky being       universe                                                theory of the formation of the
essentially a “look back in time” as we view                                                               universe (Big Bang) and its
light that was emitted long in the past and has    SC-H-EU-S-8                                             evidence;
been traveling across the cosmos to reach          Students will explain how technological              explain the role of gravity in the
Earth.                                             solutions permit the study of phenomena too             formation of the universe and it’s
                                                   faint, small, distant or slow to be directly            components.
                                                   measured                                        The current and most widely accepted
                                                                                                   scientific theory of the mechanism of
                                                   SC-H-EU-S-9                                     formation of the universe (Big Bang) places
                                                   Students will employ scientific notation to     the origin of the universe at a time between
                                                   communicate and compare astronomical            10 and 20 billion years ago, when the
                                                   phenomena                                       universe began in a hot dense state.
                                                                                                   According to this theory, the universe has
                                                                                                   been expanding since then. Early in the
                                                                                                   history of the universe, the first atoms to
                                                                                                   form were mainly hydrogen and helium.
                                                                                                   Over time, these elements clump together
                                                                                                   by gravitational attraction to form trillions
                                                                                                   of stars.
                                                                                                                                            DOK 2

SC-H-EU-U-5                                        SC-H-EU-S-2                                     SC-HS-2.3.7
Students will understand that the shape and        Students will research the historical rise in   Students will:
location of the continents have been gradually     acceptance of the theory of Plate Tectonics         explain real-life phenomena caused
changing for millions of years because density     and the geological/biological consequences of           by the convection of the Earth’s
differences inside the mantle result in            plate movement                                          mantle;
convection currents. These changes, as well                                                            predict the consequences of this
as more rapid ones (e.g. earthquakes,                                                                      motion on humans and other living
volcanoes, tsunamis) can impact living                                                                     things on the planet.
organisms.                                                                                         The outward transfer of Earth’s internal
                                                                                                   heat drives convection circulation in the
                                                                                                   mantle. This causes the crustal plates to
                                                                                                   move on the face of the Earth.
                                                                                                                                          DOK 3




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                                                                                                 SC-HS-2.3.8
                                                                                                 Students will predict consequences of both
                                                                                                 rapid (volcanoes, earthquakes) and slow
                                                                                                 (mountain building, plate movement) earth
                                                                                                 processes from evidence/data and justify
                                                                                                 reasoning.
                                                                                                 The Earth’s surface is dynamic;
                                                                                                 earthquakes and volcanic eruptions can be
                                                                                                 observed on a human time scale, but many
                                                                                                 processes, such as mountain building and
                                                                                                 plate movements, take place over hundreds
                                                                                                 of millions of years.
                                                                                                                                      DOK 3

SC-H-EU-U-6                                   SC-H-EU-S-3
Students will understand that mathematical    Students will analyze the supporting evidence
models and computer simulations are used in   for the nebular theory of formation of the solar
studying evidence from many sources to form   system
a scientific account of the universe.
                                              SC-H-EU-S-4
                                              Students will analyze the supporting evidence
                                              for the Big Bang theory of formation of the
                                              universe

                                              SC-H-EU-S-8
                                              Students will explain how technological
                                              solutions permit the study of phenomena too
                                              faint, small, distant or slow to be directly
                                              measured

                                              SC-H-EU-S-9
                                              Students will employ scientific notation to
                                              communicate and compare astronomical
                                              phenomena




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SC-H-EU-U-7                                        SC-H-EU-S-8                                       SC-HS-2.3.6
Students will understand that scientists rely on   Students will explain how technological           Students will:
increasingly sophisticated methods of              solutions permit the study of phenomena too            compare the limitations/benefits of
measurement in order to investigate a variety      faint, small, distant or slow to be directly               various techniques ( radioactive
of phenomena that were previously                  measured                                                   dating, observing rock sequences
immeasurable.                                                                                                 and comparing fossils) for
                                                   SC-H-EU-S-9                                                estimating geological time;
                                                   Students will employ scientific notation to            justify deductions about age of
                                                   communicate and compare astronomical                       geologic features.
                                                   phenomena                                         Techniques used to estimate geological
                                                                                                     time include using radioactive dating,
                                                                                                     observing rock sequences and comparing
                                                                                                     fossils to correlate the rock sequences at
                                                                                                     various locations.
                                                                                                                                            DOK 3

SC-H-EU-U-8                                        SC-H-EU-S-10
Students will understand that curiosity,           Students will explore real-life implications of
honesty, openness and skepticism are highly        current findings in Earth/space research and
regarded in science, and are incorporated into     communicate findings in an authentic form,
the way science is carried out.                    exemplifying the traits of curiosity, honesty,
                                                   openness and skepticism




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Big Idea: Unity and Diversity (Biological Science) High School
All matter is comprised of the same basic elements, goes through the same kinds of energy transformations, and uses the same kinds of forces to
move. Living organisms are no exception. At the high school level, an in-depth study of the specialization and chemical changes occurring at the
cellular level builds upon the foundational ideas developed earlier to investigate deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and effects of alterations in DNA for
an individual organism as well as for a species. Emphasis at every level should be placed upon the understanding that while every living thing is
composed of similar small constituents that combine in predictable ways, it is the subtle variations within these small building blocks that account
for both the likenesses and differences in form and function that create the diversity of life.

Academic Expectations
2.1   Students understand scientific ways of thinking and working and use those methods to solve real-life problems.
2.3   Students identify and analyze systems and the ways their components work together or affect each other.
2.4   Students use the concept of scale and scientific models to explain the organization and functioning of living and nonliving things and
      predict other characteristics that might be observed.
2.5   Students understand that under certain conditions nature tends to remain the same or move toward a balance.

Program of Studies: Understandings                  Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts              Related Core Content for Assessment

SC-H-UD-U-1                                         SC-H-UD-S-1                                          SC-HS-3.4.2
Students will understand that the many body         Students will analyze the parts within a cell        Students will understand that most cell
cells in an individual can be very different from   responsible for particular processes and create      functions involve chemical reactions. Food
one another even though they are all                analogous models for those processes                 molecules taken into cells react to provide the
descended from a single cell and thus have                                                               chemical constituents needed to synthesize
essentially identical genetic instructions.         SC-H-UD-S-2                                          other molecules. Both breakdown and
Different parts of the instructions are used in     Students will identify a variety of specialized      synthesis are made possible by a large set of
different types of cells.                           cell types and describe how these                    protein catalysts, called enzymes. The
                                                    differentiated cells contribute to the function of   breakdown of some of the food molecules
                                                    an individual organism as a whole                    enables the cell to store energy in specific
                                                                                                         chemicals that are used to carry out the many
                                                                                                         functions of the cell

                                                                                                         SC-HS-3.4.4
                                                                                                         Students will understand that plant cells
                                                                                                         contain chloroplasts, the site of
                                                                                                         photosynthesis. Plants and many
                                                                                                         microorganisms (e.g., Euglena) use solar
                                                                                                         energy to combine molecules of carbon
                                                                                                         dioxide and water into complex, energy-rich
                                                                                                         organic compounds and release oxygen to the



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                                                                                                       environment. This process of photosynthesis
                                                                                                       provides a vital link between the Sun and
                                                                                                       energy needs of living systems.

                                                                                                       SC-HS-3.4.8
                                                                                                       Students will understand that multicellular
                                                                                                       animals have nervous systems that generate
                                                                                                       behavior. Nerve cells communicate with each
                                                                                                       other by secreting specific molecules.
                                                                                                       Specialized cells in sense organs detect light,
                                                                                                       sound and specific chemicals enabling animals
                                                                                                       to monitor what is going on in the world around
                                                                                                       them.

SC-H-UD-U-2                                       SC-H-UD-S-2                                          SC-HS-3.4.3
Students will understand that within every cell   Students will identify a variety of specialized      Students will:
are specialized parts for the transport of        cell types and describe how these                         describe cell regulation (enzyme
materials, energy transfer, protein building,     differentiated cells contribute to the function of           function, diffusion, osmosis,
waste disposal, information feedback and even     an individual organism as a whole                            homeostasis);
movement. In addition, most cells in multi-                                                                 predict consequences of
cellular organisms perform specialized            SC-H-UD-S-7                                                  internal/external environmental
functions that others do not.                     Students will describe and classify a variety of             change on cell function/regulation.
                                                  chemical reactions required for cell functions       Cell functions are regulated. Regulation
                                                                                                       occurs both through changes in the activity
                                                  SC-H-UD-S-8                                          of the functions performed by proteins and
                                                  Students will describe the processes by which        through selective expression of individual
                                                  cells maintain their internal environments within    genes. This regulation allows cells to
                                                  acceptable limits                                    respond to their internal and external
                                                                                                       environments and to control and
                                                                                                       coordinate cell growth and division.
                                                                                                                                              DOK 2




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SC-H-UD-U-3                                       SC-H-UD-S-6                                       SC-HS-3.4.1
Students will understand that DNA, composed       Students will describe the structure of DNA       Students will explain the role of DNA in
of 4 nucleic acids, serves as the blueprint for   and explain its role in protein synthesis, cell   protein synthesis.
the production of a variety of proteins. These    replication and reproduction                      Cells store and use information to guide
dynamic and complicated proteins facilitate                                                         their functions. The genetic information
practically every function/process that occurs                                                      stored in DNA directs the synthesis of the
within the cell.                                                                                    thousands of proteins that each cell
                                                                                                    requires. Errors that may occur during this
                                                                                                    process may result in mutations that may
                                                                                                    be harmful to the organism.
                                                                                                                                          DOK 3

SC-H-UD-U-4                                       SC-H-UD-S-3                                       SC-HS-3.4.5
Students will understand that the information     Students will investigate the role of             Students will:
passed from parents to offspring is coded in      genes/chromosomes in the passing of                    explain the relationship between
DNA molecules. The sorting and                    information from one generation to another                sexual reproduction (meiosis) and
recombination of genes through sexual             (heredity)                                                the transmission of genetic
reproduction results in a great variety of gene                                                             information;
combinations that can be used to make             SC-H-UD-S-4                                            draw conclusions/make predictions
predictions about the potential traits of         Students will graphically represent (e.g.,                based on hereditary evidence/data
offspring.                                        pedigrees, punnet squares) and predict the                (pedigrees, punnet squares).
                                                  outcomes of a variety of genetic combinations     Multicellular organisms, including humans,
                                                                                                    form from cells that contain two copies of
                                                                                                    each chromosome. This explains many
                                                                                                    features of heredity. Transmission of
                                                                                                    genetic information through sexual
                                                                                                    reproduction to offspring occurs when
                                                                                                    male and female gametes, that contain only
                                                                                                    one representative from each chromosome
                                                                                                    pair, unite.
                                                                                                                                          DOK 3

SC-H-UD-U-5                                       SC-H-UD-S-3                                       SC-HS-3.4.1
Students will understand that some new gene       Students will investigate the role of             Students will explain the role of DNA in
combinations make little difference, some can     genes/chromosomes in the passing of               protein synthesis.
produce offspring with new and perhaps            information from one generation to another        Cells store and use information to guide
enhanced capabilities, while some may reduce      (heredity)                                        their functions. The genetic information
the ability of the offspring to survive.                                                            stored in DNA directs the synthesis of the



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                                                   SC-H-UD-S-5                                       thousands of proteins that each cell
                                                   Students will investigate the roles of genetic    requires. Errors that may occur during this
                                                   mutation and variability in contributing to the   process may result in mutations that may
                                                   survival of offspring                             be harmful to the organism.
                                                                                                                                          DOK 3
                                                   SC-H-UD-S-11
                                                   Students will identify and investigate areas of
                                                   current research/innovation in biological
                                                   science. Make inferences/predictions of the
                                                   effects of this research on society and/or the
                                                   environment and support or defend these
                                                   predictions with scientific data

SC-H-UD-U-6                                        SC-H-UD-S-9                                       SC-HS-3.4.7
Students will understand that the degree of        Students will compare internal, external and      Students will:
kinship between organisms or species can be        metabolic characteristics of organisms in order        classify organisms into groups
estimated from the similarity of their DNA         to classify them into groups using taxonomic               based on similarities;
sequences, which often closely matches their       nomenclature to describe and justify these             infer relationships based on internal
classification based on anatomical similarities.   classifications                                            and external structures and
                                                                                                              chemical processes.
                                                                                                     Biological classifications are based on how
                                                                                                     organisms are related. Organisms are
                                                                                                     classified into a hierarchy of groups and
                                                                                                     subgroups based on similarities that reflect
                                                                                                     their relationships. Species is the most
                                                                                                     fundamental unit of classification. Different
                                                                                                     species are classified by the comparison
                                                                                                     and analysis of their internal and external
                                                                                                     structures and the similarity of their
                                                                                                     chemical processes.
                                                                                                                                            DOK 2




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SC-H-UD-U-7                                         SC-H-UD-S-10                                       SC-HS-3.4.6
Students will understand that in all organisms      Students will compare the structures and           Students will understand that in all organisms
and viruses, the instructions for specifying the    functions of viruses to cells and describe the     and viruses, the instructions for specifying the
characteristics are carried in nucleic acids. The   role of viruses in causing a variety of diseases   characteristics are carried in nucleic acids. The
chemical and structural properties of nucleic       or conditions (e.g., AIDS, common cold,            chemical and structural properties of nucleic
acids determine how the genetic information         smallpox, warts)                                   acids determine how the genetic information
that underlies heredity is both encoded in                                                             that underlies heredity is both encoded in
genes and replicated.                                                                                  genes and replicated.




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Big Idea: Biological Change (Biological Science) High School
The only thing certain is that everything changes. At the high school level, students evaluate the role natural selection plays in the diversity of
species. Modern ideas of evolution provide a scientific explanation for three main sets of observable facts about life on Earth: the enormous
number of different life forms we see about us, the systematic similarities in anatomy and molecular chemistry we see within that diversity, and the
sequence of changes in fossils found in successive layers of rock that have been formed over more than a billion years.

Academic Expectations
2.1   Students understand scientific ways of thinking and working and use those methods to solve real-life problems.
2.2   Students identify, analyze, and use patterns such as cycles and trends to understand past and present events and predict possible future events.
2.5   Students understand that under certain conditions nature tends to remain the same or move toward a balance.
2.6   Students understand how living and nonliving things change over time and the factors that influence the changes.

Program of Studies: Understandings                  Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts            Related Core Content for Assessment

SC-H-BC-U-1                                         SC-H-BC-S-2                                        SC-HS-3.5.1
Students will understand that the survival of       Students will explain the role of natural          Students will:
any given species is not assured. There are a       selection in speciation, adaptation, diversity           predict the impact on species of
variety of factors (e.g. reproductive success,      and phylogeny                                               changes to 1) the potential for a
mutation, availability of resources, competition)                                                               species to increase its numbers, (2)
that may determine if a species flourishes,         SC-H-BC-S-3                                                 the genetic variability of offspring
declines, or eventually becomes extinct.            Students will compare variations, tolerances                due to mutation and recombination
                                                    and adaptations (behavioral and physiological)              of genes, (3) a finite supply of the
                                                    of plants and animals in different biomes                   resources required for life, or (4)
                                                                                                                natural selection;
                                                    SC-H-BC-S-5                                              propose solutions to real-world
                                                    Students will predict the likelihood of survival            problems of endangered and extinct
                                                    for a variety of existing species based upon                species.
                                                    predicted changes in environmental conditions      Species change over time. Biological
                                                    (e.g., global warming, continental drift) and      change over time is the consequence of the
                                                    propose methods to prevent the extinction of       interactions of (1) the potential for a
                                                    species with insufficient ability to adapt         species to increase its numbers, (2) the
                                                                                                       genetic variability of offspring due to
                                                                                                       mutation and recombination of genes, (3) a
                                                                                                       finite supply of the resources required for
                                                                                                       life and (4) natural selection. The
                                                                                                       consequences of change over time provide
                                                                                                       a scientific explanation for the fossil record
                                                                                                       of ancient life forms and for the striking



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                                                                                                   molecular similarities observed among the
                                                                                                   diverse species of living organisms.
                                                                                                   Changes in DNA (mutations) occur
                                                                                                   spontaneously at low rates. Some of these
                                                                                                   changes make no difference to the
                                                                                                   organism, whereas others can change cells
                                                                                                   and organisms. Only mutations in germ
                                                                                                   cells have the potential to create the
                                                                                                   variation that changes an organism’s future
                                                                                                   offspring.
                                                                                                                                          DOK 3

SC-H-BC-U-2                                         SC-H-BC-S-1                                    SC-HS-3.5.1
Students will understand that the Earth’s           Students will identify evidence of change in   Students will:
present-day species developed from earlier,         species using fossils, DNA sequences,                predict the impact on species of
distinctly different species through a process of   anatomical similarities, physiological                  changes to 1) the potential for a
natural selection. All living things share a        similarities and embryology                             species to increase its numbers, (2)
common genetic heritage.                                                                                    the genetic variability of offspring
                                                                                                            due to mutation and recombination
                                                                                                            of genes, (3) a finite supply of the
                                                                                                            resources required for life, or (4)
                                                                                                            natural selection;
                                                                                                         propose solutions to real-world
                                                                                                            problems of endangered and extinct
                                                                                                            species.
                                                                                                   Species change over time. Biological
                                                                                                   change over time is the consequence of the
                                                                                                   interactions of (1) the potential for a
                                                                                                   species to increase its numbers, (2) the
                                                                                                   genetic variability of offspring due to
                                                                                                   mutation and recombination of genes, (3) a
                                                                                                   finite supply of the resources required for
                                                                                                   life and (4) natural selection. The
                                                                                                   consequences of change over time provide
                                                                                                   a scientific explanation for the fossil record
                                                                                                   of ancient life forms and for the striking
                                                                                                   molecular similarities observed among the
                                                                                                   diverse species of living organisms.
                                                                                                   Changes in DNA (mutations) occur



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                                                                                                      spontaneously at low rates. Some of these
                                                                                                      changes make no difference to the
                                                                                                      organism, whereas others can change cells
                                                                                                      and organisms. Only mutations in germ
                                                                                                      cells have the potential to create the
                                                                                                      variation that changes an organism’s future
                                                                                                      offspring.
                                                                                                                                             DOK 3

SC-H-BC-U-3                                        SC-H-BC-S-3                                        SC-HS-3.5.2
Students will understand that some organisms       Students will compare variations, tolerances       Students will:
have greater adaptive capabilities than others,    and adaptations (behavioral and physiological)          predict the success of patterns of
giving them a greater chance of survival under     of plants and animals in different biomes                 adaptive behaviors based on
changing environmental conditions. These                                                                     evidence/data;
adaptations may be patterns of behavior as         SC-H-BC-S-5                                             justify explanations of organism
well as physical characteristics.                  Students will predict the likelihood of survival          survival based on scientific
                                                   for a variety of existing species based upon              understandings of behavior.
                                                   predicted changes in environmental conditions      The broad patterns of behavior exhibited
                                                   (e.g., global warming, continental drift) and      by organisms have changed over time
                                                   propose methods to prevent the extinction of       through natural selection to ensure
                                                   species with insufficient ability to adapt         reproductive success. Organisms often live
                                                                                                      in unpredictable environments, so their
                                                                                                      behavioral responses must be flexible
                                                                                                      enough to deal with uncertainty and
                                                                                                      change. Behaviors often have an adaptive
                                                                                                      logic.
                                                                                                                                           DOK 3

SC-H-BC-U-4                                        SC-H-BC-S-4                                        SC-HS-3.5.1
Students will understand that the                  Students will generate possible solutions to       Students will:
endangerment/ and/or extinction of a species       real-world problems of endangered and extinct          predict the impact on species of
cannot be slowed or prevented without              species and predict the impact of a variety of            changes to 1) the potential for a
sufficient data to model the interactions of the   change                                                    species to increase its numbers, (2)
factors involved.                                                                                            the genetic variability of offspring
                                                   SC-H-BC-S-6                                               due to mutation and recombination
                                                   Students will distinguish between a scientific            of genes, (3) a finite supply of the
                                                   law, theory, hypothesis and unsupported                   resources required for life, or (4)
                                                   supposition/claim                                         natural selection;
                                                                                                          propose solutions to real-world



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                                                                                                              problems of endangered and extinct
                                                                                                              species.
                                                                                                     Species change over time. Biological
                                                                                                     change over time is the consequence of the
                                                                                                     interactions of (1) the potential for a
                                                                                                     species to increase its numbers, (2) the
                                                                                                     genetic variability of offspring due to
                                                                                                     mutation and recombination of genes, (3) a
                                                                                                     finite supply of the resources required for
                                                                                                     life and (4) natural selection. The
                                                                                                     consequences of change over time provide
                                                                                                     a scientific explanation for the fossil record
                                                                                                     of ancient life forms and for the striking
                                                                                                     molecular similarities observed among the
                                                                                                     diverse species of living organisms.
                                                                                                     Changes in DNA (mutations) occur
                                                                                                     spontaneously at low rates. Some of these
                                                                                                     changes make no difference to the
                                                                                                     organism, whereas others can change cells
                                                                                                     and organisms. Only mutations in germ
                                                                                                     cells have the potential to create the
                                                                                                     variation that changes an organism’s future
                                                                                                     offspring.
                                                                                                                                              DOK 3

SC-H-BC-U-5                                         SC-H-BC-S-6
Students will understand that in science the        Students will distinguish between a scientific
term theory is reserved to describe only those      law, theory, hypothesis and unsupported
ideas that have been well tested through            supposition/claim
scientific investigation. Scientific theories are
judged by how well they fit with other theories,    SC-H-BC-S-7
the range of observations they explain, how         Students will investigate the historical
well they explain observations and their            development and revision of a variety of
usefulness in predicting new findings.              accepted scientific laws, theories and claims
Scientific theories usually grow slowly through
contributions from many investigators.




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Big Idea: Energy Transformations (Unifying Concepts) High School
Energy transformations are inherent in almost every system in the universe—from tangible examples at the elementary level, such as heat
production in simple Earth and physical systems to more abstract ideas beginning at middle school, such as those transformations involved in the
growth, dying and decay of living systems. The use of models to illustrate the often invisible and abstract notions of energy transfer will aid in
conceptualization, especially as students move from the macroscopic level of observation and evidence (primarily elementary school) to the
microscopic interactions at the atomic level (middle and high school levels). Students in high school expand their understanding of constancy
through the study of a variety of phenomena. Conceptual understanding and application of the laws of thermodynamics connect ideas about
matter with energy transformations within all living, physical and Earth systems.

Academic Expectations
2.1   Students understand scientific ways of thinking and working and use those methods to solve real-life problems.
2.2   Students identify, analyze, and use patterns such as cycles and trends to understand past and present events and predict possible future events.
2.3   Students identify and analyze systems and the ways their components work together or affect each other.
2.4   Students use the concept of scale and scientific models to explain the organization and functioning of living and nonliving things and
      predict other characteristics that might be observed.
2.5   Students understand that under certain conditions nature tends to remain the same or move toward a balance.

Program of Studies: Understandings                Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts            Related Core Content for Assessment

SC-H-ET-U-1                                       SC-H-ET-S-1                                        SC-HS-4.6.11
Students will understand that transformations     Students will classify and describe nuclear        Students will:
that occur within the nuclei of atoms release     reactions and their products                            explain the difference between
vastly greater energy than those that involve                                                                alpha and beta decay, fission and
only electrons, and result in the emission of     SC-H-ET-S-2                                                fusion;
radiation and/or transformation of elements.      Students will investigate the forces inside the         identify the relationship between
                                                  nucleus and evaluate the risk/benefits of                  nuclear reactions and energy.
                                                  nuclear energy                                     Nuclear reactions convert a fraction of the
                                                                                                     mass of interacting particles into energy,
                                                                                                     and they can release much greater
                                                                                                     amounts of energy than atomic
                                                                                                     interactions. Fission is the splitting of a
                                                                                                     large nucleus into smaller pieces. Fusion is
                                                                                                     the joining of two nuclei at extremely high
                                                                                                     temperature and pressure. Fusion is the
                                                                                                     process responsible for the energy of the
                                                                                                     Sun and other stars.
                                                                                                                                             DOK 2




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                                                                                                    SC-HS-4.6.12
                                                                                                    Students will understand that the forces that
                                                                                                    hold the nucleus together, at nuclear
                                                                                                    distances, are usually stronger than the forces
                                                                                                    that would make it fly apart.

SC-H-ET-U-2                                       SC-H-ET-S-9                                       SC-HS-4.6.1
Students will understand that while the total     Students will apply the concept of entropy to     Students will:
amount of energy in the universe is constant,     molecular interactions and to interactions              explain the relationships and
the amount that is available for useful           within the universe                                       connections between matter,
transformations is always decreasing. Systems                                                               energy, living systems and the
within the universe will cease to function once                                                             physical environment;
the energy differential becomes zero.                                                                     give examples of conservation of
                                                                                                            matter and energy.
                                                                                                    As matter and energy flow through different
                                                                                                    organizational levels (e.g., cells, organs,
                                                                                                    organisms, communities) and between
                                                                                                    living systems and the physical
                                                                                                    environment, chemical elements are
                                                                                                    recombined in different ways. Each
                                                                                                    recombination results in storage and
                                                                                                    dissipation of energy into the environment
                                                                                                    as heat. Matter and energy are conserved
                                                                                                    in each change.
                                                                                                                                            DOK 3

SC-H-ET-U-3                                       SC-H-ET-S-4                                       SC-HS-4.6.2
Students will understand that waves, including    Students will investigate waves, the rules        Students will:
electromagnetic radiation, are an important       describing wave behavior and energy transfer           predict wave behavior and energy
form of energy transfer. Waves are governed       via waves in real life phenomena (e.g., nuclear          transfer;
by rules that can be investigated and used to     medicine, industrial applications)                     apply knowledge of waves to real
predict/explain their behavior.                                                                            life phenomena/investigations.
                                                                                                    Waves, including sound and seismic
                                                                                                    waves, waves on water and
                                                                                                    electromagnetic waves, can transfer energy
                                                                                                    when they interact with matter. Apparent
                                                                                                    changes in frequency can provide
                                                                                                    information about relative motion.
                                                                                                                                         DOK 3



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                                                                                                 SC-HS-4.6.3
                                                                                                 Students will understand that electromagnetic
                                                                                                 waves, including radio waves, microwaves,
                                                                                                 infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet
                                                                                                 radiation, x-rays and gamma rays result when
                                                                                                 a charged object is accelerated.

SC-H-ET-U-4                                   SC-H-ET-S-3                                        SC-HS-4.6.4
Students will understand that many elements   Students will apply the law of conservation of     Students will:
and compounds are involved in continuous      energy and explore heat flow in real-life               describe the components and
cyclic processes where they are stored by     phenomena                                                  reservoirs involved in
and/or flow between organisms and the                                                                    biogeochemical cycles ( water,
environment. These processes require a        SC-H-ET-S-5                                                nitrogen, carbon dioxide and
continuous supply of energy to occur.         Students will investigate the flow of matter and           oxygen);
                                              energy between organisms and the                        explain the movement of matter and
                                              environment and model the cyclic nature of                 energy in biogeochemical cycles
                                              this process                                               and related phenomena.
                                                                                                 The total energy of the universe is
                                                                                                 constant. Energy can change forms and/or
                                                                                                 be transferred in many ways, but it can
                                                                                                 neither be created nor destroyed.
                                                                                                 Movement of matter between reservoirs is
                                                                                                 driven by Earth’s internal and external
                                                                                                 sources of energy. These movements are
                                                                                                 often accompanied by a change in physical
                                                                                                 and chemical properties of the matter.
                                                                                                 Carbon, for example, occurs in carbonate
                                                                                                 rocks such as limestone, in the atmosphere
                                                                                                 as carbon dioxide gas, in water as
                                                                                                 dissolved carbon dioxide and in all
                                                                                                 organisms as complex molecules that
                                                                                                 control the chemistry of life.
                                                                                                                                       DOK 3




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SC-H-ET-U-5                                      SC-H-ET-S-6                                      SC-HS-4.6.10
Students will understand that radiant energy     Students will explain the metabolic process of   Students will:
from the sun is stored in a chemical form in     photosynthesis and describe the molecules it          identify the components and
plants as a result of photosynthesis. This       assembles to store solar energy                          mechanisms of energy stored and
energy transformation allows plants to use                                                                released from food molecules
simple molecules, such as carbon dioxide and                                                              (photosynthesis and respiration);
water, to assemble the complex molecules         SC-H-ET-S-7                                           apply information to real-world
needed to increase their mass.                   Students will describe the metabolic processes           situations.
                                                 that allow energy stored in food to be made      Energy is released when the bonds of food
SC-H-ET-U-6                                      available to the organism                        molecules are broken and new compounds
Students will understand that energy stored in                                                    with lower energy bonds are formed. Cells
food is released by a series of internal                                                          usually store this energy temporarily in the
chemical reactions that reorganize the                                                            phosphate bonds of adenosine
molecules into a form useable by the                                                              triphosphate (ATP). During the process of
organism.                                                                                         cellular respiration, some energy is lost as
                                                                                                  heat.
                                                                                                                                         DOK 3

SC-H-ET-U-7                                      SC-H-ET-S-8                                      SC-HS-4.6.5
Students will understand that a variety of       Students will explore the composition and        Students will describe and explain the role
carbon compounds are essential to the            function of the carbon compounds involved in     of carbon-containing molecules and
processes that occur in all organisms.           metabolism                                       chemical reactions in energy transfer in
                                                                                                  living systems.
                                                                                                  Living systems require a continuous input
                                                                                                  of energy to maintain their chemical and
                                                                                                  physical organization since the universal
                                                                                                  tendency is toward more disorganized
                                                                                                  states. The energy for life primarily derives
                                                                                                  from the Sun. Plants capture energy by
                                                                                                  absorbing light and using it to break
                                                                                                  weaker bonds in reactants (such as carbon
                                                                                                  dioxide and water) in chemical reactions
                                                                                                  that result in the formation of carbon-
                                                                                                  containing molecules. These molecules
                                                                                                  can be used to assemble larger molecules
                                                                                                  (e.g., DNA, proteins, sugars, fats). In
                                                                                                  addition, the energy released when these
                                                                                                  molecules react with oxygen to form very



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                                                                                                     strong bonds can be used as sources of
                                                                                                     energy for life processes.
                                                                                                                                        DOK 3

SC-H-ET-U-8                                       SC-H-ET-S-9                                        SC-HS-4.6.6
Students will understand that heat is a           Students will apply the concept of entropy to      Students will understand that heat is the
manifestation of the random motion and            molecular interactions and to interactions         manifestation of the random motion and
vibrations of atoms or molecules within a         within the universe                                vibrations of atoms.
substance. Interactions between or among
atoms or molecules naturally move toward
states of higher disorder.

SC-H-ET-U-9                                       SC-H-ET-S-11                                       SC-HS-4.6.7
Students will understand that many different      Students will investigate the relationship of      Students will:
sources of energy are used for a variety of       energy input vs. useful energy output in                explain real world applications of
purposes, including powering machines             mechanical systems                                          energy using information/data;
designed to do useful work. Regardless of                                                                 evaluate explanations of
function or energy source, the useful energy                                                                  mechanical systems using current
output of any machine is always less than the                                                                 scientific knowledge about energy.
total energy input.                                                                                  The universe becomes less orderly and
                                                                                                     less organized over time. Thus, the overall
                                                                                                     effect is that the energy is spread out
                                                                                                     uniformly. For example, in the operation of
                                                                                                     mechanical systems, the useful energy
                                                                                                     output is always less than the energy input;
                                                                                                     the difference appears as heat.
                                                                                                                                             DOK 2

SC-H-ET-U-10                                      SC-H-ET-S-10                                       SC-HS-4.6.8
Students will understand that all Earth           Students will analyze a variety of energy          Students will:
systems/processes require either an internal or   sources, their potential uses and their relative        describe the connections between
external source of energy to function. Changes    costs/benefits                                             the functioning of the Earth system
to any component, or to the quantity or type of                                                              and its sources of energy (internal
energy input, may influence all components of     SC-H-ET-S-12                                               and external);
the system.                                       Students will model and explain the                     predict the consequences of
                                                  relationships and energy flow existing in                  changes to any component of the
                                                  various Earth systems                                      Earth system.
                                                                                                     Earth systems have sources of energy that
                                                                                                     are internal and external to the Earth. The



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                                                                                                   Sun is the major external source of energy.
                                                                                                   Two primary sources of internal energy are
                                                                                                   the decay of radioactive isotopes and the
                                                                                                   gravitational energy from Earth’s original
                                                                                                   formation.
                                                                                                                                         DOK 3

SC-H-ET-U-11                                       SC-H-ET-S-12                                    SC-HS-4.6.9
Students will understand that weather and          Students will model and explain the             Students will:
climate are the direct or indirect result of       relationships and energy flow existing in            explain the cause and effect
transfer of solar energy, and changes in one       various Earth systems                                   relationship between global climate
part of the system may influence all of the                                                                and weather patterns and energy
others. The complexity of the system and the       SC-H-ET-S-13                                            transfer (cloud cover, location of
number of variables involved requires very         Students will use weather data to model the             mountain ranges, oceans);
complex mathematical models in order to            complex interactions responsible for weather         predict the consequences of
make accurate predictions.                         and climate                                             changes to the global climate and
                                                                                                           weather patterns.
                                                                                                   Global climate is determined by energy
                                                                                                   transfer from the Sun at and near Earth’s
                                                                                                   surface. This energy transfer is influenced
                                                                                                   by dynamic processes such as cloud cover
                                                                                                   and the Earth’s rotation and static
                                                                                                   conditions such as the position of mountain
                                                                                                   ranges and oceans.
                                                                                                                                           DOK 3

SC-H-ET-U-12                                       SC-H-ET-S-14
Students will understand that technological        Students will describe how science and
problems often create a demand for new             technology interact. Research and investigate
scientific knowledge, and new technologies         the impact of technology on society and how
make it possible for scientists to conduct their   technological advances have driven scientific
research more effectively or to conduct new        research
lines of research. The availability of new
technology often sparks scientific advances.       SC-H-ET-S-15
                                                   Students will describe how science and
SC-H-ET-U-13                                       technology interact. Research and investigate
Students will understand that technology           the impact of technology on society and how
affects society because it solves practical        technological advances have driven scientific
problems and serves human needs. Science           research



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affects society by stimulating thought or
satisfying curiosity, or by influencing views of
the world, or by providing knowledge
necessary for new technological advances.




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Big Idea: Interdependence (Unifying Concepts) High School
It is not difficult for students to grasp the general notion that species depend on one another and on the environment for survival. But their
awareness must be supported by knowledge of the kinds of relationships that exist among organisms, the kinds of physical conditions that
organisms must cope with, the kinds of environments created by the interaction of organisms with one another and their physical surroundings,
and the complexity of such systems At the high school level, the concept of an ecosystem should bring coherence to the complex array of
relationships among organisms and environments that students have encountered. Students growing understanding of systems in general will
reinforce the concept of ecosystems. Stability and change in ecosystems can be considered in terms of variables such as population size, number
and kinds of species, productivity and the effect of human intervention.

Academic Expectations
2.1   Students understand scientific ways of thinking and working and use those methods to solve real-life problems.
2.2   Students identify, analyze, and use patterns such as cycles and trends to understand past and present events and predict possible future events.
2.3   Students identify and analyze systems and the ways their components work together or affect each other.
2.4   Students use the concept of scale and scientific models to explain the organization and functioning of living and nonliving things and
      predict other characteristics that might be observed.

Program of Studies: Understandings                     Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts         Related Core Content for Assessment

SC-H-I-U-1                                             SC-H-I-S-1                                     SC-HS-4.7.2
Students will understand that human beings             Students will explore ways to eradicate or     Students will:
are part of the Earth’s ecosystems. Human              lessen environmental problems caused by             evaluate proposed solutions from
activities can, deliberately or inadvertently, alter   human interaction (e.g., examine programs for           multiple perspectives to
the equilibrium in ecosystems.                         habitat restoration or wildlife protection,             environmental problems caused by
                                                       automotive/industrial emissions standards)              human interaction;
SC-H-I-U-2                                                                                                 justify positions using
Students will understand that unique among             SC-H-I-S-5                                              evidence/data.
organisms, humans have the capability to               Students will analyze examples of              Human beings live within the world's
impact other species on a global scale both            environmental changes resulting from the       ecosystems. Human activities can
directly (e.g. selective breeding, genetic             introduction, removal, or reintroductions of   deliberately or inadvertently alter the
engineering, foreign species introductions) and        indigenous or non-indigenous species to an     dynamics in ecosystems. These activities
indirectly (e.g. habitat crowding, pollution,          ecosystem. Use information to predict future   can threaten current and future global
climate change).                                       impacts of similar changes in other ecosystems stability and, if not addressed, ecosystems
                                                                                                      can be irreversibly affected.
                                                       SC-H-I-S-7
                                                                                                                                              DOK 3
                                                       Students will explore the causes,
                                                       consequences and possible solutions to
                                                       persistent, contemporary and emerging global
                                                       issues relating to environmental quality




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SC-H-I-U-3                                             SC-H-I-S-3                                           SC-HS-4.7.3
Students will understand that the appearance           Students will analyze and describe the effects       Students will:
of new species always impacts the                      of events (e.g., fires, hurricanes, deforestation,        predict the consequences of
environment. In some cases this impact can             mining, population growth and municipal                      changes to any component
have global and profound significance (e.g.            development) on environments from a variety                  (atmosphere, solid Earth, oceans,
when ancient bacteria transformed the                  of perspectives. Use data to propose ways of                 living things) of the Earth System;
atmosphere to an oxygen-rich environment).             lessening impacts perceived as negative                   propose justifiable solutions to
                                                                                                                    global problems.
                                                                                                            Interactions among the solid Earth, the
                                                                                                            oceans, the atmosphere and living things
                                                                                                            have resulted in the ongoing development
                                                                                                            of a changing Earth system.
                                                                                                                                                    DOK 3
                                                                                                            SC-HS-4.7.4
                                                                                                            Students will understand that evidence for one-
                                                                                                            celled forms of life, the bacteria, extends back
                                                                                                            more than 3.5 billion years. The changes in life
                                                                                                            over time caused dramatic changes in the
                                                                                                            composition of the Earth’s atmosphere, which
                                                                                                            did not originally contain oxygen.

SC-H-I-U-4                                             SC-H-I-S-2                                           SC-HS-4.7.1
Students will understand that every ecosystem          Students will investigate changes in                 Students will:
contains natural checks and balances, both             ecosystems and propose potential solutions to             analyze relationships and
biotic and abiotic, that serve to limit the size and   problems by documenting and communicating                     interactions among organisms in
range of the populations contained within it.          solutions to others through multi-media                       ecosystems;
                                                       presentations                                             predict the effects on other
                                                                                                                     organisms of changes to one or
                                                       SC-H-I-S-4                                                    more components of the ecosystem.
                                                       Students will examine existing models of global      Organisms both cooperate and compete in
                                                       population growth and the factors affecting          ecosystems. Often changes in one
                                                       population change (e.g., geography, diseases,        component of an ecosystem will have effects
                                                       natural events, birth/death rates). Propose and      on the entire system that are difficult to
                                                       defend solutions to identified problems of           predict. The interrelationships and
                                                       population change                                    interdependencies of these organisms may
                                                                                                            generate ecosystems that are stable for
                                                                                                            hundreds or thousands of years.
                                                                                                                                                       DOK 3




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                                                                                                        SC-HS-4.7.5
                                                                                                        Students will:
                                                                                                             predict the consequences of
                                                                                                                changes in resources to a
                                                                                                                population;
                                                                                                             select or defend solutions to real-
                                                                                                                world problems of population
                                                                                                                control.
                                                                                                        Living organisms have the capacity to
                                                                                                        produce populations of infinite size.
                                                                                                        However, behaviors, environments and
                                                                                                        resources influence the size of populations.
                                                                                                        Models (e.g., mathematical, physical,
                                                                                                        conceptual) can be used to make
                                                                                                        predictions about changes in the size or
                                                                                                        rate of growth of a population.
                                                                                                                                              DOK 3

SC-H-I-U-5                                         SC-H-I-S-6
Students will understand that human creativity,    Students will analyze and synthesize research,
inventiveness and ingenuity have brought new       for questions about, theories and related
risks as well as improvements to human             technologies that have advanced our
existence. People control technology and are       understanding of interdependence
ultimately responsible for its effects.
                                                   SC-H-I-S-8
SC-H-I-U-6                                         Students will investigate controversial scientific
Students will understand that science/technology   proposals (e.g., human cloning, genetic
occasionally provides the means to do              modification of crops, nuclear waste storage),
questionable things. Decisions about doing these   use scientific evidence/data to support or
things require exercising a sense of               defend a position and debate the ethical merits
responsibility. Just because something can be      of implementing the proposed actions
done does not mean it should be done.

SC-H-I-U-7
Students will understand that the critical
assumptions behind any line of reasoning must
be made explicit, so that the validity of the
position being taken can be judged.




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