Interpreter Care: From Personal to Organizational Strategies for by aWSv41S


									     Interpreter Care:
    From Personal to
Organizational Strategies for
  Dealing with Job Stress
           Danielle Sandage
           Silvia Boerboom

  Children’s Hospital & Clinics of MN
      Identified Interpreter Stress
   Deaths

   Trauma Cases

   Lack of control or influence over job

   Boundary Maintenance

(Based on Focus Group, N=25)
        Mediating Cultural Horizons

Staff              Interpreter        Parent
                Interpreter Stress
                Research Findings

   Several interview and survey-based studies
    of job satisfaction, stress and burnout in the
    interpreting field have been reported
    (Branam, 1991; Heller et al, 1986; Neville, 1992; Watson,

    Most report findings of high burnout rates
    among interpreters
        Interpreter Stress
      Research Findings (cont.)

   Frustration with the lack of
    professional support available after

   Inadequate training for realities of
    the working world
          Interpreter Stress
        Research Findings (cont.)
Factors cited as causing stress:
 Working conditions
 Unattainably high performance expectations
 Conflicting view among consumers’ understanding of
  the interpreter’s role
 Emotional reactions and duress with no outlet for
  dealing with them
 Involvement in private and sensitive situations
 Limited ability to help consumers other than through
  interpreter role
 Real and perceived skill inadequacies*
              Vicarious Trauma
   Construct meant to note the negative impact of
    trauma treatment on therapists (McCann and
    Pearlman, 1990)

   The transformation that occurs within the
    therapist (or other trauma workers) as a result of
    empathic engagement with client’s trauma
    experiences and their sequelae (Pearlman &
    Maclan, 1995)
            Vicarious Trauma

Disruption in five fundamental need areas:
 Safety
 Trust/dependency
 Esteem
 Control
 Intimacy

            McCann & Pearlman (1990)
   Vicarious Trauma

 Flashbacks
 Dreams  or intrusive thoughts
 Mood dysphoria
 Psychological numbing
 Denial and Distancing

McCann & Pearlman (1990)
  “The expectation that we can be
immersed in suffering and loss and not
  be touched by it is as unrealistic as
 expecting to be able to walk though
      water without getting wet”

Rachel Remen in Kitchen Table Wisdon: Stories that Heal (1996)
      Scope of Stress in the American
   ¼ of employees view their jobs as the number one
    stressor in their lives (Northwestern National Life, 1992)

   ¾ of employees believe the worker has more on-
    the-job stress than a generation ago (Princeton
    Survey Research Associates, 1997)

   Problems at work are more strongly associated
    with health complaints than are any other life
    stressor – more than financial or marital problems.
    (St. Paul Fire and Marine Insurance Co., 1992)
         Job Stress and Health:
        What the Research Tells Us
   Cardiovascular Disease
   Musculoskeletal
   Psychological Disorders
   Workplace Injury (50%
    greater for workers who
    report work stress)
   Impaired Immune
Early Warning Signs of Job Stress

Headache        Short Temper    Job

Sleep           Upset Stomach   Low Morale

Difficulty      Irritability    Exhaustion
             Coping with Stress
   Cognitive Focused
       (Humor, reframing, self-talk)
   Problem-Focused
       (Action plan, speaking with boss)
   Emotion-Focused
       (Mindfulness, Spirituality, Prayer, Deep breathing)
   Relationship Focused
       (Social Support)
               Coping with Stress:
               Self-Care Strategies
   Cultivating a sense of humor
   Healthy intimate and family relationships
   Connection with colleagues for peer
    consultation/vent feelings
   Hobbies or leisure activities
   Physical self-care (i.e., healthy diet, exercise)
   Meditation, prayer, self-reflection
   Create your own self-care list
             Coping with Stress:
Self-Care Strategies in the Workplace
   Avoid professional isolation
   Debrief difficult cases
   Development support systems
   Seek training to improve job skills/capacity
   Deep Breathing exercises in moments of
             Coping with Stress:
     Setting and Maintaining Boundaries
   Don’t take on more than you can do
   Work only assigned hours
   Limit personal information about yourself to
   Declining gifts and correspondence
   Leave work at work!!

“To keep the lamp burning we have to
        keep putting oil on it.”

         By Mother Theresa
       Organization Interventions
   Debriefing meetings
   Staff training
   Interdisciplinary Collaboration
   Allow for breaks when possible between difficult
   Ability to cancel session
   Nursing/SW brief interpreter on case beforehand
   Continual reminders of interpreter role within
    system (i.e., orange alerts)
    Themes: Empowerment & Control
Managing Stress Matters
    The Nun Study
    When Stress becomes problematic
   Employee Assistance Program (EAP)

   Referrals to Therapists
          Contact Information
  Danielle Sandage, MSW, LGSW
Children’s Hospitals and Clinics of MN
Social Work Department
Wk: 612-813-5805
  Silvia Boerboom
Children’s Hospitals and Clinics of MN
Interpreter Services Department

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